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BR 60 .L52 V.47 
Cyril, ca. 370-4A4. 

Five tomes against Nestorius 




















OP Christ's holy catholic church, 





IS - 



/ /S "■■ 


S. CYRIL, ^«^^^'-^^ 













On the death of Theophilus, Archbishop of Alex- 
andria, in A.D. 412, his nephew and successor, S. 
Cyril, comes suddenly before us. For of S. Cyril's 
previous life we have only a few scattered notices. 
We do not know in what year he was born, nor any 
thing of his parents, nor where he was brought up. 
That S. Cyril had received a thoroughly good educa- 
tion, is abundantly clear; not only from his very ex- 
tensive reading, which a mind of such large grasp 
as S. Cyril's would ever provide for itself, but that 
his reading being so well digested implies good 
early training. The great accuracy of his Theo- 
logy implies a most accurate Theological education. 
That education included a large range of secular 
study as well as of Divinity, and probably com- 
prised a good deal of learning by heart, not only 
of the holy Scriptures but also of profane authors, 
as witness a line of Antipater Sidonius quoted in 
his Commentary on Zechariah. He quotes too 
Josephus on the Jewish war. On Hab. iii. 2, he 
mentions interpretations of that verse of two dif- 
ferent kinds : on Hosea he gives a long extract 
from a writer whom we do not apparently possess. 
Tillemont remarks, that " ^ his books against Ju- 
lian shew that he had a large acquaintance with 
secular writers." 

^ S. Cyrille d' Alex. Art. i. init. 


We may infer that S. Cyril was brouglit up at 
some monastery, as a place of Christian education, 
and from the great reverence which he ever paid 
to S. Isidore, Abbot of Pelusium, it seems not un- 
likely that S. Isidore was his instructor during 
some part of his early life. S. Isidore alludes to 
some especial tie, in one of his brief letters to 
S. Cyril, when Archbishop. Near the beginning, 
S. Isidore says, " '^If I be your father as you say 

I be, or if I be your son as I know I am, 

seeing that you hold the chair of S. Mark &c." 
The large number of Platonic words in S. Isidore's 
letters seem to indicate that he too had extensive 
reading of Plato, and S. Cyril may have acquired 
from him some of his knowledge of Aristotle. 

But a mind of S. Cyril's grasp would feel itself 
lost in the desert, yearning for its own calling, and 
another Letter ^of the same S.Isidore to S.Cyril, 
reproaching him with his heart being in the world, 
may belong to this period. His uncle Archbishop 
Theophilus had him to live with him and, we niay 
infer, ordained him priest and made him one of his 
Clergy. In a very long letter which S. Cyril wrote 
about A.D. 432 to the aged Acacius, Bishop of 
Beroea, he incidentally mentions the fact that he 
was at the synod of the Oak, in A.D. 403, where 
S. Chrysostom's troubles began. S. Cyril would 
of course be there, as a portion of Archbishop 
Theophilus' official attendance. S. Cyril says, 
" ^ When your holy Synod was gathered at great 
Constantinople .... and I was one of those stand- 
ing by, I know that I heard your holiness saying 

'' Ep. 370. c Ep. 25. d Synoclicou c. 56. 


S. Cyril's accession to the Archiepiscopal Throne 
of Alexandria brought him at once into a position 
of great power in Alexandria ; and brought too, in 
the early part of it, trials in regard of the disunion 
between him and Orestes the Governor resulting 
from the Jewish insurrection against the Christians. 
To this succeeded some years of great quiet, during 
which S. Cyril seems to have been very little heard 
of, outside his Great Diocese. The Archbishops of 
Alexandria, even in the very stillest times, were 
brought into yearly contact with the Churches 
every where by the annual Letter which they wrote 
to announce the day on which Easter would fall. 
S. Cyril's letters were evidently intended primarily 
for his own Egypt *. Thus in his seventh Paschal 
homily A.D. 419, he speaks very strongly about 
deeds of violence in Egypt and mentions the famine 
there. S. Cyril introduces the subject with, "^And 
these things we now say to you most especially, 
who inhabit Egyptian territory," shewing that the 
Letters themselves had a larger scope. I do not 
know at what time the Letter was sent out, so as 
to reach the distant churches of Rome and Con- 
stantinople and Antioch in good time to announce 
when Lent would begin. But although S. Cyril 
became Archbishop in October A.D. 412, his first 
Letter was for 414, in the early part of which (as 
Tillemont points out) S. Cyril speaks of having 
succeeded his Uncle. He introduces the subject 
by mentioning the natural dread of those of old, of 

^ So the three Paschal homilies of the Archbishop Theophilus 
preserved by S. Jerome, are addressed, To the Bishops of the 
whole of Egypt, t. i. 555, 577, 605 Vail. 
^ horn. 7. p. 87 init. 


"stlie greatness of the Divine Ministry," and speak- 
ing of Moses and Jeremiah as instances of this, 
adds, that " since the garb of the priesthood calls 
to preach, in fear of the words, Speak and hold not 
thy peace, I come of necessity to write thus." 

Much of these quiet years S. Cyril probably em- 
ployed on his earlier writings : of these, two were 
on select passages of the Pentateuch ; one volume 
being allotted to those which S. Cyril thought could 
in any way be adapted as types of our Lord, the 
other to the rest, as being types of the church. The 
commentaries on Isaiah and the Minor Prophets 
and the Books against the Emperor Julian probably 
belong to this period. Besides these S. Cyril, fol- 
lowing the example of his great predecessor S. Atha- 
nasius, wrote two Books against the Arians : first, 
the Thesaurus, in which S. Cyril brought to bear 
his knowledge of Aristotle ; then the de Trinitate, 
which was written, though not published till later, 
before A.D. 424. In his Paschal homily for that 
year A.D. 424, S. Cyril also speaks of the Eternal 
Greneration of the Son, and towards the close of 
the homily'' he opposes the Arian terms " Generate," 

A. D. 429, the circulation of tracts of Nestorius 
in Egypt occasioned him first to write on the he- 
resy of Nestorius. There can be little doubt that 
the powerful mind of S. Leo, who was the soul of 
the Council of Chalcedon, was, in his young days 
when S. Celestiue's Archdeacon in 429, taught 
through those writings ; as S. Cyril himself had 
been taught by the writings of S. Athanasius. 
g horn. 1. 3 c. 4 a. ^ pp. 174 d e 175, 176. 


The 12 Chapters, appended to his last letter to 
NestoriuR, were made a trouble to S. Cyril at a 
later period of his Episcopate, so that it may be 
well to give them in full. They were framed to 
preclude any evasion of that letter. 

The 12 Chapters. 

1. If any one confess not, that Emmanuel is in truth 
God, and that the holy Virgin is therefore Mother of God, 
for she hath borne after the flesh the "Word out of God 
made Flesh, be he anathema. 

2. If any one confess not, that the Word out of God the 
Father hath been personally united to Flesh, and that He 
is One Christ with His own Flesh, the Same (that is) God 
alike and Man, be he anathema. 

3. If any one sever the Hypostases of the One Christ 
after the Union, connecting them with only a connection 
of dignity or authority or sway, and not rather with a 
concurrence unto Unity of Nature, be he anathema. 

4. If any one allot to two Persons or Hypostases the 
words in the Gospels and Apostolic writings, said either 
of Christ by the saints or by Him of Himself, and as- 
cribe some to a man conceived of by himself apart from 
the Word That is out of God, others as God-befitting to 
the Word alone That is out of God the Father, be he 

5. If any one dare to say, that Christ is a God-clad man, 
and not rather that He is God in truth as being the One 
Son, and That by Nature, in that the Word hath been made 
Flesh, and hath shared like its in blood and flesh, be he 

6. If any one dare to say that the Word That is out of 
God the Father is God or Lord of Christ and do not rather 
confess that the Same is God alike and Man, in that the 
Word hath been made Flesh, according to the Scriptures, 
be he anathema. 


7. ' If any one say that Jesus hath been iu-wrought-in as 
man by God the Word, and that the Glory of the Only- 
Begotten hath been put about Him, as being another than 
He, be he anathema. 

8. If any one shall dare to say that the man that was as- 
sumed ought to be co-worshipped with God the Word 
and co-glorified and co-named God as one in another (for 
the CO-, ever appended, compels us thus to deem) and does 
not rather honour Emmanuel with one worship, and send 
up to Him One Doxology, inasmuch as the Word has been 
made Flesh, be he anathema. 

9. If any one say that the One Lord Jesus Christ hath 
been glorified by the Spirit, using His Power as though 
it were Another's, and from Him receiving the power of 
working against unclean spirits and of accomplishing Di- 
vine signs towards men, and does not rather say that His 
own is the Spirit, through Whom also He wrought the 
Divine signs, be he anathema. 

10. The Divine Scripture says that Christ hath been 
made the High Priest and Apostle of our Confession and that 
He offered Himself for us for an odour of a sweet smell 
to God the Father. If any one therefore say that, not the 
Very Word out of God was made our High Priest and 
Apostle when He was made Flesh and man as we, but that 
man of a woman apart by himself as other than He, was 
[so made] : or if any one say that in His own behalf also 
He offered the Sacrifice and not rather for us alone (for 
He needed not ofiering Who knoweth not sin), be he 

11. If any one confess not, that the Flesh of the Lord is 
Life-giving and that it is the own Flesh of the Word Him- 
self That is out of God the Father, but says that it belongs 
to another than He, connected with Him by dignity or as 

' With chapter 7 compare S. Greg. Nazianzen's very similar 
Anathema directed against Appollinarius' teaching, in his Letter 
to Cledonius. 


possessed of Divine Indwelling only, and not rather that it 
is Life-giving (as we said) because it hath been made the 
own Flesh of the Word Who is mighty to quicken all 
things, be he anathema. 

12. If any one confess not that the Word of God suffered 
in the Flesh and hath been crucified in the Flesh and 
tasted death in the Flesh and hath been made First-born 
of the Dead, inasmuch as He is both Life and Life-giving 
as God, be he anathema. 

The Great Diocese of Antioch, barely rallying 
from its terrible devastation by Arian wickedness 
oppression and misbelief, had been in close quar- 
ters with Apollinarianism, a misbelief that the 
Only-Begotten Son took flesh only without a rea- 
sonable soul, and that His mind-less Body was 
somehow immlngled with the Godhead. S. Atlia- 
nasius and others add, among the forms of the 
misbelief, that some Apollinarians thought that our 
Lord's Body was consubstantial with His Godhead. 
S. Cyril in his Dialogue ^ speaks of the great fear 
prevalent among some, that if One Incarnate Na- 
ture were holden, the Body must be believed to 
be consubstantial with the Godhead. Succensus, 
Bishop of Diocsesarea, at almost the extreme west 
boundary of that great Diocese or Province of 
Antioch, sent to S. Cyril a question to the same ef- 
fect. Theodore of Mopsuestia, who liad died only 
about two years before these Chapters were is- 
sued, had held that the Manhood of the Only-Be- 
gotten was a man distinct, having some undefined 
connection with God the Son, and this had appeared 
in his writings ; and so great was Theodore's re- 
putation and the dread of the Apollinarian heresy, 

k p. 263. 


that tliere seems to have been an unconscious 
vasfueness in the minds of some of the Eastern 
Bishops. [Nestorius had dexterously sent the 
Chapters to John of Antioch apart from the Epis- 
tle to himself^, which would have made misinterpre- 
tation impossible. He sent them as ' propositions 
circulated in the royal city to the injury of the 
common Church.'] John of Antioch, who at that 
time believed Nestorius to be orthodox, pronounced 
them at once (thus unexplained) to be Apollina- 
rian ; applied in an Encyclical letter ^^ to the 
Bishops of his Patriarchate to have them ' disclaim- 
ed, but without naming the author,' whom John 
did not believe to be S. Cyril, and asked two of 
the Bishops of his Province, Andrew Bishop of 
Samosata, and Theodoret, to reply to them. Theo- 
doret's reply shews that he read the Chapters 
with the conviction that they were Apollinarian, 
and he accordingly replies, not to the Chapters 
themselves but to the sense which he himself ima- 
gined that they contained. His reply is in the 
main orthodox, though it looks in one or two 
places as if his belief was rather vague", but he 

1 [Had he sent the Epistle, John must have known them to have 
been S. Cyril's.] 

™ Synod, c. 4. 

» [Passages from Theodoret's reply to the first, second, fourth 
and tenth anathematism and from his letter to the monks were 
read in the 5th General Council before the condemnation of his 
writings against S. Cyril. Also from allocutions in behalf of 
Nestorius from Chalcedon after his condemnation at Ephesus ; from 
a letter to Andrew of Samosata, in which he speaks of Egypt [i.e. 
S. Cyril and the Egyptian bishops] being 'again mad against God,' 
but owns that those of Egypt, Palestine, Pontus, Asia, and with 
them the West are against him, and that the greatest part of the 


twists S. Cyril's words so as to mean 'mixture,' and 
so replies". Theodoret seems never to have got 
over his misapprehension. For in his long Let- 
ter? to the Monks of his Province, Euphratesia, 
Osroene, Syria, Phcenicia, Cilicia, he still speaks 
of Chapter 1 as teaching that God the Word was 
changed into flesh ; of chapters 2 and 3 as bring- 
ing in the terms. Personal Union and Natural 
Union, " teaching through these names a mixture 

world has taken the disease ; a letter of sympathy with Nesto- 
rius after the reunion of the Easterns with S. Cyril, declaring that, 
if his two hands were cut off, he would never agree to what had 
been done against Nestorius, (which however he did when re- 
quired by the Bishops at Ghalcedon) ; a letter to John of Antioch 
still condemning the Anathematisms, although accepting the 
subsequent explanation. Apart from the ' atrocious letter ' full of 
conceits which it is inconceivable how any one could have written, 
Mercator, a contemporary, says it was one of the charges against 
Archbishop Domnus, that he had been present when Theodoret 
preached a sermon, exulting in the peace which would ensue from 
S. Cyril's death. * No one now compels to blaspheme. Where 
are they who say, that He Who was crucified is God ? ' Mercator 
from, Gesta quae contra Domnum Antioch. Ep. conscripta sunt 
p. 276. ed. Garn.] 

" There is extant a very careful letter of Theodoret on the In- 
carnation, written to Eusebius scholasticus, in which Theodoret 
says, '* Nevertheless we do not deny the properties of the Natures, 
but as we deem those ungodly who divide into Two sons the One 
Lord Jesus Christ, so do we call them enemies of the Truth who 
attempt to confuse the natures ; for we believe that an union with- 
out confusion has taken place and we know what are the proper- 
ties of the human nature, what of the Godhead." Then after 
mentioning the two natures of a man which do not part him into 
two, *'thus do we know that our Lord and God, I mean the Son 
pf God the Lord Christ, is One Son after His Incarnation too ; for 
the Union is inseverable even as without confusion." Ep. 21, 
p. 1085. 

P Ep. 151. 


and confusion of tlie Divine Nature and the bond- 
man's form : this is the offspring of Apolhnarius' 
heretical innovation." And after speaking of 
Chapter 4, he sums up, " These are the Egyp- 
tian's brood, the truly more wicked descendants of 
a wicked parent." In his letter i to John Bishop 
of Germanicia, written after the Robbers' council 
in 449, Theodoret says of it, " Let them deny now 
the chapters which they many times condemned, 
but have in Ephesus now confirmed." 

Andrew of Samosata, on the other hand, seems to 
have been decidedly more definite in his belief on 
the Incarnation, and to have thought that some of 
S. Cyril's chapters were Apollinarian without ob- 
jecting to all. Thus Andrew's chief objection to 
chapter 1 appears to have been that he mistook the 
words " for she hath borne after the flesh {a-apKi- 
/cw?)" to mean that the Birth was entirely in the 
order of nature and so not of a Virgin '. Andrew 
passes over chapter 2, as though the term, "Perso- 
nal Union," had not even struck him as a difficulty. 
In chapter 3, Andrew thinks that ^vo-i/c^. Natural 
Union, or Unity of Nature is an inadmissible ex- 
pression, as to what is above our nature. In chap- 
ter 4, Andrew thinks that because the words are 
not to be apportioned to distinct Persons, therefore 
S. Cyril meant, that they are not to be apportioned 
at all, either to the Godhead or to the Manhood 
in the One Person of the Incarnate God. S. Cyril 
had all his life said that they were to be so ap- 
portioned, but Andrew had of course not read 
S. Cyril's writings. Andrew shews his own definite 

1 See bel. p. 20 n. k ; p. 24 n. 9 ; p. 243 n. i. ■• Ep. 147. 


belief by the expression r) uKpa evaa-Ki, entire union, 
here ; and, ' we confess the union entire (rrjv evwaiv 
uKpav) and Divine and incomprelie7isihle to us^ are 
the closing words of his reply to chapter 11. These 
are almost identical with S. Cyril's expressions, "we 
shall not take away the unlike by nature through 
wholly uniting them {ha to eh aKpov evovv) '," and 
in his reply to Andrew, 8ia rrjv ek uKpov evwacv. 

Andrew says nothing on chapters 5 and 6, nor is 
there an3i}hing in them which one would expect him 
not to accept. With chapter 7 he agrees, merely 
saying that in rejecting what S. Cyril rejects, we 
must not reject the Apostolic words which speak 
of Him in His human nature. With chapter 8 too 
Andrew agrees, but does not quite understand the 
CO. In chapter 9, he overlooks the words, " as 
though it were Another's :" in chapter 10, Andrew 
thinks that " the Yery Word out of God was made 
our High-Priest and Apostle" means 'the Godhead 
apart by Itself was so made.' 

[We see in our own times, how prejudice can 
distort the meaning of words in themselves per- 
fectly intelligible ; else it seems inconceivable that 
language so clear as that of the Anathematisms, 
if read with a view to understand their author's 
meaning, could be misunderstood as it was by 
John of Antioch, Theodoret, and Andrew. Much 
unhallowed dissension would have been saved, if 
John, instead of asking Theodoret and Andrew to 
reply to them, had sought an explanation from 
S. Cyril himself. S. Cyril, in clear consciousness 
of his own meaning, would, of course, have given 

3 Horn. Pasch. vii. 102 d. 



the explanation which afterwards satisfied John of 
Antioch, Acacius of Beroea, and Paul of Emesa. 

S. Cyril's anathematisms have been weighed by 
Petavius with his usual solidity, as compared with 
the counter-anathematisms of Nestorius, the criti- 
cisms of the Orientals and of Theodoret, and 
S. Cyril's answers. His summary is, ' There is 
nothing in S. Cyril's Anathematisms not right and 
in harmony with the Catholic rule, nor did those 
who detract from or oppose them maintain their 
ground against him except through cavils and 
foolish calumnies.' De Incarn. L. vi. c. xvii. They 
have also been carefully compared in English in 
Dr. Bright's Later Treatises of S. Athanasius, 
pp. 149—170.] 

Though Apollinarianism in its early form, ere 
its great spread as Eutychianism, seems to have 
chiefly troubled Asia rather than Egypt, S. Cyril 
always writes with full knowledge of it. In his 
Thesaurus, he distinctly mentions and repudiates 
Apollinarian errors and denies the ^ ovk iv avOpcoiro) 
ryi'yove, "made man, came not into a man like as 
He was in the Prophets." S. Cyril's tenth Paschal 
homily for A.D. 420, in its most carefully Aveighed 
language, contradicts both Apollinarianism and 
Nestorianism, not less than what S. Cyril wrote 
when the Nestorian troubles had begun. On Ha- 
baccuc" S. Cyril affirms, as he does through his 
whole life, that our Lord was not worsened by 
the Incarnation ; " Yet even though He has been 
made flesh and hath been set forth by the Father 

t Thes. Dial. i. p. 398 c. quoted p. 192 ii. i. 
•^ ITab. iii. 2, 550 d. 


as a propitiation, He hatli not cast away what He 
was, i.e., the being God, but is even thus in God- 
befitting authority and glory." 

In A.D. 428, Nestorius was brought from An- 
tioch to be Archbishop of Constantinople. From 
the circumstance that S. Cyril's celebrated Paschal 
homily for the next year, A.D. 429, was on the sub- 
ject of the Incarnation, it has been supposed that 
rumours of the denial of that Faith in Constanti- 
nople had already reached him. But the Paschal 
homilies for A.D. 420 and 423, shew that the 
Incarnation, the foundation and stay of our souls, 
was a subject, which S. Cyril loved to dwell on. In 
the course of the year 429, however, even Egypt 
was troubled by the false teaching of Nestorius. 
Some of Nestorius' sermons ^ passed into Egypt, 
and were read and pondered over in the Monas- 
teries. This occasioned so much disturbance in the 
minds ^ of some of the Monks, that S. Cyril wrote 
a Letter to them, pointing out that the Incarnation 
means, that God the Son united to Him His own 
human nature which He took, as completely as soul 
and body are united in each of us, and in this way 
His Passion and Death were His own, though He, 
as God, could not suffer. This Letter had an ex- 
tended circulation and reached Constantinople. It 
vexed ^ Nestorius. There was still a traditional 
soreness towards Alexandria, from the behaviour 
of Theophilus to S. Chrysostom •\ Besides this-, the 

^ Ep. 1 ad Nest. Epp. 20 b. >' Ep. 1 ad Monach. Epp. 3. a b. 

^ See S. Cyril's first letter to Nestorius, Epp. pp. 19 e 20 a. 

* Nestorius alludes to this, in the sermon which he preached 
on the Saturday after he had received S. Celestine's final Letter. 
Mercat. 0pp. p.76 Bal. 



Catholic doctrine of the Incarnation, the manhood 
united by God the Son to His own self, was to 
Nestorius, Apollinarianism or mixture. Nestorius 
says so''. In his letter to S. Celestine he tells of 
the * corruption of orthodoxy among some ' and 
thus describes it, 

' It is a sickness not small, but akin to the putrid sore 
of Apollinarius and Arius. For they mingle the Lord's 
union in man to a confusion of some sort of mixture, 
insomuch that even certain clerks among us, of whom 
some from lack of understanding, some from heretical 
guile of old time concealed within them . . are sick as 
heretics, and openly blaspheme God the Word Consub- 
stantial with the Father, as though He had taken be- 
ginning of His Being of the Virgin mother of Christ, 
and had been built up with His Temple and buried with 
His flesh, and say that the flesh after the resurrection 
did not remain [miscuisse seems an error for mansisse] 
flesh but passed into the Nature of Godhead, and they 
refer the Godhead of the Only-Begotten to the begin- 
ning of the flesh which was connected with It, and they 
put It to death with the flesh, and blasphemously say 
that the flesh connected with Godhead passed into God- 
head, using the very word deifying, which is nothinj^ 
else than to corrupt both'^.' 

Nestorius repeats the same in his second letter 
to S. Celestine^. S. Cyril having in his first Ecu- 
menical Letter to Nestorius put forth clearly the 
mode of the Union in these words, Nestorius does 
not understand the language and says thus of it, 
'I come now to the second chapter of your Love, where- 
in I begin to praise the parting of the natures in regard 
to Godhead and Manhood and their connection into one 

^ see his sermon just quoted, p. 78 Bal. 

«^ Cone. Eph. P. i. c. 16. 

" lb, c. 17. 


Person, and that we must not say that God the Word 
needed a second generation out of a woman, and must 
confess that the Godhead is unrecipient of suffering. For 
such statements are truly orthodox and counter to the 
ill-reputes of all the heresies, as to the Lord^s natures. 
As to the rest, whether they bring to the ears of the 
readers some hidden incomprehensible wisdom, pertains 
to your accuracy to know ; to me they seem to overturn 
what preceded. For Him Who in the preceding is pro- 
claimed Impassible and non-recipient of a second birth, 
they introduce as somehow passible and new-created, as 
though the qualities by nature adherent in God the Word 
were corrupted by connection with the Temple &c.^ ' 

And yet S. Cyril's language is so carefully guarded, 
that no one who believed in True Union of God- 
head and Manhood in the Incarnate Son would mis- 
take it. 

Nestorius does not appear to have taken any no- 
tice of S. Cyril's Paschal Homily, but he preached 
against the Letter to the Monks more than once, 
as we see from the extracts of such of his sermons 
as S. Cyril had access to. The passages of the 
Letter to the Monks referred to by Nestorius are; 

* ^ These letters were directed by me against the 
Egyptian .... He, omitting to tell me by letter whether 
any thing appeared to him to need marking as blasphe- 
mous or wicked, moved by fear of proofs and looking out 
therefore for disturbances which should aid him, turns 
him to Celestine of Eome, as one too simple to fathom 
the force of the doctrines. And finding the simplicity of 
the man in regard to this matter, he in childish fashion 
circumvents his ears with crafty letters, long ago 
sending him my writings, as a proof which might not be 
gainsaid, as though I were making Christ out to be a 

e lb. i. 9. 
^ Epist. v. in Gam. Diss. v. ap. Theocloret 0pp. T. v. p. 625 
eel. Schulz. 


mere man, I who at tlie very beginning of my consecra- 
tion obtained a Law against those who say that Christ is 
a mere man and against other heresies. 

' Bat he compiled writings, interweaving extracts of my 
sermons, in order that the slander put on me by the 
piecing of extracts might not be found out. And some 
things he added to my sermons, he broke off bits of 
others and pieced what I had said of the Lord^s Incarna- 
tion as though I had said them of a mere man. Things 
again which I had said in praise of the Godhead he cut 
entirely away from the context, leaving some out of their 
proper place, and thus made out a plausible misleading. 
And to publish his wickedness in a few instances such 
as it is in the rest, I said somewhere, speaking against 
the heathen who say that we preach that the Essence of 
God has been newly created from a Virgin, ' Mary, my 
friends, bare not the Godhead ; she bare a man the 
inseparable instrument of Godhead.' But he changing 
the word, Godhead, made it, 'Mary, my friends, bare not 
God.' Here to say God, and to say the Godhead, makes 
very much difference. For the one signifies the Divine 
and unembodied Essence, but does not mean the flesh. 
For flesh is compound and created. But the word God 
belongs to the temple also of the Godhead, which ob- 
tains the dignity by union with the Divine Essence of 
God, yet is not changed into that Divine Essence. 

' Again in another place I spoke against those who, 
hearing the like name, are offended as though like honour 
were also given. And when I say. Mother of Christ, 
they shudder as though the Godhead of the Lord Christ 
were denied by this name, seeing that many have been 
similarly called by this name in the Old Testament. 
And hence they think that we are calling Him Christ 
like these. Against these people therefore (as I said) 
I said in church-sermons, that equality of honour does 
not follow likeness of name. And this is what I said, 
' Or if the Temple of Godhead, we say that the descent 
of the Holy Ghost is not the same as was wrought on 


the Prophets, not the same as was celebrated on the 
Apostles, nor yet the same as takes place in regard 
to the Angels who are strengthened unto the Divine 
Mysteries. For the Lord Christ is Lord of all, as to the 
body too. As therefore we say that God is the Creator 
of all things, yet does the Scripture call Moses too god, 
for it says, / have made thee a god to Pharoah, and yet 
we by no means attach equal honour to that word, so 
neither, because the word is common by which we say, 
Christ and Son, ought we to stumble at the likeness of 
expression. For as Israel is named son, for He says, 
Israel is My first-horn son, and the Lord again Son, for 
He says. This is My Beloved Son, yet not, as the expres- 
sion is one, is the meaning also one. And as Saul is 
called christ and David christ and again Cyrus christ 
and, besides, the Babylonian, albeit they were surely 
not equal in piety to David ; so we call the Lord too 
Christ or Son, yet the community of names does not 
makes an equality of dignity.' From this which I said, 
he every where subtracting the last words, i.e. ' Christ,' 
and, 'we say, that not the same is the indwelling as was 
wrought on the prophets, not the same as was wrought 
on the Apostles,' and, 'we by no means allot like honour 
by like words,' and, ' yet the community of names does 
not make equality of dignity ; ' cutting out all these ex- 
pressions with the teeth of slander, he flings in the ears 
of men what precedes these words: i.e., *°We call the 

s The passage occurs, just as Nestorius accused S. Cyril of garb- 
ling it, in Book ii. § 4 p. 54. "We do not possess the complete 
sermon from which this extract is taken : we do possess in Mer- 
cator's translation four sermons on the subject of the Incarnation, 
from the second of which S. Cyril has several extracts. In the 
case of this sermon the context leaves no doubt that Nestorius 
spoke of our Lord's manhood as a separate man, whom our Lord 
had indefinitely connected with Himself. This long extract of 
Nestorius has been given in full as matter of candour. The thing 
itself we have not the means of explaining. Although he makes 
S. Cyril's extracts from his writings the cause of S. Celestine's 


Creator of all God, yet does the Scripture also call 
Moses god :, and, * Israel is called God's son. Son too is 
the Lord called / and, ' Saul is called christ and David 
christ yea and the Babylonian; thus then do we call 
Christ the Lord also christ/ He therefore thus piecing 
these things and chipping them off from the rest (as we 
said), made up here by his slander like as if from 
PauFs words by which he contests writing, Ij ye he 
circumcised Christ shall profit yon nothing, one were to 
rend off what he says first. If ye he circumcised, and ac- 
cuse Paul as though he preached, Christ shall lirojit you 

belief that his teaching was heretical. S. Celestine, in his letter 

to himself, says expressly, that his conviction came from his own 


"In your letters you have given sentence not so much in re- 
spect of our Faith as of your own self, choosing to speak of 
God the Word differently from what is the Faith of all." Ep. 
Celestin. ad Nestorium, Cone. Eph. 1. n. 18. 

Again to the Clergy and people of Constantinople S. Celestine 


" he preaches things not to be uttered, persuades things which 
ought to be shunned, as both his writings sent us by himself 
with his own signature, and also the memorial of my holy 
brother and co-Bishop Cyril" &c. lb. n. 19. 

and again writing to John Archbishop of Antioch S. Celestine 


*' he pours into the people most devoted to Christ certain per- 
verse things against the reverence of the Virgin-birth and the 
hope of our salvation. These things have come to us from the 
sorrow of the faithful; these things have been published in the 
books himself sent, and stronger proof yet, these things have 
been so conveyed to us in letters fortified with the very sig- 
nature of their author, that one may not any longer doubt." 
lb. n. 20. 

Hclladius bishop of Tarsus and Eutherius Bishop of Tyana in 
their memorial to S. Sixtus, against S. Cyril, the Council of 
Ephesus, and the reconciliation thereto of John Archbishop of 

Antioch, mention this "garbled extract," Synodicon c. 117. 


nothing. And why need we prolong our recital by going 
through each instance? In short Cyril using many such 
robberies and additions as pleased him, soon not 
others only but Celestine also were led away by his 

Much about this time S. Cyril probably wrote his 
Scholia on the Incarnation '\ The treatise is very 
simple and almost uncontroversial, illustrating the 
Incarnation by simple analogies and Bible-types'. 
It contains one of S. Cyril's most careful state- 
ments of the doctrine, excluding Apollinarianism ^. 
In the concluding sections ^, which may have been 
written at the very beginning of the controversy 
with Nestorius, are striking and simple statements, 
how God the Son's Passion is His, though God- 
head cannot suffer. 

Soon after this S. Cyril wrote his first extant 
letter to Nestorius, a short letter, saying that he 
hears that Nestorius was very angry at S. Cyril's 
letter to the Monks, yet that since 'expositions,' 
whether Nestorius' or not, had been brought to 
Egypt and had gravely misled many, it became a 
duty to God to put forth the right doctrine. 
S. Cyril also says that S. Celestine and the Bishops 
with him had asked whether those ' expositions ' 
which had come thither were Nestorius' or not. 
S. Cyril did not know. Finally, S. Cyril asked him 
to heal the confusion by the use of the one word 
Theotocos, of the Holy Virgin. For fear of misap- 
prehension he mentions also a book, which he had 
written in the Episcopate of Atticus of blessed 

^ See pp. 185—236. i § 27, pp. 214, 215. 

k § 36 and 37. i pp. 228, 229 and 232, 233. 

xxvi jprp:face. 

memory, on the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity, 
in wliich lie had interwoven some things on the In- 
carnation, like what he had now written. 

We do not know what time intervened between 
this and the second Letter which S. Cyril wrote in 
Synod to Nestorius, containing an exposition of 
the Incarnation, which, from its acceptance by the 
Council of Ephesus and the whole Church subse- 
quently, has Ecumenical authority™. It was pro- 
bably written before the close of A.D. 429 and is 
the Letter quoted above'', which Nestorius' reply 
shewed that he could not understand. It has been 
supposed that it was in consequence of Nestorius' 
allusion to the Imperial Court in the close of his 
reply, that S. Cyril wrote his Three Treatises de 
recta fide; whereof the first is to the Emperor 
Theodosius; the other two to the Emperor's Queen 
and Sisters. John Bishop of Csesarea in Pales- 
tine, in the century following S. Cyril, quotes from 
both among his extracts in defence of the Council 
of Chalcedon °. From the title with which he in- 
troduces his extracts, we learn that the longer 
Treatise was addressed to the Emperor's two 
younger sisters, the Princesses Marina and Arca- 
dia, and the last of the Three to the Two Augus- 
ta's, Theodosius' Empress Eudocia, and his eldest 
sister Pulcheria who had the title of Augusta, from 
having been Regent for the Emperor in his mino- 
rity. S. Cyril afterwards recast his Treatise to 
the Emperor in the form of a Dialogue, omitting 
what was specially addressed to the Emperor, and 
giving little touches here and there to the language. 

ni See it in S. Cyril's 3 Epistles pp. 55. sqq Oxford, 1872. 
« p. 16. see p. 321. 


Thus the expression " p neither do we say Two 
christs, even though we believe that the Temple 
united to the Word has been ensouled with ra- 
tional soul," becomes in the Dialogue, "^J neither 
do we say Two christs, even though we believe 
that out of perfect man and out of Grod the Word 
has been wrought the concurrence unto unity of 
Emmanuel." A little farther on, "^we say that 
the whole Word out of Grod has been co-united 
with the whole manhood that is of us," becomes, 
" ^ we say therefore that the whole Word has been 
united to whole man." This Dialogue was probably 
appended by S. Cyril to his older Dialogues de 
Trinitate. It is quoted as the seventh of those 
Dialogues. The other two treatises are chiefly 
made up of expositions of texts to prove that 
Christ is God and Man. Near the beginning of 
that to the Augusta's, S. Cyril alludes to his for- 
mer treatise. 

" In my treatise to the holy Virgins [i. e. the Prin- 
cesses Marina and Arcadia who had embraced the 
virgin estate] I made a very large provision of more 
obvious sayings which had nothing hard to understand ; 
but in this I have made mention of the obscurer. For 
your Pious Authority ought both to know these and 
not to be ignorant of the other, in order that by means 
of bothj perfection in knowledge, like a light, may dwell 
in your most pure understanding*" 

Bishop Hefele*^ thinks that there are indications 
that the two Princesses had, in contrast with the 
Emperor, spoken for Cyril and against Nestorius. 
Of the five sermons of JSTestorius on the Incar- 

P p. 16 b. q p. 690 a. -^ p. 18 d. ^ p, 692 b. 
t 0pp. V. P. ii. 2. 131 a. " Hist. Cone. § 129 near the end. 


nation which Marius Mercator translated into Latin, 
S. Cyril has cited copiously from the second : the 
fourth and fifth of Mercator' s collection belong to 
the close of A.D. 430 ; for the fourth is dated the 
eighth of the Ides of December (Dec. 6), the Satur- 
day after Nestorius had received S. Cyril's four 
Bishops with S. Celestine's Letter and S. Cyril's 
with the 12 Chapters. In it Nestorius recapi- 
tulates some of the teaching which S. Cyril had 
quoted from an earlier sermon, i.e. on God send- 
ing forth His Son. Of that earlier sermon we 
have only fragments, but it was preached against 
S. Cyril's letter to the Monks ^. Nestorius speaks 
of S. Cyril as the " wrangler ^," " the heretic %" and 
he apostrophises S. Cyril or S. Proclus, " heretic 
in clerical form\" 

The last of that series in Mercator's collection 
was preached on Sunday Dec. 7. 

Count Irengeus has also preserved it ; the com- 
piler of the Synodicon gives it in another transla- 
tion ^ 

One of the interests and employments of the 
Bishops during their first days at Ephesus will 
have been the becoming acquainted with some 
whom they had never before seen. This time was 
probably the beginning of a lasting friendship be- 
tween S. Cjrril and Acacius the metropolitan of 
Melitene, on the borders of Armenia towards Cap- 
padocia : the long letter which he wrote to Vale- 
rian Bishop of Iconium points at S. Cyril's having 

" See S.Cyril's books against Nestorius, pp. 20, 51, 141, 164. 
y see lb. p. 51. ^ see p. 141. 

a see p^ 164, g, b gynod. c. 3. 


readied some degree of intimacy with liim ; he 
wrote too to Donatus, Bishop of Nicopolis, on the 
west of Greece, and no doubt there were other 
friendships too as the fruit of the long sojourn at 
Ephesus. Some of S. Cyril's letters shew how 
warm-hearted and sensitive he was, notwithstand- 
ing his mighty will and unswerving purpose. 

But there were other sadder things belonging to 
that summer at Ephesus, sickness and death, the 
sickness probably the fever so prevalent now along 
all that poisonous coast, and passing in many cases 
into dysentery. We do not know what Bishops the 
Council lost ; for our knowledge of those who com- 
posed it is derived from the lists of names at the 
opening of the first and sixth session and the sig- 
natures to those two sessions. But the fact is 
mentioned several times : S. Cyril in the first ses- 
sion of the Council says, 

" some have fallen into sickness and some are dead ; " 
the Council in its Relatio to the Emperors, says, 
" and some of the holy Bishops weighed down by age 
did not endure their stay in a strange place; some were 
imperilled in weakness ; some have even undergone the 
close of their life in the Capital of the Ephesians ; " 

in its account to S. Celestine, 

"although many both Bishops and Clergy were both 
pressed by sickness and oppressed by expense and some 
had even deceased." 

After waiting a fortnight, during which time, if 
all had been there, the business might have been 
completed and the Bishops dismissed, S. Cyril 
wrote to John Archbishop of Antioch. John, in 
his Relatio to the Emperors, says, 

" and Cyril himself of Alexandria sent to me of Antioch 


two days before the assembly made by them [the Coun- 
cil], that the whole Synod is awaiting my presence ^" 

S. Cyril too alludes to the Letter, He says of 

*' he who was ever friendly and dear, who never at any 
time found fault with my words, who wrote kindly and 
received letters from me '^." 

While this letter was on its way, some of the 
Bishops of John's party arrived, and with them a 
letter to S. Cyril in which. Jobn spoke of being 
only about four days off. The Bishops of John's 
party were Alexander Metropolitan of Apamea 
^and Alexander Metropolitan of Hierapolis ; and, 
to all appearance, though we are not told so, 
Theodoret and Meletius bishop of Neocaesarea. 
The Council, speaking of the arrival in their Belatio 
to S. Celestine, says, 

"* Nevertheless after the sixteenth day there preceded 
him some of the Bishops who were with him, two Metro- 
politans, Alexander of Apamea and another Alexander of 
Hierapolis ; and when we complained of the tardy arri- 
val of the most reverend Bishop John, they said not once 
but over and over, ' he bid us tell your Reverence that, 
if he should even yet loiter, the synod was not to be put 
off, but rather to do what was meet/" 

S, Cyril says nearly the same in his Apology to 
the Emperor ^. Nevertheless it is plain that John 
meant the words, ' if I yet loiter,' to be taken in 
connection with his own letter to S. Cyril that he 
was but 5 or 6 days off, and so that he should 
have that interval allowed him. 

The Council however, in the distress of many of 

*= Ep. Coneiliab. Eph. (post Cone. Eph. Act. i.) ad Imp. 

1 S. Cyrilli Apol. ad Imp. p. 252 c. 
* Cone. Eph. Act. v. n. 2. " \. c. p. 251 b c. 


its members, determined to assemble the next day. 
ISTestorius' friends headed by Tranquillinus, Bishop 
of Antioch in Pisidia, got up a memorial to the 
Council that they should wait for John of An- 
tioch, "who is himself now at the door, as he has 
intimated by his Letters," and for some Wes- 
tern Bishops. The document further speaks of 
the unlawfulness of excommunicated or deposed 
Bishops being admitted into the Council and ends 
with the threatening words % 

" And let your Reverence know^ that all that shall be 
done in an abrupt way by daring men will be turned 
back against the daring of them who so presume, both 
by Christ the Lord and by the Livine Canons." 

There follow 68 signatures, 16 of the Province 
of Antioch including the two newly-arrived Alex- 
anders (an indication that they, while they deli- 
vered John's message, did not consider it as pre- 
cluding four days' delay) about 30 other friends 
of Nestorius. They procured also about 23 other 
signatures. These 23 however joined the Council 
next day as a matter of course, and signed the 
deposition of l^estorius. Among the signatures is 
that of Euprepius Bishop of Byza who signs for 
himself and for his Nestorian Metropolitan Fritilas 
of Heraclea. But Euprepius did not remain with 
his Metropolitan. I do not see his name on the 
entry-roll of the Council at its opening session ; but 
he signs the deposition of Nestorius. His name is 
among the last signatures, as though he had come 
in late. 

No deliberative body whatever would accept such 

^ Synod, c. 7- 


an insulting memorial as this of the friends of Nes- 
torius, and of course it does not appear in the Acts 
of the Council. Count Trenseus, the friend of Nes- 
torius, afterwards Bishop of Tyre, has preserved 
it to us with other curious documents of his party. 

Christian Lupus at the end of the 17th century 
transcribed the greater part of an unique manu- 
script in the Monastery Library of Monte Cassino^. 
The compiler is thought to be an African ; he was 
a contemporary of Facundus, Bishop of Hermseum, 
and just as Facundus wrote very eagerly in behalf 
of Theodore of Mopsuestia, this compiler wrote 
very strongly in defence of Theodoret. His prin- 
cipal material was a curious and extensive collec- 
tion of documents and Letters made by Count 
Irenceus, Bishop of Tyre, after the Council of 
Ephesus ; it contains Letters that passed between 
the different Bishops in the Province of Antioch 
about Nestorius and S. Cyril, and their views as 
to reconciliation with S. Cyril, and one sees how 
eagerly the principal Bishops got hold of a copy of 
any fresh letter which S. Cyril wrote. This col- 
lection alone preserves S. Cyril's great Letter to 
Acacius Bishop of Beroea, in reply to the first de- 
mand of the Eastern Bishops that the Nicene Creed 
was enough and that S. Cyril should burn all else 
which he had written on dogma. S. Cyril alludes 
to this Letter of his in his letter to his Proctors at 
Constantinople '^ and a fragment of it is preserved 

g It forms Vol. 7 of his collected works, also published by 
Stephen Baluz, is incorporated into subsequent editions of the 
Concilia, and again with some additions and corrections, after a 
fresh inspection of the manuscript by Mansi. 
^ Epp. 0pp. V. 2. p. 152 c. 


by Jolm Archbishop of Cgesarea in Palestine in his 
Thesaurus of extracts of S. Cyril in Defence of the 
Council of Chalcedon, a^nd two or three fragments 
of it by John's opponent, Severus of Antioch, both 
belonging to the earlier half of the sixth century. 

Irenseus being a contemporary of the Council of 
Ephesus, all the letters and documents collected by 
him seem to have been accepted without any doubt 
as to their genuineness. We also possess several 
from other sources. But the Compiler, who made 
use of Count Irengeus' collection, has also inserted 
towards the end of his compilation, some docu- 
ments from other MSS. to which he had access : 
one of these is absolutely worthless, viz. a confes- 
sion of faith, purporting to be that of Acacius 
Bishop of Beroea, but evidently of later date. 

Ireneeus' compilation is called a Tragedy \ Re- 
naudot, in his history, has pointed out that Ebed- 
jesu of Soba, who lived in the end of the 12th cen- 
tury, has mentioned the work in his catalogue of 
Ecclesiastical writers ". Ebedjesu says \ " Irenasus 
of Tyre compiled five Ecclesiastica on the perse- 
cution of Nestorius and all that happened at that 
time™." Two or three pages before", Ebedjesu, in 
his catalogue of Nestorius' writings, gives also, "A 
Book of a Tragedy." 

The little treatise or rather Confession of S. Atha- 
nasius from which S. Cyril cites in his Book against 
Theodore" is put by Montfaucon, S. Athanasius' 
Editor, among the dubia. Montfaucon' s grounds 

^ See the Compiler's words at the end of cap. 94, " are put in 
order by Irenseus in what is called his Tragedy." 

^ Published by Assemani, Bibl. Or. t. 3. 1. pp. 4 sqq. 
1 c. 25. m lb. pp. 38, 39. n c. 20. " p. 341. 



for doing so are twofold; 1, that the very famous 
expression, One Incarnate Nature of the Word"^, 
seems to contradict what S. Athanasius says in 
other writings ; 2, that the treatise was objected 
to by Leontius of Byzantium, at the beginning of 
the seventh Century. 

Of the first ground of doubt, no one but a stu- 
dent of S. Athanasius has any right to speak. The 
second dwindles to nothing. 
Leontius says, 

" Tliey [the party of Severus, the great Monopbysite 
Bishop of Autiocli] put forward another passage as S. 
Atlianasius^, from his treatise ou the Incarnation. It is 
on this wise, ' And that the Same is Son of God after the 
Spirit, Son of man after the flesh; not that the one 
Son is two natures, the one to he worshipped, the other 
not to be worshipped, but One Nature Incarnate of God 
the Word.^ To this we say, that first it in no wise op- 
poses us, for neither do we hold two natures, one to be 
worshipped, the other not, but we hold One Nature In- 
carnate of God the Word. Next it is not S. Athanasius'. 
For when they are asked by us, where it is, and cannot 
easily shew it, in their perplexity they put forward 
some small treatise, about two leaves, in which this 
passage is : but it is evident to all, that all S. Athana- 
sius' writings are very large. 

" But what can we say, when they put forward blessed 
Cyril, citing this against Theodore, as being S. Athana- 
sius?' To this we say, that it does indeed lie in the bles- 
sed Cyril's utterings against Theodore, yet it is an old 
error. For Dioscorus succeeding blessed Cyril, and 
finding his works, would perchance not have minded 

P See on this Formula Card. Newman's exhaustive treatise, 
* On S. Cyril's formula of the fiia (^vo-ts.' Tracts Theological and 
Ecclesiastical, 1874; who however says 'whether S. Athanasius 
himself used it, is a contested point.' p. 335. 


adding wliat he pleased : we might even conjecture that 
the blessed Cyril did not cite it against Theodore ; and 
that it is &o, is clear from this. For Theodoret speaking 
in behalf of Theodore, overturning all the passages which 
blessed Cyril cited against him from the holy Fathers, 
has no where mentioned this. To this they say that 
Theodoret passed it over craftily : for not able to answer 
it as patent, he of purpose passed it by. To this we 
say that so far from passing it by if it had been there, 
when S. Cyril said elsewhere. One Nature Incarnate of 
God the Word, if he had known that this passage had 
been put by blessed Cyril as cited from S. Athanasius ■ 
he would not so unlearnedly have said, ' Who of the 
Fathers said, the One Nature Incarnate of God the 
Word ? ' But they say again that he knew so cer- 
tainly that it was said by S. Athanasius that he said, 
' As the Fathers have said.' To this we say that every 
one is anxious to shew that the Fathers said what he 
says, if not word for word, yet in sense ^,'" 

It is clear that no serious objection could be 
founded on a treatise or Confession of Faith being 
short, and that the fact of one's opponent passing 
over an objection would be no proof that the ob- 
jection, which is confessedly there, was not made. 
The remainder of Leontius' objection lies in the, 
"perhaps Dioscorus added something." 

This confession was very well known by S. Cyril ; 
for besides citing it here, he cites (as Montfaucon 
observes) almost the whole of it in the beginning of 
his Treatise de recta Fide to the Princesses Arcadia 
and Marina, to sliew that S. Athanasius used the 
term. Mother of God; S. Cyril also cited two pieces 
of it, to shew that in his eighth chapter in which he 
says, that Emmanuel must he ivorshipped ivith one 

1 Leontius Scholast. Byzant. de sectis, Actio 8. §§ 4, 5 in Gall. 
Bibl. Yett. Patr. xii. 651, 652. 

c 2 


worship, he had but said what S. Athanasius too 
had said "■. In all three citations occur the words, 
One Nature Incarnate of the Word, and in the case 
of S. Cyril's defence of his eighth chapter, the whole 
passage is extant in the latin translation (believed 
to be by S. Cyril's contemporary, Marius Mercator) 
which leaves no room for possible monophysite in- 
sertion: besides that the citation forms an integral 
part of S. Cyril's Defence of his chapter. 

It is then proved that the words were cited as 
S. Athanasius' by S. Cyril, the same S. Cyril who 
had had his own mind moulded and taught by the 
writings of S. Athanasius, and who in A. D. 431, 
produced from the archives, probably of his own 
Church of S. Mark, an authentic copy of S. Athana- 
sius' Letter to Epictetus. 

If this Confession is not genuine, it is but an 
illustration of how, being but men, we make mis- 
takes in what we know best. 

Montfaucon sums up, " I would not venture to 
say whether the extracts were added in the writings 
of Cyril after his decease or whether before Cyril a 
little book of this sort was made up and ascribed to 

[My son had had these fragments of a preface to the 
volume printed, before he was so suddenly called away. 
They seemed to me manifestly fragments of a larger whole. 
But there were no indications, how they were to be filled 
up. I have thought it might be useful to put together 
as a supplement, some notices of the course of the heresy 
of Nestorius, and of the character of S. Cyril as illustrating 
his controversy against him. E. B. P.] 

•■ Apol. adv. Orient, cap. 8 p. 178 b c d e. 


THE special form of tlie disease, to which the 
name of Nestoriiis became attached, was hereditary 
in the great Province of Antioch. It is the sadder, 
because it came to him, lurking in the writings of 
men of even great name, commentators on large 
parts of Holy Scripture, who seem to have inheri- 
ted it unawares ; Diodore of Tarsus, and Theodore 
of Mopsuestia. Both had fallen asleep in the peace 
of the Church. Diodore, of the very highest re- 
putation, had shared in the persecution of S. Mele- 
tius by the Arians, had been one of the Bishops of 
the Second General Council, and had helped to 
form the mind of S. Chrysostom^ Theodore, in 
whom the heresy appears more copiously yet in- 
cidentally, had, during the thirty-eight years of his 
Episcopate, written against other heretics, Arians, 
Eunomians, Origen, Apollinarius, and was intimate 
with S. Chrysostom and with S. Gregory of Na- 
zianzus. The way of truth as well as the way of 
life is narrow. 

It appears to have been a tradition of heresy 
over against the tradition of faith. Of the last two 
stages of the heretical tradition there is no doubt. 
Of both it is clear from the fragments of their 
writings still extant. S. Cyril speaks fully as to 
Diodore of Tarsus *, ' by whose books,' he says, 

s See below p. 320. n. a. 
t Ep. 1 ad Succens. p. 135. d e : see below p. 321 note. Pho- 
tius saw it in various writings of his, "These were contained 
therein [in the codex] various essays of Diodore of Tarsus on the 


* the mind of Nestorius was darkened.' Leontius 
says "^, that ' Diodorus had been to Theodorus the 
author and leader and father of those evils and im- 
pieties.' In the 9th century the Nestorians counted 
Diodorus, Theodorus and Nestorius their ' three 
fathers.' A Nestorian Patriarch elect promised, 
"'that he would adhere to the true [Nestorian] 
faith, and the Synods of East and West, and the 
three fathers, Diodorus, Theodorus, Nestorius.' 
An eminent Syrian writer in the century after 
S. Cyril, Simeon Bishop of Beth-arsham (who had 
the title of honour of, ' the Persian Preacher or Phi- 
losopher ') says, that Paul of Samosata derived his 
heresy through Artemon from Ebion; that Dio- 
dore derived his from Paul, and Theodore from 
Diodore and Paul ^. Theodore held the true faith 
bf the Holy Trinity, which Paul did not ; but the 
heresy on the Incarnation was in much alike. 

In an Adjuration publicly put forth by the 
Clergy of Constantinople at the beginning of the 
Nestorian heresy and published in a Church, a pa- 
rellel was drawn between the teaching of Nes- 
torius and that of Paul of Samosata on the doctrine 
of the Incarnation. The parallel ran ^ ; 

Paul said, ' Mary did not hear the Word ; ' Nestorius, 
in harmony, said, ' Mary, my good man, did not bear the 
Godhead ;' [the Anathema approved by Nestorias denied 

Holy Spirit, in which he too is convicted of having been sick be- 
forehand with the disease of Nestorius." cod. 102 p. 86. Bekk. 

" Contr. Nest, et Eutych. L. iii. de Nestorianorum impietate 
secreto tradita principio. Bibl. Patr. T. ix. p. 696. 

^ Assem. B. 0. iii. 1. p. (233 arab.) 236. 

y Assem. B. 0. i. 347, 348. quoted in Card. Newman's Arians 
of the 4th. Cent. p. 24. ed. 4. 

^ Contestatio publice proposita &c. Couc. Eph. P. i. n. 13. 


that ' Mary bare God ' not ' the Grodhead/] Paul, ' For 
he was not before ages/ Nestorius, — 'And he assigns 
a temporal Mother to the Godhead, the Creator of times/ 
Paul, ' Mary received the Word and is not older than the 
Word.' ' Nestorius, ' How then did Mary bear Him 
Who is older than herself?' Paul, 'Mary bore a man 
like uuto us/ Nestorius, 'He Who was born of the 
Virgin is man/ Paul, — 'but a man in all things su- 
perior, since He is from the Holy Ghost, and from the 
promises, and from the Scripture is the grace upon 
Him/ Nestorius said, 'It saith, "I saw the Spii'it de- 
scending like a dove upon Him and abiding on Him," 
which bestowed upon Him the Ascension. " Command- 
ing, it saith, the Apostles whom He had chosen He was 
taken up through the Holy Ghost." This then it was, 
which conferred on Christ such gloiy.' Paul said, ' that 
neither He Who is of David having been anointed be 
alien from Wisdom, nor that Wisdom should dwell in 
any other in like way, for it was in the Prophets and 
yet more in Moses and in many Saints, and yet more in 
Christ as in the Temple of God,' And elsewhere he 
says, that ' other is Jesus Christ and other the Word/ 
Nestorius said, ' That it was not possible that He Who 
was born before all ages should anew be born, and that, 
according to the Godhead/ See, the transgressor is 
made manifest, saying, that He Who was begotten of 
the Father was not born of Mary. See, he agrees with 
the heretic Paul of Samosata who says that ' Other is 
the Word and other Jesus Christ ' and is not one, as the 
right Faith teaches. 

The heresy stumbled at man's wonted stumbling- 
block, the love of God in the Incarnation, " when 
Thou tookest upon Thee to deliver man, Thou 
didst not abhor the Virgin's womb." Theodore 
held it to be ^ madness to say that God was born 

° c. Apollin. L. iii. iu Synod, v. Coll. iv. n. 1. 


of a Virgin; he held that the man who was so 
born was united to God only by grace ^, that he 
was a son only by adoption ''. 

This and other false doctrines had probably es- 
caped notice, because they were scattered up and 
down in controversial writings against the Apollin- 
arians, or in interpretations of Holy Scripture. 
They were brought out by the vanity of Nestorius. 

Born of low parentage at least ^, he had the pe- 
rilous gift of great fluency of extempore preaching 
and 'a very beautiful and powerful voice.' He was 
moreover accounted an ascetic. S. Cyril said to 
the Emperor, 

' ® lie was chosen as one practised in the doctrines of the 
Gospels and the Apostles^ trained in godhness, and hold- 
ing the right faitli, altogether blamelessly. Your Pious 
Majesty longed to have such a man, and all who were set 
over the holy Churches, and I myself also. And indeed 
when the letters of the most pious Bishops about his con- 
secration were sent round by those who advanced him 
thereto, I wrote back without delay, rejoicing, praising, 
praying that by the decree from above all choicest good 
should come to our brother and fellow-minister.' 

S. Celestine wrote to Nestorius himself, that he 
had been anxious as to the Bishops successively 
appointed to his see, 

'^because good is apt not to be lasting, and what joy 

^ ' TJniens eum sibi affectu voluntatis, majorem quandam praes- 
tabat ei gratiam.' de Incarn. L. 14. lb. n. 54. 

•^ " He too, meriting adoption by grace, calls God His God, be- 
cause in like way with other men he received his being." on S. 
John L. 6, lb. n. 13. 

•^ alaxpoyevrj?. S. CjT. Hom. div. p. 383. 

e Apol. ad Theodos. Cone. Eph. P. 3. c. 13. 

f Ep. S. Celcstiu. ad Nest. Cone. Eph. P. i. c. 18. 


lie had had in the successor of the blessed John [Chry- 
sostom], Atticus of blessed memory, the teacher of the 
Catholic faith ; then in the holy Sisinnius, who was so 
soon to leave us, for his simple piety and pious simpli- 
city; and when he was removed, the relation of the 
messenger who came rejoiced our soul; and this was 
straightway confirmed by the relation of our colleagues, 
who were present at thy consecration, who bare thee 
such testimony as was meet to one who had been elected 
from elsewhere [Antioch]. For thou hadst lived before 
with so high estimation, that another city envied thee to 
thy own people . . . Evil (as far as we see) has followed 
on thy good beginnings ; beginnings, so good, so well re- 
ported of to us, that, in our answer to the relation of the 
brethren, we shewed how we were partakers of the joy/ 

S. Celestine lingers even fondly over the reminis- 
cence, wliicb was such a sad contrast to the letter 
wliicli he liad to answer. 

'Who could readily believe,' asks Vincentius of LerinsS, 
' that he was in error, whom he saw to have been cho- 
sen by such judgement of the Empire, the object of such 
estimation of the Bishops ? who was so loved by the 
holy, in such favour with the people, who daily dis- 
coursed on the words of God, and confuted the poison- 
ous errors of Jews and Gentiles. Whom could he not 
persuade that he taught aright, preached aright, held 
aright, who in order to make way for his own heresy 
persecuted the blasphemies of all [other] heresies ? 
But to pass by Nestorius who had ever more admira- 
tion than usefulness, more fame than experience, whom 
human favour had made for a season great in the eyes 
of the people rather than Divine grace — ' 

The outward change was sudden, Vincentius too 

'° What a temptation was that latel}^, when this un- 

=' Commonit. 1. c. 16. 


happy Nestorius, suddenly changed from a sheep to a 
wolf, began to rend the flock of Christ, when they too 
who were torn, in great part still believed him to be a 
sheep, and so the more easily fell into his jaws ! ' 

Tlieodoret ^, who bad for so many years defended 
him, after he had once condemned him at Clialce- 
don, spoke more severely of him than any other 
writer. Theodoret was of an affectionate disposi- 
tion. The great bane of his life was, that lie would 
believe any evil of S. Cyril, rather than suspect 
his former friend Nestorius to be in the wrong. 
Under this prejudice, he believed S. Cyril to be an 
Apollinarian which lie was not, rather than suspect 
Nestorius to be the heretic which he was. When 
then S. Leo espoused his cause against the worth- 
less successor of S. Cyril, Dioscorus, and shewed 
at once how the two opposite heresies of Eutyches 
and Nestorius were equally inconsistent with Ca- 
tholic truth, his eyes may have been opened, and 
he may have felt towards Nestorius as the occasion 
to him of an almost lifelong error, from which he 
was rescued by his own deposition and disgrace. 
Nestorius too had, as far as was known, died 

^ Hasret. Fab. iv. 12. Leontius (A. D. 610.) quotes this work 
in proof how Theodoret held Nestorius in abhorrence, (against 
a spurious correspondence between Theodoret and Nestorius in 
which they were made to acknowledge each other) de sectis. iv. 
5. Photius (cod. 56.) says of this work of Theodoret, which he 
had read, ' he goes down to Nestorius and his heresy, pouring 
upon him unmingled censure. He goes on also to the Eutychian 
heresy,' (the two last chapters of the ivth. book.) No one attends 
now to Garnier's paradox that the account of Nestorius was sub- 
stituted from a younger Theodoret for the original statement of 
Theodoret, while the accoixnt of Eutyches connected with it is to 
be from Theodoret himself. 


unrepentant In an heresy wliich denied the Incar- 
nation. His later account of Nestorius is, 

' ' From the first, Nestorius shewed wlaat he was going 
to be all his life through : that he cultivated a mere 
popular eloquence, eliciting empty applause and attract- 
ing to himself the unstable multitude; that he went 
about, clad in a mourning garment, walking heavily, 
avoiding public throngs, seeking by the pallor of his 
looks to appear ascetic, at home mostly given to books 
and living quietly by himself. He went on to advanced 
age enticing the many by such habits and counterfeits, 
seeking to seem to be a Christian rather than to be one, 
and preferring his own glory to the glory of Christ.' 

The course of his heresy Theodoret describes in 

' ^ The first step of his innovation was that we must not 
confess the Holy Virgin who bare the Word of God 
having taken flesh of her, to be Theotocos, but Christo- 
tocos only, whereas the heralds of the orthodox faith 
long ago [roiv iraXai koX TrpoTrdXai) taught to call her 
Theotocos, and believe her the Mother of the Lord.' 

Then he mentions the plea of Nestorius, 

* that the name Christ signifies the two Natures, the 
Godhead and Manhood of the Only-Begotten, but that 
of God absolutely the simple and incorporeal essence of 
God the Word ; and that of man the human nature alone ; 
therefore it is necessary to confess the Virgin to be 
Christotocos and not Theotocos, lest unawares we say 
that God the Word took the beginning of His Being 
from the holy Virgin, and so should be obliged consist- 
ently to confess that the Mother was older than He Who 
was born of her.' 

Lastly he mentions the preaching of Nestorius, 
i Hseret. Fab. ir. 12. 

xliv PREFACE. 

that in the Church of the orthodox he shouted 
out many such words as 'Mary, my good man, 
did not bear God ; she bore a man the instrument 
of God;' 'and again among other folKes,' 'The 
Gentile is blameless, when he gives a mother to 
the gods.' 

Such is the outline of his teaching at Constanti- 
nople. His efforts were concentrated on the sub- 
stitution of Christotocos for Theotocos ; for ' God 
made Man,' a human Christ connected with God, 
corrupting by flippant sayings the minds which he 
could influence. 

He gained favour with Theodosius who leaned 
on those around him. His elevation to the Patri- 
archate was a marked distinction, as being a call 
from a different Patriarchate, at the nomination of 
the Emperor Theodosius, and the people received 
him with joy. He seemed to himself called to 
great things. ' He had not,' Socrates says^ 'tasted, 
according to the proverb, the waters of the city,' 
when in an inaugural oration before the Emperor 
and a large concourse of people, he apostrophised 
the Emperor, " Give me, king, the land clear from 
heretics and I in turn will give thee heaven. 
Destroy the heretics with me, and I will destroy 
the Persians with thee." He must have meant, of 
course, that he could promise victory over the 
Persians in the name of God. Men noticed, we 
are told^, the vanity and passionateness and vain- 
glory of the speech. It was, at the least, a calling 
in of the civil sword against those, of whom he 
himself knew nothing, and for whose conversion 

k Socr. vii. 29. 


Ms predecessors had waited patiently, and promis- 
ing victory over a warlike people, not upon self- 
humiliation before God, but upon the extirpation of 
men who had not the same errors with himself. An 
Arian congregation, seeing their church destroyed, 
in desperation fired it and threw themselves into 
the flames. This gained to Nestorius, with all the 
faithful as well as heretics, the title of ' the Incen- 
diary.' The persecution occasioned much blood- 
shed at Miletus and Sardis. The Emperor had to 
repress his violence against the Novatians. The 
Macedonians' and the Quartodecimans in Asia, 
Lydia, Caria, were also persecuted. He had con- 
ferred with Theodore of Mopsuestia in his way from 
Antioch to his See ; so that it was even thought 
that he had imbibed his heresy then ™. Those whom 
he broug^ht with him were of the same school ^. 

He began at first warily. He used ambiguous 
language, but all directed against the one crucial 
term Theotocos. Unless the blessed Virgin ' bare 
God,' i. e. Him Who was at once both God and 
Man, our Lord plainly would not have been God. 
And therewith would have perished the doctrine 
of the Atonement too, which also Nestorius did 
not believe. For a " brother cannot redeem a 
man ; he cannot give to God ° a ransom for him. 
Too dear is the redemption of their souls, and it 
ceaseth for ever." 

He used what terms he could, to eke out the 
poverty of his conception. He could think of our 

^ lb. 31. ^ Evagrius says this on the authority of 

Theodulus [a presbyter of Coelesp-ia about A.D. 480.] i. 2. 
" S. Cyril Ep. 9 ad S. Celestin. p. 37. ° Ps. xlix. 7, 8. 

xlvi PREFACE. 

Lord as a man, an instrument of Deity ; ' ' ^a tem- 
ple created of the Virgin for God the Word to in- 
habit,' and having a close or continual or the high- 
est connection with God ; but still the ' connection' 
was different in degree, not in kind, from that with 
any Saint. 

The hereditary title of the Mother of the Lord, 
which even Theodoret, when his strife with S. C^^ril 
was over, recognised as 'ithe Apostolical tradition,' 
excluded this humanising of our Lord. And so 
Nestorius (a grave historian says') continuously 
teaching hereon in the Church, endeavoured in all 
ways to expel the term Theotocos, and dreaded the 
term as they do hobgoblins '. This he did, Socrates 
adds, ' out of great ignorance.' 

' Being by nature fluent of speech, he was thought to 
have been educated; but in truth, he was ill-trained, 
and disdained to learn the books of the ancient interpre- 
ters. For being puffed up for his fluency of speech, he 
did not attend accurately to the ancients, but thought 
himself superior to all/ 

Yet the term Theotocos had been in such fami- 
liar use by every school for nearly two centuries, 
that the aversion of Nestorius to it can hardly 
have been simple ignorance. It was probably the 
instinctive aversion of heresy to the term which 
condemns it. Socrates himself mentions that it 
was used by Origen and Eusebius : it was used 
alike by Alexander, the predecessor of S. Athana- 
sius \ whose Council first condemned Arius ; by 

p Expressions of Nestorius, while denying the Theotocos. 
Serm. 1. ap. Mercator. 

q Theocl. Haeret. Fab. iv. 12. »' Soer. H. E. yii. 32. 
B 70. fMop/xoXvKia, t Ep. ad Alex, in Theod. H. E. i. 3. 


S. Atlianasius himself"; by the Arian Eusebius ^; 
and by S. Cyril of Jerusalem ^, who did not use the 
word Homoousion. The Apostate Emperor Julian 
said, in controversy with the Christians, ' ' Did 
Isaiah say that a Yirgin should bear Grod ? but ye 
do not cease calling Mary Theotocos,' attesting 
that the word was in the mouths of all Christians. 
A little later it was used by the two S. Gregories^ 
It was used also by the great predecessor of Nesto- 
rius in the see of Constantinople, S. Chrysostom, 
as also by Ammon Bishop of Adrianople in Egypt, 
and by Antiochus Bishop of Ptolemais in Phoe- 
nicia^. The corresponding title, Mater Dei, was 
used in the Latin Church by S. Ambrose % Cas- 
sian \ and Vincent of Lerins *. 

John of Antioch, at a later period, entreating 
Nestorius to accept the term, in order to prevent 
the impending schism, said to him, 

'This name no one of the ecclesiastical teachers has 

declined. For those who have used it have been many 

and eminent, and those who have not used it have never 

imputed any error to those who used it/ 

'I Against Arians Orat. iii. n. 14, 29, 30. Orat. iv. 32. Inearn. 
c. Ar. 8, 22. quoted in Newman's S. Athanasius ag. the Arians. 
Disc. iii. 25. 8. p. 420. n. 1. Oxf. Tr. 

^ Yit. Const, iii. 43. in Ps. 109, 4 p. 703. Montf. Nov. Coll. 
y Catech. x, 19. ^ in S. Cyril c. Jul. L. 8. p. 262. 

a S. Greg. Nyss. Ep. ad Eustath. p. 1093. S. Greg. Naz. Orat. 29, 
4. Ep. 101. p. 85. Ben. 

^ both quoted by S. Cp'il de recta fide 49, 50. 
* de Yirg. ii. 7. '^ de Inearn. ii. 5. vii. 25. 

e Common, ii. 21. The above are all quoted in Newman's notes 
on S. Athanasius against the Arians Disc. iii. 26. nn, u and x. 
Dr. Bright adds Tertullian, de patientia n. 3, ' Nasci se Deus in 
utero patitur Matn's,^ and S. Irenoeus, 'ut portaret Deum,' v. 19. 
Sec further Dr. Bright's History of the Church p. 312. ed. 3. 

xlviii PEEFACB. 

Jolin endeavoured to smootlie to him the adoption 
of the word. 

'^The ten daySj which Celestine allowedj are very short, 
but it might he made matter of a single day, perhaps 
only of a few hours. For to use a convenient word in the 
dispensation of our Sovereign Ruler Christ for us, which 
has been used by many of the fathers, and is true as to 
the saving Bii-th of the Virgin, is easy ; which thy holi- 
ness ought not to decline, nor take that into account, 
that one ought not to do things contrary. For if thy 
mind is the same as that of the fathers and teachers of 
the Church (for this, my lord, I have heard from many 
common friends), what gi-ief has it, to utter a pious 
thought in a corresponding word ?' 

Nestorius seems to have thought it to have been 
his office to convert tlie Church to his misbelief. 
He says, 

' s I see in our people much reverence and most fervent 
piety, but that they are blinded as to the dogma of the 
knowledge of God. But this is not the fault of the 
people, but (how shall I say it courteously ?) that the 
teachers had not opportunity to set before you aught 
of the more accurate teaching.' 

This was strong language, that the people of 
Constantinople were in error as to the faith through 
the fault of its former Bishops ; but he also owned 
thereby, that his faith was different from theirs. 
' Art thou then,' Cassian '' apostrophises him, ' the 
amender of former Bishops, the condemner of 
former Priests ? art thou more excellent than 
Gregory, more approved than Nectarius, surpass- 
ing John ? ' 

f Joh. Ant. ad Nest. Cone. Eph. P. 1. e. 25. 

s Serm. 2 in Marius Mercator ii. 9. ed. Garn. 

^ de Incarn. vii. 30. 

PREFACE. xlix 

Nestorius seems to have cliosen for himself the 
office of arbiter between ideal parties. In his 
third Epistle to S. Celestine he says, 

''It is known to your Blessedness, that if two sects 
stand over against one another, and one of them only 
uses the word Theotocos, and the other only Anthropo- 
tocos, and each sect draws the other to its own confession, 
so that, if it do not obtain this, there is peril lest it fall 
from the Church, it will be necessary, that one deputed 
to the consideration of this matter, having care for each 
sect, should remedy the peril of either party, by a word 
delivered by the Evangelist which signifies both natures. 
For that word, Christotocos, tempers the assertion of 
both, because it both removes the blasphemy of the 
Samosatene which is spoken of Christ, the Lord of all, aa 
if He were a pure man, and also puts to flight the malice 
of Arius and Apollinarius.^ 

It is strange that he did not see (if indeed he did 
not see what every one else saw), that Christotocos, 
as opposed to Theotocos, could only mean 'mother 
of the Messiah,' i. e. mother of Him who should be 
the Messiah. Vincent of Lerins uses the homely 

' J as we speak of the mother of a Presbyter or a Bishop, 
not that she bare one who was already a Presbyter or a 
Bishop, but a man who was afterwards made a Presbyter 
or Bishop.' 

S. John Damascene says, 

' ^ We do not call the holy Virgin Christotocos, because 
Nestorius invented it to deny the word Theotocos.' 

The name ' Anthropotocos ' must have been a 
fiction of his own, in order to make room for his 

» in Mercat. pp. 80, 81. J quoted by Pet. de Incarn. v. 15. 

^ Damasc. de fide Chr. vii, 12. 



own term Cliristotocos, as an intermediate term. 
No one would give the name as a descriptive name, 
however they may have held our Lord to be a mere 
man; and Nestorius speaks of those, who called 
the Blessed Virgin Anthropotocos, as m the 

However, in his own Patriarchate, for three 
years Nestorius had his own way. S. Cyril names 
that period in his full letter of explanation to 
Acacius of Beroea, who must have been cognizant 
of the accuracy of the statement. 

' ' But when we all waited for Nestorius, while he spent 
a period of three years in blaspheming, and we and 
your holiness and the whole Council with us tried to 
bring him back from them, and to those doctrines which 
appertain to rightness and truth.^ 

Peter, the notary, rehearsed the same in the 
first session of the Council. ' ™ Not many days 
having elapsed ' [after his consecration]. 
S. Cyril in his letter to S. Celestine says, 

'"During the past I have kept silence and have writ- 
ten absolutely nothing either to your E-eligiousness, or 
any of our Fellow-ministers, about him who is now at 
Constantinople and ruleth the Church, believing that 
hastiness in these things is not without blame.^ 

Within Constantinople, Nestorius, twice appa- 
rently, gave occasion to a great expression of 
popular feeling by utterances which he sanctioned, 
absolutely denying the doctrine of the Incarnation. 
The first was by Anastasius, a priest "whom he 
had brought from Antioch, whom ' he held in great 
honour, and employed as a counsellor ; a fiery 

J Synod, n. 56. "» Cone. Eph. Act. i. init. 

n Ep. 9. ad Celestin. p. 36. « Socr. vii. 32. 


lover of Nestorius and liis Jewisli dogmas.' He 
burst out in a sermon openly, ' p let no one call 
Mary theotocos : for Mary was human ; but it is 
impossible that one human should bear God.' This 
the people could ill-endure. Nestorius supported 
it with vehemence. 

The other statement which reached S. Cyril, and 
which he mentioned to some at Constantinople, 
who blamed him for his letter to the monks 'i, was 
by Dorotheus Bishop of Marcianopolis, who said 
openly, ' Anathema, if any call the holy Mary, 

This went much further than the former. It pro- 
nounced Anathema (as S. Cyril saw) upon all who 
held what all held and expressed, upon the whole 
Catholic Church. Nestorius at once received him 
to Communion. 

Nestorius supported the denial of the Theotocos. 
In his first Sermon he says, that he had been asked 
whether the Blessed Virgin was to be called ' An- 
thropotocos or Theotocos.' He appealed to his 

' ^ Has God a mother ? Then heathendom may be ex- 
cusedj bringing in mothers to its gods. Then Paul is a 
liar, who saith of the Deity of Christ, ' without father, 
without mother, without descent.^ Mary bore not God, 
my good friends. For that which is born of the flesh is 
flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 
The creature bare not the Uncreated : the Father did 
not beget God the "Word. For 'in the beginning was 
the Word,' as John saith. The creature did not bear the 
Creator, but she bare a Man, the instrument of Deity : 
the Holy Spirit did not create God the Word ; for that 
P Evagr. i. 2. 
1 Ep. 6. p. 30. " Nest. Serm. i. in Merc, p. 5. 

d 2 


wTiicli was born of lier was of the Holy Spirit ; but He 
framed of the Virgin for God the Word a temple where- 
in He should dwell/ 

Nestorius continued to preach the same, some- 
times in terms, in themselves sound, but in the 
context of what is unsound. 

From his position as Patriarch in New Rome, 
the residence of the Emperor, or his personal in- 
fluence with Theodosius, he could overbear most 
opposition. What opposition there was came, it 
had been observed, first from the Laity, then from 
the Clergy, lastly from the Bishops. 

Nestorius, in his first epistle to S. Celestine, told 
him that he had daily used both ' anger and gen- 
tleness' in repressing the Theotocos. His idea of 
* anger and gentleness' may be gathered from a 
formal petition to the Emperors from Basil, a deacon 
and Archimandrite, and Thalassius a reader and 
monk, in their petition to the Emperors. 
In the words of this petition, 

' ^ By his command and invitation, we went to the See- 
house, to be fully instructed whether what we had heard 
concerning him is true. He put us off a second and a 
third time, and then scarcely bade us say what we 
wished. But when he had heard from us, that what he 
had said, that ' Mary only bore a man consubstantial with 
herself/ and ' what is born of the flesh is flesh/ is not 
orthodox language, immediately he had us seized, and 
thence, beaten by the crowd of the officers, we were led 
to the prison, and there they stripped us naked as pri- 
soners and subject to punishment, bound us to pillars, 
threw us down and kicked us. What in the civil courts 
we do not say that Clerks, Archimandrites, or monks, 
nay, or any secular persons do not suffer, we endured 

8 Cone. Eph, P. i. n. 30. 

PREFACE. liii 

in the Church lawlessly from the lawless ones. Op- 
pressed, famished, we remained a long time under 
guard, and his mania was not satisfied with this, but 
after all this, by some deceit we were delivered over 
to the most Excellent Eparch of this renowned city, 
and loaded with irons we were led back to the prison, 
and afterwards were brought up in the Prgetorium in 
the same way with chains, and since there was no ac- 
cuser, we were again led back by the guard in the 
prison and thus he again chastised us smiting us on the 
face, and having discoursed and agreed deceitfully (as 
appeared from what followed) about Him Who is by 
nature Son of Grod, that He was born of the holy Mary 
the Theotocos, since there is another Son; so he dis- 
missed us/ 

Basil who relates this, says also, 

' * Some of the most reverend Presbyters frequently 
rebuked to the face him who is now entrusted with the 
Episcopate (if he should be called a Bishop) and, be- 
cause of his self-will that he will not call the Holy Vir- 
gin Theotocos, or Christ by nature true God, have put 
themselves out of his communion, and so still remain ; 
others do so secretly; others, because they spoke in 
this holy Church Eirene-by-the-sea against the ill-re- 
newal of this dogma, have been silenced. On this the 
people, desiring to have the wonted sound teaching, cried 
out, 'A King we have; a Bishop we have not/ But 
this essay of the people did not remain unavenged ; 
some were seized by the attendants, and beaten in di- 
vers ways in the royal city, as is not practised even 
among the Barbarians. Some contradicted him pub- 
licly to the face in the Church and underwent no little 
trouble. A monk of the simpler sort was constrained 
by zeal in the midst of the Church to hinder this he- 
rald of impiety from entering in at the Celebration, 
being a heretic. Him having beaten, he delivered to 

t lb. 


the Magnificent Governors and being again beaten and 
paraded publicly, the crier proclaiming (his offence), he 
[Nestorius] sent him into exile. And not this only, but 
even in the most holy Church after his impious homily, 
those on his side who held down every thing, would 
have shed blood, had not the aid of God prevented it/ 

They conclude by asking the Emperor to convene 
a General Council, ' not, Grod knows, to avenge our 
wrongs,' but ' to unite the most holy Church, re- 
store the priests of the true faith, before the untrue 
teaching spread abroad.' 
They speak of Nestorius as 

* intimidating, threatening, driving, expelling, mal- 
treating, acting recklessly and ill, and doing all un- 
sparingly to establish his own mania and ungodliness, 
neither fearing God, nor ashamed before men, but clothed 
with contempt of all, confident in his wrath and in the 
might of some who have been corrupted, and (to speak 
fearlessly) in your Majesty.' 

It is strong language, but language, the more 
responsible, as formally addressed to one who held 
absolute power, who used it as no modern Sovereign 
could, and who was known to favour the Patriarch, 
against whom it was directed. 

Nestorius boasted to S. Celestine of his success 
against those who had departed from him. 

'"Moreover they have dared to call the Virgin who bai'e 
Christ (Christotocos) in a certain way Theotocos. For 
they do not shudder at calling her Theotocos, although 
those holy fathers above all praise at Nice are read to 
have said nothing more as to the holy Virgin than that 
our Lord Jesus Christ was incarnate of the Holy Ghost 
and the Virgin Mary. I do not speak of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, which every where, both by Angels and Apostles, 

" Ep. 1. ad Celestin. Cone. Eph. p. i. c. 16. 


set forth the Virgin as the mother of Christ, not of God 
the Word. For which things' sake what strifes we have 
endured, I suppose that report has, before this, instruct- 
ed your Blessedness; observing this also, that we have not 
striven in vain, but by the grace of the Lord, many of 
those who were departing from us have been amended.' 

To S. Cyril lie says, 

' " Know that those hast been deceived by the Clerks 
of thine own persuasion, who have been deprived here 
by the holy Synod, because they were minded as the 

S. Cyril in the Synodal letter ^ from Alexandria, 
announcing bis impending excommunication, men- 
tions those whom Nestorius had excommunicated 
or degraded, as he had 'indicated to Celestine the 
most lioly Bishop of Great Rome and our fellow- 
bishop.' S. Celestine also requires as a condition 
of Communion that he should ' ^ restore to the 
Church all excluded for the sake of Christ its 
Head.' In his letter to John of Antioch he sup- 
poses that this may have been done by others also. 

Within Constantinople Nestorius was opposed 
by those whose position secured them from his 
aggression : by S. Proclus, appointed Bishop of 
Cyzicus, whom the Cyzicans declined, wishing to 
appoint their own Bishop, and who remained a 
Bishop without a see ; and by Eusebius of Dory- 
Iseum, who 

'^ being of great piety and skill among the laymen, 
having gathered within himself no mean learning, was 
moved with fervent and devout zeal, and said with 

^ ad S. Cyril. Ep. 5. p. 29. 
^ Cone. Eph. P. i. n. 26. y Ep. ad Nest. fin. 

^ See below ad Nest. i. 6. pp. 25, 26. 


piercing cry, that the Word Himself Who is before the 
ages endured a second Generation by that after the flesh 
and fx'om a woman/ 

Nestorius answered him by speaking of the ' pol- 
lution ' of these wretches and saying, " that if there 
were two births, there must be two sons," i. e. that 
our ' one Lord Jesus Christ ' ' could not be Begot- 
ten of the Father before all worlds ' and yet 'for us 
men and for our salvation ' be born of the Virgin 

Leontius ^ says that Eusebius was also said to be 
the author of the parallel between Paul of Samosata 
and Nestorius. 

Different accounts are given of the way in which 
the minds of the people were affected. S. Cyril says 
that on the Anathema pronounced by Dorotheus, 

* ^ There was a great cry from all the people, and a 
running out [of the Church.] For they would not com- 
municate with those so minded. And now too the peo- 
ple of Constantinople remain out of communion, except 
some of the lighter sort and his flatterers. But nearly 
all the monasteries and their Archimandrites and many 
of the senate do not communicate : fearing lest they 
should be wronged as to his faith and that of those with 
him, whom he brought when he came up from Antioch, 
who all speak perverse things.* 

Nestorius, on the other hand, boasts at the close 
of his answer to S. Cyril's second letter % 

* Church matters with us advance daily, and the peo- 
ple through the grace of God so grow, that those who 
see their multitude, cry out with the prophet, that the 
earth is filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as much 

" Cont. Nest, et Eutych. L. iii. He says *ut aiunt.' 
^ Ep. ad Celcst. Cone. Eph. P. 1. n. 16. ^ Conc. Eph. T. 1. n. 9. 


water covereth tlie sea, and the Emperors are in exceed- 
ing joy, being enlightened as to the doctrine; and, to 
speak briefly, one may see daily, as to all the heresies 
which fight with God and the orthodoxy of the Church, 
that word is daily fulfilled with us, the house of Saul 
waxed weaker and weaker, and the house of David 
waxed stronger and stronger/ 

It is not much that the Emperor told S. Cyril ^, 
that the Churches were united and would be yet 
more, and that he [S. Cyril] was forgiven; (for 
Nestorius had persuaded him that S. Cyril was a 
mere disturber of the peace) or that Nestorius on 
one occasion speaks of the people being thronged ^ 
But some were even ready to turn against those 
who objected to his teaching ^, and ' many Clergy 
and laymen from Constantinople coming to Antiocli 
and Beroea agreed with the saying of Dorotheus, as 
having nothing contrary to Apostolic doctrine or 
the faith of Nicsea s.' 

In these three years, S. Cyril had only broken 
silence three times ; once in his letter to the monks 
in Egypt ; a letter to Nestorius, explaining the oc- 
casion of that letter when he heard that Nestorius 
was offended by it ; and the second full statement 
of doctrine in the Epistle, which was received by 
the Council of Ephesus. 

i. The first was his 'letter to the Monks of Egypt.' 
Grave perplexity had been occasioned to some of 
them, even as to the Divinity of our Lord, through 
some writings attributed to Nestorius. S. Cyril 

«i Sacr. Theod. ad Cyril. Cone. Eph. P. i. n. 31. 

« constipatione laboratis. Nest. Serm. 13. p. 93. Gam. 

f Merc. Nest. Blasph. Capit. xii. p. 117. Garn. 

s Ep. Acac. Ber. Cyrillo Cone. Epb. P. i. n. 23. 


answered them, but without any mention of Nesto- 
rius. He himself gives the account of his writing, 

'•'When his [Nestorius'] homilies were brought to 
Egypt, I learnt that some of the lighter sort were 
carried away, and said doubtingly among themselves, 
' does he say right V ' Is he in error V Fearing lest the 
disease should root in the minds of the simple, I wrote 
a general Epistle to the monasteries of Egypt, confirm- 
ing them to the right faith.' 

No Bishop, competent for his office, could have 
done otherwise than set himself to remove those 
perplexities in the minds of the people committed 
to his charge. Others circulated what he had 
written, in Constantinople. S. Cyril continues his 

' Some took copies to Constantinople. And those who 
read them were much benefited, so that very many of 
those in office wrote, thanking me. But that too was 
fresh nutriment of displeasure against me, and he [Nes- 
torius] contended against me as an enemy, having no 
other ground of censure than that I cannot think as he 

ii. iii. S. Cyril's two Epistles to Nestorius (pre- 
vious to the sentence of condemnation which he 
was commissioned to announce, unless Nestorius 
should retract) were letters of explanation. 

The first was to remove the offence, which Nes- 
torius had taken at ' the letter to the monks.' It 

' ' Persons deserving of all credit have come to Alexan- 
dria and have informed me that thy Piety is exceeding 
angry, and setting every thing in motion to grieve me. 
^ Ep. ad Celest. 
' S. Cyr. Ep. 2. See an abstract of it, ab. p. xxv. 


And when I would learn the cause of the grief of thy 
Piety, they said that some from Alexandria were circu- 
lating the letter written to the holy Monks, and that 
this was the occasion of the hatred and displeasure. I 
wondered then, that thy Piety did not rather think 
with Itself, that the disturbance as to the faith did nob 
originate with my letter, but with some, whether written 
by thy Piety or no, but any how papers or exegeses wh\ch 
were circulated. We then toiled, wishing to restore those 
misled. For some would hardly admit that Christ is 
God ; but that He was rather an organ or instrument} 
of the Deity and a God-bearing man, and things even 
beyond this. I had then reason to complain of the 
things, which thy Piety did or did not write. (For I do 
not much trust the papers which are carried about.) 
How then should I be silent, when faith is so injured and 
so many are perverted ? Shall we not be placed before 
the Judgement-seat of Christ? Shall we not give account 
for the unseasonable silence, having been appointed by 
Him to say what is meet ? What shall I do now ? For I 
must consult with thy Piety. And that, when the most 
religious and God-beloved Bishop of the Roman Church, 
and the God-beloved Bishops with him, report about 
the papers brought thither, I know not how, whether 
by thy Piety or no. For they write, as exceedingly 
scandalized. And how shall we soothe those who come 
from the East from all the Churches, and murmur a- 
gainst the papers ? Or does thy Piety think, that only 
a little disturbance has sprung up in the Churches from 
such homilies ? We are all struggling and toiling, 
bringing back those who are somehow mispersuaded to 
think otherwise. When then it is thy Piety, who made 
all of necessity murmur, how does It justly find fault ? 
Why does It cry out against me, and that to no purpose, 
and does not rather correct Its own speech, to stop this 
world-wide scandal ? For though the speech is past, 
yet as being diffused among the people, let it be set 
straight by revision, and do thou vouchsafe to concede 


one word to those who are offended, by calling the holy 
Virgin Theotocos, that soothing those who have been 
grieved, and having a right repute among all, we may 
celebrate the Communions amid the peace and harmony 
of the peoples. But let not thy Piety doubt, that we 
are ready to endure all things for the Faith in Christ 
and to undergo imprisonments and death itself. But 
I say the truth, that even while Atticus of blessed me- 
mory still survived, I composed a book on the Holy and 
Consubstantial Trinity, in which I wrote also about the 
Incarnation of the Only-Begotten agreeably to what I 
have now written, and I read it to Bishops and Clerks 
and those of the laity who were fond of hearing, but I 
have not given it out hitherto to any one. If then it 
should be published, it is probable that I may again be 
blamed, whereas the little tract was composed even be- 
fore the consecration of thy Piety.' 

It was, of course, an unpleasant office to write 
to a Patriarch, in high favour with the Sovereign 
of both, who had no slight opinion of himself and 
of bis wi'itings, and was very angry with S. Cyril 
himself for writing against them, to tell him that 
he was in fact himself in the wrong ; that he, 
S. Cyril, could not have done otherwise than he did, 
having before him the judgement-seat of Christ, 
and that Nestorius had to undo what he had done, 
which had set East and West against him. They 
were not smooth things to write ; but I do not 
know how they could have been conveyed more 
smoothly. S. Cyril assures Nestorius, that there 
was nothing personal in what he had written, for 
he did not even know certainly, whose writings he 
was answering, but that they were conveying 
wrong doctrine among those with whom S. Cyril 
was put in trust ; wrong doctrine, which Nestorius 


would not go along with ; tliat he [S. Cyril] had 
had no part in the circulation of what he had writ- 
ten in Constantinople ; that he had written the 
like many years before, and that this too might 
become a fresh subject of incrimination, if it should 
be published, whereas from its date it could have 
no bearing on Nestorius. One only request he 
makes him, the same, which John of Antioch the 
friend of Nestorius also made, by acceding to which 
he might have escaped his own evil memory and 
being the author of the miserable rent in the body 
of Christ, that he would vouchsafe to concede one 
word, Theotocos. But it would have been to give 
up his heresy. 

The Presbyter Lampon who took S. Cyril's let- 
ter, could only obtain from Nestorius the following 
haughty answer, in which he avoided every topic 
of the letter of S. Cyril. 

' ^Nothing is mightier than Christian equity. We have 
then been constrained thereby to the present letter 
through the most religious presbyter Lampon, who said 
many things about thy Piety to us, and heard also much, 
and at last did not give way to us, until he wi'ung the let- 
ter from us, and we have been conquered by the man's im- 
portunity. For I own that I have great awe of all Chi'is- 
tian goodness of every man, as having God residing in 
him. We then, although many things have been done 
by your Religiousness (to speak mildly) not according 
to brotherly love, continue in long-suffering and the 
friendly intercourse of letters. But experience will shew, 
what is the fruit of the constraint of the most religious 
Presbyter Lampon. I and those with me salute all the 
brotherhood together with thee.^ 

^ ap. S. Cyr. Ep. 3. 


The answer of Nestorius was in fact an apology 
to himself for vouchsafing to write to S. Cyril. 

The second Epistle of S. Cyril is also Apologetic, 
"in answer to some who are babbling to thy Piety 
against my reputation and that incessantly, watching, 
above all, the seasons of the meetings of tliose in power.' 

The Epistle is throughout doctrinal. But there 
is not the slightest controversy with Nestorius, ex- 
cept in the appeal at the end that he would think 
and teach these things. It is only a careful state- 
ment of the doctrine of the Incarnation, expressly 
excluding what Nestorius called Apollinarian. 

The answer of Nestorius "" is in a tone of ironical 
condescension. He professes to pass by ' the con- 
tumelies of thy wondrous letters, as needing a me- 
dicinal long-suffering ; ' ' the all-wise words of thy 
Love ; ' advises him to attend to doctrine, i. e. not 
as he had, reading superficially the tradition of 
the all-holy fathers [the Nicene Creed] to shew an 
ignorance, which needed forgiveness ; treated his 
letter as self-contradictory and ended in a tone of 
triumph. Further correspondence was of course 
useless. Indeed, the quotation from S. Paul seems 
intended by Nestorius to close the subject. 

' These are the counsels from us, as from a brother to 
a brother. But if any one seem to be contentious, to 
such an one Paul will cry out through us also, We 
have no such custom, neither the Church of God.' 

It may be that S. Cyril's letters to the Imperial 

family may have been occasioned by the statement 

which Nestorius gives of the joy of the Sovereign 

on being enlightened as to the dogma. But al- 

' Ep. 4. m lb. Ep. 5. 


though he states the fact clearly to them, he nei- 
ther mentions Nestorius, nor quotes any known 
saying of his. 

He himself waited. He had learned probably 
from his fiery adhesion to his uncle and early bene- 
factor, Theophilus, and its injustice to the memory 
of S. Chrysostom. He says to those who reproached 
him for his letter to the monks of Egypt, that he 
might have returned anathema for anathema, 

'"Since we who are yet living, and the Bishops through- 
out the world, and our fathers who have departed to 
God have been anathematised. For what hindered me 
too from writing the converse of his words, ' If any- 
one say not that Mary is Theotocos, be he anathema ? ' 
But I have not done this hitherto for his sake, lest any 
should say, that the Bishop of Alexandria, i. e. the 
Egyptian Synod, has anathematised him. But if the 
most rehgious Bishops in East and West shall learn, 
that all have been anathematised, (for all say and con- 
fess that the holy Mary is Theotocos) how will they be 
disposed ? How will they not be grieved, if not for 
themselves, yet for the holy fathers, in whose writings 
we find the holy Virgin Mary named Theotocos ? If I 
did not think it would be burdensome, I would send 
many books of the holy Fathers, in which you may find 
not once but many times this word used, whereby they 
confess that the holy Virgin Mary is Theotocos.^ 

When at last he wrote to ask the advice of 
S. Celestine ", he says. 

* During the time past I have been silent and have 
written absolutely nothing concerning him who is now 
at Constantinople and rules the Church, either to your 
Piety or to any other of our fellow-ministers, believing 
that precipitancy in these things is not without blame.' 

»> Ep. 6. p. 30. ad Celestin. Ep. 9. p. 36. 


Yet the confusion was already not sliglit. S. Cyril 
says to a friend of Nestorius ; 

'P There is no one from any city or country, who does 
not say that these things are in every one^s mouth, and, 
what new learning is being brought into the Churches V 

To Nestorius himself he said, ' i the books of 
yonr exegeses are circulated every where.' 

Vanity probably precipitated the condemnation 
of Nestorius. He had a low estimate of the abili- 
ties of S. Celestine. 

' "■ The Egyptian [S. Cyril] terrified,' he says, ' by the 
dread of being convicted, and seeking for some trouble 
to stand him in stead, betakes himself to Celestine of 
Rome, as one too simple to penetrate the force of dogmas. 
Finding moreover the simplicity of that man, he child- 
ishly circumvents his ears with the illusions of letters.' 

It did not occur to Nestorius that Divine truth 
is seen by simple piety, not by proud intellect. 
He was not aware also, that S. Celestine had a 
deacon who, like S. Athanasius when a deacon at 
Nicsea, possessed that intuitive perception of truth 
which was afterwards to be developed on these 
very subjects ; him, who became S. Leo the Great, 
who entrusted the letters of Nestorius to be trans- 
lated and refuted by Cassian ^ 

To this S. Celestine, of whom he thought so 
lightly, Nestorius wrote two letters \ ostensibly to 
consult him about Julian and other Pelao^ians, but 
in reality to propound his own heresy in as plausi- 

P ad quend. Nestorii studiosum Ep. 7. p. 31. 
q Ep. 3 ad Nest. r gynod. c. 6. 

8 de Christi Tncarnatione adv. Nestorium. Libb. 7. 
* Ep. ad Celestin- Cone. Epb. P. 1. nu. 16, 17. 


ble a manner as he could. He began by laying 

*We owe to each other brotherly conference, as Lav- 
ing to fight in harmony together against the devil, the 
enemy of peace. To what end this preface ? ' 

Julian and others, alleging that they were Bishops 
of the West, complained both to the Emperor and 
to him, that they were persecuted being orthodox ; 
so he, being in ignorance of the merits of the case, 
asked S. Celestine to inform him. ' For a new 
sect claims great watchfulness from true pastors.' 

In the second letter, he says that he had ' often' 
written about these Pelagian Bishops. He him- 
self might have known (S. Celestine reminds him) 
since Atticus his predecessor had written to S. Ce- 
lestine, what he had done in their matter. In both 
letters, he speaks of his efforts against ' something 
akin to Apollinarianism : ' in his second, that he is 
at much pains to ' extirpate 'it. S. Cyril, in his let- 
ter to Juvenal", says that Nestorius wrote this 
letter to the Church of the Eomans, hoping to 
carry it away with him. 

By these letters to S. Celestine, he was himself 
the occasion of a letter, in which S. Cyril at last 
consulted him about the matter of Nestorius, being 
she-RTi to S. Celestine. For S. Cyril had given in- 
structions to his Deacon Posidonius^, ' if he should 
find the books of his [Nestorius] exegeses and his 
letters delivered to him [S. Celestine], deliver my 
letters also ; if not, bring them here [to S. Cyril] 
undelivered. He then, finding the exegeses and 

« Cone. Eph. p. i. n. 24. 

* Cone. Eph. Act. i. init. 



the letters delivered, liad himself also to deliver 

A synod then was held at Rome, in which, after 
many sessions ^, the Bishops declared him to have 
devised a new very grievous heresy, and condemned 

A fragment of a speech of S. Celestine is pre- 
served % in which he cited the authorities of 
S. Ambrose in his Yeni redemptor gentium, S. Hi- 
lary and S. Damasus. S. Celestine announced to 
Nestorius the result ; 

' Unless you teacli as to Christ our God the same which 
the Church of the Romans and the Alexandrians and 
the holy Church in great Constantinople held excellently 
well till you, and, within the tenth day counted from 
the day of this admonition, annul by an open confession 
in writing that faithless noTelty which undertakes to 
sever what holy Scripture unites, thou art cast out of 
all communion with the Catholic Church/ 

S. Celestine wrote the same to John of Antioch^. 
This judgement he had entrusted to S. Cyril, hold- 
ing his place. S. Cyril wrote what had passed and 
the condemnation of Nestorius by the Roman Synod 
to John of Antioch ^, telling him, that the Council 
had written the like to ' Rufus Bishop of Thessalo- 
nica, and other Bishops of Macedonia, who always 
agree with them,' and to Juvenal Bishop of ^lia; 
that he himself should follow their decision, and 
asking him to consider what to do to hinder this 
breach of communion. 

y S. Cyril Ep. ad Joh. Ant. lb. P. i. c. 21. 

»■' Arnob. jun. c. Serapion. Eibl. Patr. T. 8. p. 222. 

a Cone. Eph.P. i. n. 20. 

b lb. n. 21. 


John of Antiocli was alarmed at this prospect of 
a rent, and wrote to Nestorius to prevent it by 
jaecepting the word Theotocos ". He wrote not in 
his own name only, but in that of six other Bishops 
who were then with him, among them Theodoret. 
He wrote in entire sympathy with Nestorius, in 
antagonism to those opposed to him. He speaks 
of the many, as 'unrestrained against us,' and asks, 
r what will they be, now that they have gained 
support from these wretched letters ?' He takes it 
for granted that the faith of Nestorius was sound ; 
he had heard that he had said that he would use 
the word [Theotocos] if any of those in high repute 
in the Church suggested it, tells him that he does 
not exhort him to disreputable change, or, so to 
say, ' boyish contradiction ; ' that ' though my lord 
Celestine had fixed a very narrow time for the 
answer, yet one day, perhaps a few hours would 
be enough ; and urges him to take the counsel of 
those of his own mind, allowing them to speak 
fearlessly what was useful, not what was pleasant.' 
John himself held and stated the true faith, and 
thought the word Theotocos the convenient and 
true way to express it, and that to reject it would 
jeopardise the unspeakable mystery of the Only- 
Begotten Son of God. 

Nestorius had however taken his line. He an- 
swers in apparent amazement ; 

' "^ I thought that people could have set anything in 
motion against me rather than the calumny that I do 
not hold aright as to the piety of faith, I who hitherto 
have been delighted that many thousand hostilities rise 
against me on account of the battle which I have against 

«= lb. n. 25. 'I Svnod. Ep. 3. 


Ixviii PREFACE. 

all heretics. But tliis temptation too I must bear with 

joy ; for it too, if we watch very carefully, may confer 

on us much confidence to piety/ 

He says in answer, that ' the word Theotocos 

is assumed by many heretics as their own ; ' that 

' some here, using the word incautiously, fall 

thereby into heretical and irreligious thoughts, 

especially those of the impious Arius and Apolli- 

narius : ' that his own solution was that ' the word 

Theotocos should be explained harmoniously after 

the deliberation of us all.' He bids John 

'dismiss all anxiety, knowing that by the grace of God 
we have and do think the same in what relates to the 
piety of faith. For it is plain that if we meet, since He 
has given us this Synod which we hope, we shall dis- 
pose this and whatever else must be done for the 
correction and benefit of the whole, without scandal 
and in harmony ; so that all things which may be or- 
dained by a common and universal decree may receive 
the dignity of matters of faith, and shall give no one an 
occasion of contradiction even if he be very ready for it. 
But as to the wonted presumption of the Egyptian, 
your Religiousness ought not to wonder, since we have 
of old very many instances of this. After a little, if 
God shall will, our counsel herein also will be matter of 

He adds in a postscript, 

*We have by the grace of God attracted more both 
the Clergy and people and those who are in the impe- 
rial mansions, through the Epistles of your Religious- 
ness, to that doctrine which we give publicly in the 

To S. Celestine, after writing in his wonted strain 
about the terms Theotocos, Anthropotocos, Chris- 
totocos, he writes exultingly : 


'^The most pious Emperors have been pleased, with 
the help of Grod, to appoint a Synod of the whole world, 
from which no one is to excuse himself [inexcusabiliter] 
for the enquiry into other ecclesiastical matters. For 
any doubt about words will not, I suppose, involve any 
difficult enquirj^, nor be a hindrance to treating of the 
Divinity of the Lord Jesus/ 

S. Celestine says^, 

' He asks a field for battle j he calls for a sacerdotal 
examination, at which he would not be present. Who 
would have thought that he who asked for a synod 
[petitorem synodi] would be absent from the Synod ? ' 

The relation of the Emperor to the Synod is 
best explained by the personal letter which he wrote 
to S. Cyril, commanding his attendance at it. The 
letter can hardly have had any other object than to 
intimidate S. Cyril. For he had already received 
the circular summons to the Council, of which the 
only extant copy is addressed to him. The letter 
was written altogether in the mind of Nestorius ^. 
For he treats S. Cyril as the author of the existing 
confusion, and the doctrine as one hereafter to be 
examined and settled by the Council. 

' ^ It is plain to every one that religion has its firm- 
ness not from any one^s bidding but from intelligence. 
Now then let thy Piet^^ instruct Us, why, overlooking Us 
(whom thou kuowest to have such care of godliness) 
and all the priests every where, who could better have 

e Ep. Nest, ad Celestin. in Mercator. P. 2. p. 81. Evagrius 
quotes from a book, which he wrote in answer to those who 
blamed him for having wrongly requested that the Synod at 
Ephesus should be convoked, i. 7- 

f Cone. Eph. P. 3. c. 23. 
s Liberatus (c. 4.) says that Nestorius obtained it from him. 
^ Cone. Eph. P. 1. c. 31. 


solved this dispute, thou hast, as far as in thee lies, cast 
confusion and severance into the Church. As if a rash 
impetuosity became questions as to godliness, rather 
than accuracy ; or as if carefulness had not more weight 
with Ourselves than rashness ; or as if intricacy in these 
things were more pleasing to Us than simplicity. And 
yet we did not think that Our high estimation would be 
so received by thy Piety, or [that every thing would be 
thrown into confusion, inasmuch as We too know how 
to be displeased. But now We shall take heed to the 
sacred calm. But know that thou hast disturbed every 
thing as thou oughtest not.' 

Then, liaviag reproached him, as having tried 
to sow dissension in the Imperial family, by his 
letters to him and the Empress Eudocia, and his 
sister Augusta Pulcheria, and told him that it be- 
longed to one and the same, to wish to dissever 
Churches and Royalties, as though there were no 
other way of obtaining distinction, he resumes, 

' But that thou mayest know Our state, be assured that 
the Churches and the kingdoms are united, and will be 
yet more united at Our command, with the providence 
of our Saviour Christ, and that thy Piety is forgiven, 
that thou mayest have no pretext, nor be able to say 
that thou art blamed on account of relig-ion. For we 
will that all shall be laid open at the holy Synod and 
that what shall seem good shall prevail, whether the 
defeated obtain forgiveness from the fathers or no. We 
cei'tainly will not endure that cities and Churches should 
be thrown into confusion, nor that the question should 
remain unsifted. Of these they must sit in judgment, 
who every where preside over the Priesthood; and by 
them We have and shall have firmer possession of the 
true doctrine. Nor shall any one, who has ever so little 
share in the polity, be allowed liberty of speech, if in his 
self-confidence he choose to evade such a judgement. 
He shall not bo permitted ; for Our Majesty [lit. Divi- 


uity] must praise those who shall eagerly and readily 
come to this enquiry, and will not endure if any choose 
to command rather than be counselled about these 
matters. So then thy Reverence must come at the time 
appointed in the other letters, sent to all the Metropoli- 
tans ; and must not expect to recover the relation to 
Ourselves in any other way than that, ceasing from all 
grievousness and turbulence, thou come willingly to the 
investigation of these questions. For thus thou wilt 
appear to have done what has hitherto been done harshly 
and inconsiderately, yet still in behalf of thy opinion, 
not through any private pique or undue hostility to any 
one, and to will to do with justice what remains to be 
done. For if thou wiliest to do otherwise, We will not 
endure it.' 

A Cgesar who so wrote could not be approached. 
It seems that he expected S. Cyril to be condemned 
rather than Nestorius. S. Cyril did not attempt 
to remove the offence of his letters to the Impe- 
rial family, until lie had been allowed to return 
from the Council to his own diocese. 

S. Cyril explains his own mind towards Nesto- 
rius to a zealous adherent^ of Nestorius, witb a 
singular simplicity. 

'JIf I were writing to one who knew not my disposi- 
tion, I might have used many words, persuading that I 
am a person exceeding peaceful, not given to strife, not 
fond of warfare, but one who longs to love all and to be 
loved by all. But because I write to one who knows 
me, I say briefly, ' If a brother's grief could be removed 
by loss of money or goods, I would gladly have done it, 
that I might not seem to hold anything of more value 

' t,T]X(x>Tr]V. 

i Ep. 7. p. 31. iN'either the date of the Epistle nor the person 
to whom it was written is known. It must have been written 
hefore the horcsy of Nestorius had become so plain. 


than love. But since it is a question of faith, and all 
the Churches (so to say) in the whole Koman Empire 
are offended, — ^ what shall we do, who are entrusted by- 
God with the Divine mysteries ? ' For those who are 
taught the faith will accuse us in the Day of Judgement, 

saying that they held the faith as taught by us 

Only be the faith preserved, and I am his dear friend 
and yield to none as loving more than myself the most 
God-beloved Bishop Nestorius, who (God is my wit- 
ness) I would might be of good repute in Christ and 
efface the blot of the past, and shew that what is 
commonly said by some as to his faith, are untrue ac- 

And again to Clergy at Constantinople, 

* ' I must make my meaning plain to you and so I write 
again, that although I by nature love peace, and am 
very ignorant of strife, yet I wish that the Churches 
should have peace, and that the pi^ests of God living 
in peace should remember us, since Jesus Christ the 
Saviour of all saith, " My peace I give unto you. My 
peace I leave with you." Say then in conferences, that 
much has passed from them to injure us ; yet there will 
be peace, when he shall cease to think or speak such 
things. If he profess the right faith, there will be a 
full and most firm peace. If he desires this, let him 
write the Catholic faith and send it to Alexandria. If 
this be written from his inmost heart, I too am ready, 
as far as in me lies, to write the like and publish a book 
and say that none of our fellow-bishops ought to be ag- 
grieved, because we learn that his words have a right in- 
tention and manifest purpose. But if he continue in the 
perverseness of vain-glory and asks for peace, nothing 
remains but that we resist with all our might, lest we 
should seem to agree with him. For to me my chiefest 

'' as ab. p. Ixiv. 
1 As translated by Mercator. 0pp. T. 2. pp. 53, 54. § xix — xxi. 
ed. Garn. 

PEEFACE. Ixxiii 

desire is to labour and live and die for the faith which 
is in Christ.' 

There could scarcely be a franker offer, putting 
aside every thing of his own, to ' write the Catholic 
faith.' Nestorius is tied down to no Theological 
expressions, but to the simple faith. He could 
not write it, because he had ceased to hold it. 

The Bishops assembled in that Synod were of no 
ordinary character. Vincentius of Lerins, writing 
about three years after it was holden, speaks of its 

' " great humility and holiness, that they were for the 
more part metropolitans, of such condition and doctrine, 
that almost all could dispute about matters of faith, and 
yet thej claimed nothing for themselves, but were care- 
ful to hand down nothing to those after them, which 
they had not themselves received from the Fathers.' 

S. Cyril in his Apology to the Emperor, calls 
them ' ° men, very well known to your Mightiness, 
and exceeding well spoken of for excellence in 
all things.' 

Nestorius came to the Council ' ° immediately 
after the Feast of Easter' with 10 or 15 Bishops, 
his adherents p. He was also supported by a few 
Pelagian Bishops, whom he had admitted to Com- 
munion, and who for the time were retained in 
their office by the requirement of Theodosius, that 
everything should remain as it was, until the 
decision of the Council. He is said to have found 

"^ Common, i. 42. 

» Apol. ad Imp. Cone. Eph. P. 3. n. 13. ® Socr. vii. 34. 

P Ten Bishops signed with him "the relation of Nestorius and 
the Bishops with him to the Emperor concerning the things done 
in the holy Synod &c." Cone. Eph. Act. i. n, 6. In Baluzii 
Cone, nova coll. p. 699. six names are added, one omitted. 


many Bishops present. If so, they must have 
been Bishops from the Exarchate of Ephesus. For 
the rest are related to have arrived later. The 
Council was the plan of Nestorius, and he naturally 
came among the first, to guide, as he hoped, its 
decisions. S. Cyril, on his arrival, found that there 
had been active, though ineffectual, efforts against 
the faith. He wrote, 'iThe Evil one, the sleepless 
beast, is going about, plotting against the faith of 
Christ, but avails nothing.' The Evil one is, of 
course, Satan; but Satan acts through human agents. 
Nestorius says, that he had no intercourse with 
S. Cyril. He wrote to Scholasticus, an Eunuch of 
the Emperor and his friend ; ' Cyril has both here- 
tofore entirely avoided any converse with us, and 
until now avoids it, thinking that he shall thereby 
escape the conviction of the Chapters [the ana- 
themas] because without contradiction they are 
heretical •■.' H (as has been conjectured) it was 
at this time that S. Cyril made the extracts from 
the works of Nestorius, and possibly those from 
older writers % containing the true doctrine, he had 

q Ep. ad Alex. Cone. Eph. P. 1. c. 34. 
^ Synodicon c. 15. 
^ S. Cyril has been criticised, because words of Apollinarius 
were quoted among the authorities as from S. Julius. The words 
themselves, in their simple meaning, express the truth, and con- 
tradict Apollinarianism. Leontius ( A.D. 590), who first detected 
the forgery by use of MSS. says, it contains nothing ' quod nobis 
adversetur,' i.e. to the Catholic Faith, (de sectis Act. 8.) The 
words are, 'perfectus Deus in carne et perfectus homo in Spiritu.' 
Vitalis confessed that ' Christ was a perfect man,' but explained 
it to mean, ' We say so far that Christ was a perfect man, that 
we ascribe Divinity to Him instead of a mind.' S. Epiph. Hoer. 
77. n. 23. See Coustant. Epp. Rom. Pont. App. p. 71. s(xq. 


enougli to do. There is no reason to think that 
S. Cyril preached at this time against Nestorius *. 

The pure humanitarianism of Nestorius was 
ehcited by the attempts of Theodotns of Ancyra, 
and his pious friend, Acacius, Bishop of Mehtene, 
to bring: him back to the faith. To Theodotus 
and several others, he repeated the well-known 
blasphemies about our Lord's sacred Infancy and 
Childhood, that he would not call Him God, who 
was two or three months old, or who was nur- 
tured at the breast, or who fled into Egypt ''. This 
was stated upon oath to the Council. There was 
nothing further to investigate. It supplied what 
was yet wanting, the knowledge that Nestorius 
had not laid aside the heresy, for which he had 
been condemned the year before. S. Celestine 
had given the formal advice to S. Cyril ^, that if 

* The language which Mr. ITeale censures [Hist, of the Holy 
Eastern Church B. ii. s. 2. p. 237.] occurs in a Homily utterly 
unlike S. Cyril's style, which Aubert admitted among his homi- 
lies, [T, V. 2. p. 279] but not the Editors of the Councils. [See 
further Dr. Bright's Hist, of the Church, p. 330. n. o.] Of the 
homilies delivered at Ephesus, the oi rots lepois [Aub. p. 350] is 
said in the collection of Baluzius [pp. 546 — 551] to have been de- 
livered after the deposition of Nestorius. So is the 2nd t^s /xei/ 
Twv dytW Aub. p. 352. These have no allusion to him, nor has 
the 6 ixaKdpLO<s •nrpo^rjrrj's p. 354. The cfyaiSpov opu) to (Tvarrjixa 
[Aub. p. 354 also in the Acta Cone. Eph. Act. 1. n. 13. upon 
which the homily quoted by Mr. I^eale seems to be founded] 
speaks of the condemnation of Nestorius as past, a-^axnov elT^A.eti/'as, 
p. 357. 6 0605 Ka^etAe ere. koX l^iriXe. p. 358. The homily, eSet apKcla-Oai placed by both after the deposition [Aub. p. 358, 
Bal. p. 548.] scarcely alludes to Nestorius. 

'^ Cone. Eph. Act. 1. A Bishop, among his associates, justified 
the Jews, as having only slain a man. 

^ Ep. ad Cyrill. in Cone. Eph. Act. 2. n. 3. 


Nestorius came to a better mind, lie should be re- 
ceived. He had, up to the moment of the opening 
of the Council, made things worse. He had taken 
into his own mouth the blasphemies, which before 
he had sanctioned in his adherent, Dorotheus. If 
one who nakedly denied the Incarnation was not 
fit to be Patriarch of Constantinople, Nestorius 
had decided against himself. It brought out what 
lay in his letter to S. Cyril which was formally con- 
demned by the Council, that our Lord's relation to 
God was the same in kind, although not in degree, 
as that of any devout Christian. 

There could be no question among any who 
listened to the evidence, as there was none among 
any of those who heard it. He was deposed on 
the evidence of his own letter to S. Cyril, of twenty 
sayings in his acknowledged works, and of contra- 
dictions to the faith in Ephesus itself. 

S. Celestine had, it seems, collected a new Synod y 
at Rome, from which he wrote to the Council. The 
Council itself reported that 

' ^ althougli the whole multitude of Bishops were hin- 
dered from coming to Ephesus by the distance, yet 
being gathered in those parts, they, Celestine presiding, 
with entire consent, uttered our mind as to the faith. 
Those who came, explained to this our Synod by letter 
the mind of the whole Western Church.' 

Philip, a presbyter, and Roman legate, after read- 
ing the Acts, declared that all things had been 
adjudged ' ^according to the Canons and Ecclesias- 
tical discipline.' 

y See Baronins H. E, A, 431. n. 7. sqq. and Pagi. lb. 
^ Kelat. Cone. Eph. ad Imper. Act. iii. n. 1. 

PREFACE. Ixxvii 

After long canvass on tlie part of the deputies 
of Jolm's party to obtain a rescinding of tlie sen- 
tence of the Synod, the Prefect at last wrote to 

' ^ We have delayed long what seemed to be done by 
the judgment of the Synod, although many greatly 
blamed us and were instant that it should be. But now 
the letters of your Holiness have been delivered to us, 
shewing that the lingering at Ephesus is distasteful to 
you, and that your Religiousness desires to journey, we 
have directed those, who ought to minister to you along 
the whole journey, to minister to you [by sea or land], 

on the whole way to your monastery We do not 

suppose that you need consolation, considering the wis- 
dom of your soul, and the many thousand goods by which 
you are endowed above all others.' 

Nestorius in his answer accepts as a gift the 
command to live in his monastery. 

'^ For nothing is more honourable to us, than a removal 
for piety. But I beseech your Highness, for the sake 
of religion, often to remind the pious Prince to set a 
note everywhere, by public Imperial letters, on the ver- 
bosities of Cyril which his Piety has adjudged, so that 
it should be read throughout the orthodox Churches, 
lest in the absence of letters of the pious Emperor, if 
the writings of Cyril should be said to be condemned 
by him, an occasion of scandal should arise to the simple, 
as if it were not said truly.' 

Nestorius does not seem to mind his own depo- 
sition, so that the sentence against Cyril and Mem- 

8 Cone. Eph. Act. iii. init. 
^ Synodicon c. 24. The report mentioned by the delegates of 
John's party that Nestorius ' was sent from Ephesus, to go where 
he liked' [Epist. Schismat. ad sues, in Eph. Conciliab. n. 12] was 
accordingly inaccurate. ^ Synod, c. 25. 

Ixxviii PREFACE. 

nou be also confirmed ; as Count John reported to 
the Emperor, that the party of John bore patiently 
the notice of the deposition of Nestorius, when 
united with that of Cyril and Memnon'^. 

The public account which Nestorius gave% was, 
that ' he was allowed, at his own request, to retire 
to his monastery,' which was not more than two 
furlongs outside of Antioch. 

There, Nestorius says, he ' received all sorts of 
honours and respectful presents.' 

There, he himself says, he remained for four 
years. The adjuration of S. Celestine to Theo- 
dosius ^ to ' remove him from all intercourse [with 
others], that he might have no facility to destroy 
others,' remained unheeded. After four years, by 
the decree of Theodosius, he was banished to the 
Oasis. Evagriuss supplies the fact, that his former 
friend John of Antioch reported to the Emperor 
his continued blasphemies, and so ' Theodosius 
condemned him to perpetual banishment.' 

He was removed from propagating his heresy 
personally, but could and did write in defence 
of it. The Oasis, to which he was finally removed, 
was a place not unpleasant in itself. It was how- 
ever open to the incursions of a hostile tribe, the 
Blemmyes. With his sufferings there, in conse- 
quence of edicts of the Emperor, the Church had 
nothing to do. His treatment by the Emperor is 
unexplained. But the sufferings were God's tem- 
poral judgement inflicted through the State. The 

^ Synodicon c. 26. 
•= In a •writing, which Evagrius had seen. Evagr. i. 7. 
f S. Celest. Ep. ad Theodos. Cone. Eph. P. iii. n. 21. 
s 1. c. 


Cliurcli was guiltless of tliem. Yet since " wliom 
the Lord lovetli He cliastenetli," they shewed that 
God had not abandoned him to the last. 

S. Cyril's relation to Nestorius ended with the 
sentence upon him. His own troubles then began. 
S. Cyril himself, on his arrival, had anticipated a 
speedy close of the Council^. The Bishops had 
urged S. Cyril to hasten the hearing. ''Some of 
the Bishops were weighed down by years ; some 
were in peril of life through illness ; some had 
died; some were straitened by poverty.' The 
Council had waited 16 days after the day of Pente- 
cost, which the Emperor had peremptorily fixed for 
the opening of the Council. The whole Synod 
had exclaimed that he did not wish to be present. 
They supposed that he feared, ' ^ lest the Most 
Reverend Nestorius, who had been taken from the 
Church under his jurisdiction, should be deposed, 
and was perhaps ashamed of the business.' 

John's delay might well be puzzling in those 
days when tidings travelled slowly. He himself 
did not explain it to the Council, although he did 
subsequently to the Emperor. There had been a 
scarcity at Antioch and consequent tumults among 
the people, so that much time was wasted in set- 
ting out. Incessant rains made the roads bad. 
Of all this the Bishops at Ephesus naturally knew 
nothing. They knew only that he had chosen the 
slow land-journey instead of coming by sea, and 

1' Cone. Epb. P. 1. n. 34. 

' Relatio Synodi ad Imp. Cone. Eph. Act. 1 . n. 7. 

k S. Cyrill. Epist. ad Com. et Potam. lb. n. 5. 


even tlius, under ordinary circumstances, lie miglit 
have been punctual. Antioch was, by land, only 
30 days' ' journey from Bpliesus. From the close 
of Easter-week to Pentecost there are 41 days, and 
14 more had elapsed before there was any notice 
of his arrival. Why should he delay, except that 
he did not wish to be there ? Even Eutherius ™, a 
Nestorian, thought that he delayed on purpose. 

According to the statement of John, S. Cyril 
wrote to him two days before the opening of th© 
Council, that the whole Council was awaiting his 
arrival. He meant then to wait for him. Mo- 
derns speak of S. Cyril as arbitrary ; no one has 
ventured to say he was fickle. Something then 
must have intervened, which occasioned him to 
yield to the wish of the Bishops. The change 
would be explained, if S. Cyril had come in the 
meantime to know of the mind, in which the An- 
tiochenes were coming to the Council. They made 
no secret of it. Their deputies may have informed 
S. Cyril. Theodoret, who was one of them, and 
who at that time used Nestorianising language 
which was condemned at the 5th General Council, 

' " Before we departed to Ephesus, the blessed John 
wrote to the most-God-beloved Bishop Eutherius of 
Tyana, and Firmus of Caesarea, and Theodotus of Ancyra, 
caUing these Chapters, teaching of Apollinarius. And 
at Ephesus our deposing him of Alexandria and him 
of Ephesus had for its ground the setting forth and 
confirmation of the Chapters. And there were many 
Synodical letters written to the Victorious Emperor, and 

1 Evagr. H. E, i. 3. ^ Synoclicon Ep. 201. 

» Ep. 112, ad Domnum. 


the High Magistrates, and in like way to the people at 
Constantinople, and the most reverend Clergy. And 
moreover, when summoned to Constantinople, we had 
five resolutions in the presence of the Emperor himself, 
and we sent three protests to him subsequently.' 

These charges uwre the pith of the different 
documents put forth by John's Conciliabulum. 
Of course, contravention of the Emperor's orders 
was put in the forefront ; but no assembly, calling 
itself a Synod, could have deposed a Patriarch and 
a Bishop for neglecting or contravening the orders 
of an Emperor. The heresy alleged could be the 
only ground of deposition. John set forth this in 
the preamble which was accepted by his Concilia- 

' ° I would that no one of those set apart as priests of 
God should be cast out of the Church. But since the 
excision of incurable members is necessary for the health 
of the whole body, it is meet that Cyril and Memnon 
should be deposed, as the chiefs of the past lawlessness 
and of the trampling upon Ecclesiastical ordinances and 
the pious decrees of our most pious Emperor, and on 
account of the heretical meaning of the aforesaid Chapters, 
and that those subject to them should be excommuni- 
cated, until, recognizing their offence, they anathematize 
the heretical Chajjters of Cyril, and agree to abide by 
the holy faith set forth by the holy fathers assembled at 
Nice, not superadding any thing other than it or foreign 
to godliness, and come together according to the pious 
letter of our most pious Emperor and examine as brothers 
the subjects of enquiry, and establish the pious faith.' 

This same note sounds throughout, in every 
document of John's Conciliabulum p. 

° Acta Conciliab. post Cone. Eph. Act. 1. 
P The Synod speaks of 'the Chapters sent lately to Constan- 


Ixxxii PREFACE. 

If S. Cyril had any intimation of this mind of 
the Antiochenes, it accounts for his sudden resolve 
not to wait for them, but to accede to the wishes 
of the other Bishops and open the Council without 
them. The mind of the Church had been expressed 
in the previous year. The Council itself was only 
a device of Nestorius to ward off his condemnation. 
He had already been severed from the Communion 
of the greater part of Christendom. The Council 

tinople by Cyril, as agreeing mostly with the impiety of Arius, 
Apollinarius, and Eunomius ; ' 'the Sentence' states that the Synod 
was 'hurried by Cyril, in order that the Chapters which agree 
with the evil and ungodly doctrine of Apollinarius and Arius and 
Eunomius might not be enquired into.' The letter to the other 
Bishops of the Council whom they had excommunicated, says that 
they had * abetted the lawless things done by Cyril of Alexandria 
and Memnon the Ephesian, and maintained intercourse with men 
of an heretical mind.' They tell the Emperor, that they had so 
done, 'until they cast oat and anathematize the Chapters sent out 
by Cyril, full of the evil doctrine of Apollinarius and Eunomius 
and Arius.' John, in his own letter to the Clergy of Constanti- 
nople, says that the sentence was passed ' until they anathematize 
the heretical Chapters of Cyril the Alexandrian, and receive 
without guile the faith of the holy fathers gathered at Nice.' To 
the Senate in Constantinople, they speak of their ' ceasing from 
their heretical and evil doctrine and recovering the faith of the 
holy fathers of Nice,' as the condition of their being restored. 
To the people of Constantinople they say, that they ' do not re- 
fuse repentance to the deposed and excommunicate, but would 
open the doors of loving-kindness, if they will very speedily ana- 
thematize the Chapters sent out by Cyril, which are alien from 
the Apostolic and Evangelic teaching.' They still repeat in their 
Relation to the Queens, that they ' had deposed Cyril and Mem- 
non, and removed them from the Episcopate, until they become 
conscious of their wounds and truly repent and anathematize the 
heretical Chapters of Cyril, agreeing with this impiety of Apol- 
linarius etc' (Acta Conciliabuli post Act. 1, Cone. Eph.) The 
like was repeated in the later Acta of the Conciliabulum and in 

PREFACE. Ixxxiii 

represented the whole West, North Africa, Egypt, 
Jerusalem, Macedonia, Illyricum, Pontus, Cappa- 
docia, Armenia. The 15 or 17 1 Bishops of John of 
Antioch, even if united with the 10 or 15 ' Bishops 
of Nestorius, were but a fraction of the Church. 
'No injustice was done to Nestorius. But grave 
confusion and scandal might have ensued upon 
John's arrival. If John had brought into the 
Council the charge of heresy, which his Conciliabu- 
lum alleged so perseveringly against S. Cyril and 
Memnon, it would have rested with Candidian, the 
friend of Nestorius, to rule in what order the 
charges should be taken. Candidian threw himself 
so entirely into John's side (even in intercepting 
the Relation of the Council to the Emperor), that 
he would, without doubt, have preferred the charge 
of heresy against S. Cyril. What the result would 
have been. He only can know, Who sees the things 
which have not been, as if they had been. We 
cannot write the things which have not been, since 
God Alone knows the hearts which He made, and 
how they would have developed under trials which 
He spared. But Nestorius had shewn himself 
practised in inflicting violence, as Dioscorus up to 
the eve of the Latrocinium had not. Soldiers of 
Theodosius had not much respect for Bishops. 
Those who carried the news of the deposition of 
Nestorius to Count IrensDus brought back to the 
Council the marks of their ill-treatment ^ Nes- 
torius had brought his own guard of soldiers and 
a great number of peasants and others from the 
worst parts of Constantinople. Candidian had 

"1 See Tillemont, S. Cyrille, Note 43. '' See ab. p. Ixxiii. 
' Epist. Memnon. ad Cler. Const. Cone. Eph. xict. vi. n. 14. 

f 2 

Ixxxiv PREFACE. 

drawn troops from the garrison at Tripoli in Ly- 
dia. It has been noticed that the seamen who 
brought S. Cyril were ready to support him, and 
the peasantry of the lands of the see of Ephesus 
to support Memnon. The whole population of 
Ephesus were enthusiastic in behalf of the ancient 
doctrine, as they shewed by their exuberant joy*, 
when the sentence, for which they had waited from 
morning to evening, was announced. 

It would be mere matter of imagination to pic- 
ture anything further. But the second Council of 
Ephesus, which became the Latrocinium under the 
guidance of Dioscorus, was called just as legiti- 
mately as the first. 

However this may have been, it does not require 
much humility to think that S. Cyril, in the midst of 
the events, knew more than we, who see them only 
through some fragmentary records of the past. 
Even apart from the menace of Candidian, one so 
long-sighted as S. Cyril must have known that he 
would incur the grave displeasure of Theodosius, 
by superseding his orders ; that there was a strong 
prima-facie case of contravening them against him ; 
and that the Emperor, who had written to him as he 
had, was not one to be trifled with. Yet he braved 
it all. It was of moment to the Church, that the 
heresy of Nestorius should be condemned. The sen- 
tence once passed could not be reversed; because the 
whole Church except the Antiochenes agreed in it. 

So S. Cyril assented to the wish of the Council 
not to delay, and braved the Emperor's displeasure, 
expecting it to fall on himself alone. 

t S. Cyr. Ep. ad Cler. Const. Cone. Eph. Act. 1, n. 9. 


His earthly future, after the Council was over, 
remained for some time in the balance. Candidian 
sent to the Emperor an adverse report"; John's 
Conciliabulum sent their complaints^, as if they 
had been the Council; Nestorius sent his account^'; 
S. Cyril was not heard. Theodosius first condemned 
the condemnation of Nestorius ; annulled the pro- 
ceedings of the Council; forbade any Bishop to 
leave Ephesus, to come to his Court or to return 
home ^. The adherents of Nestorius in Constanti- 
nople hindered any tidings of his deposition coming 
both by sea and by land "" : Candidian precluded 
access at a distance''. S. Cyril's deposition by 
John's Conciliabulum was reported at Constanti- 
nople, as if it were the act of the Council "^ ; it was 
(S. Cyril understood) consequently deliberated at 
Court, whether he should not be banished "^. 

His deposition was accepted, and he himself put 
under a guard of soldiers placed even at his bed- 
room door. Memnon wrote % that they were some- 
times deprived of necessaries^, were insulted by 
the rustics and the rabble which Nestorius had 
brought. S. Cyril was at peace. He wrote, 

* s Since the letter of the most religious and Christ-loving 

" Acta Conciliab. init. (post Cone. Eph. Act. i.) 

" Lit. Conciliab. ad Imperat. 1. c. 

y Nest. &c. Relat. ad Imp., Cone. Eph. Act. i. n. 6. 

'^ Sacra, ap. Acta Conciliab. post Cone. Eph. Act. vi. n. 3. 

^ Rescript. Epp. Const., Cone. Eph. Act. vi. n. 9 
^ Relat. Cone. lb. n. 8. <= Relat. Synod, ad Imp. 1. c. 

Act. V. n. 1. and more fully Relat. 2. Act. vi. n, 12. 

^ Epist. S. Cyr. ad cler. et pop. Const. Act. vi. n, 13. 

^ Ep. Memnon. ib. n. 14. ^ iravrtov o/aoS toiv iiriTrjSeLOJV. 

g Ep, ad Theopempt. lb. Act. vi. n. 18. 


Emperors has been read, in whicli it was said that the 
deposing of the three was to be accepted, we have been 
kept in ward, not knowing what will be the issue. But 
we give thanks to God, if we be thought worthy for His 
Name's sake not to be prisoners only, but also to endure 
all besides. For it is not without its reward. — As the 
blessed David says, " I am ready for the scourge." * 

At the wish of the Council, he employed the 
leisure of his imprisonment in explaining his Ana- 
thematisms ''. 

The Conciliabulum, in transmitting ' the Alexan- 
drian's new exposition of the heretical chapters,' 
said that he ' thereby shewed his impiety more 
evidentl}^'.' They even wondered at the perseve- 
rance of the Council, notwithstanding the impri- 
sonment of Cyril and Memnon. They write as a 

' ^ Count John holds in most guarded custody Cyril and 
Memnon, thrusting [detrudens] each apart, and placing 
a multitude of soldiers around the house of each. Yet 
not even thus are tliey still, who turn every thing up- 
side down and have filled the world with confusion and 
sedition, but acting as usual, make a confusion, and set 
in motion a rule against themselves. For, being ex- 
communicated, they have audaciously assumed to them- 
selves the ministry of the priesthood, &c.' 

And again in their Epistle to Acacius of Berrhoea, 

"Your Religiousness should know that they [the Bishops 
of the Council] have been excommunicated by us, be- 
cause they co-operated with the insanity of the heretic 
Cyril and what he did unlawfully and iniquitously, and 

h Cone. Eph. P. iii. n. 1. 
i Orient. Ep. ad suos in Const., Acta Conciliab. post Act. vi. 
Cone. Eph. n. 20. 

^ Synodicon c. 18. i I]), c. 19. 


have presumed to exercise their office and to commu- 
nicate with the condemned. — And these things they 
commit, knowing that those most injurious persons 
Cyril and Memnon have been thrust [trusi] away and 
are kept by a multitude of soldiers. For thrusting 
[trudentes] each apart, they guard them night and day ; 
wherefore let your Holiness pray &c.' 

The Bishops of the Council seem also to have 
thought that it was the intention of the Nesto- 
rianisers to wear them out to undo what they had 
done. A brief memorial at the end of their letter 
to the Clergy of Constantinople says, 

< m-yy-g ^Ye being killed with the heat through the heavi- 
ness of the air, and some one is buried almost daily ; so 
that all the servants are sent home, and all the other 
Bishops are in the same state. Whence we pray your 
Reverences to go to the gracious Sovereign and say that 
the Synod is oppressed by those, who prevent any term 
being given, so that we are altogether perishing by ex- 
haustion. But your Reverences should know, that al- 
though they press upon us till we all die, we will not 
do any thing other than our Saviour Christ has taught 
us to decree.' 

The cordon was drawn with all safety to hinder 
any report from the Council reaching the Emperor's 
ears. It was snapped by a mendicant. The Clergy 
of Constantinople wrote, 

' " Since no one can do any thing against God (for what 
is man?), by the ordering of God there arrived an Epistle 
written from Ephesus to the holy Bishops and monks 
sent by a beggar who tied it within a reed, and thus, 
begging and carrying his reed, brought it. Forthwith 
all the monasteries with the Archimandrites arose and 

"* Common, ad Cler. Const. Cone. Eph. Act. vi. n. 16. 
" Rescript. Epist. Const., Cone. Eph. Act. vi. n. {K 

Ixxxviii PREFACE. 

went to the palace. The holy Dalmatius, one of the 
Archimandrites, had not left his monastery for 48 years, 
but remained enclosed. Our most pious Emperor went 
to him and saw him. There being ofttimes earthquakes 
in Constantinople, the Emperor ofttimes requested him 
to come forth and say litanies; he never would. But 
when he was praying about this, a voice came down 
from heaven bidding him go forth. For He did not 
will that His flock should perish utterly.' 

The Archimandrite s, who were admitted, pre- 
vailed. Theodosius learnt with surprise" that while 
the Nestorians had free ingress and regress, the 
deputies of the Council had been refused access to 

The Emperor tried in vain to reconcile the An- 
tiochenes with S. Cyril. 

The Antiochenes, in their third indignant pro- 
test p, reproached the Emperor with their obedi- 
ence, reminded him that the East was no small 
part of his Empire, that he needed the true faith 
to prevail in the war which then encircled Africa, 
that God would fight for him, if he would defend 
the holy faith, and would not allow the body of the 
Church to be cut of, but it would be cut off, if the 
meaning superinduced on the faith by Cyril and 
confirmed by others should stand ; that persons 
intermixed with the Churches taught the doctrine 
of ApoUinarius and Arius and Eunomius, and un- 
lawfully and irregularly exercised the office of the 
priesthood. They conclude with the prayer that he 

«* Emperor. 'If it be so, let the Bishops who have arrived come.' 
Dalm. 'No one allows them to come.' Emp. ' No one hinders.' 
Dalm. ' They have been controlled and hindered from coming.' 
P Synodicon c. 35. 

PKEFACE. Ixxxix 

would not allow any thing to be stealthily intro- 
duced against the faith of the holy fathers who 
met at Nice. If after this admonition before God 
the Emperor did not acquiesce, they 'with S. Paul 
shook off the dust from their feet against them, 
saying, " AYe are clean from the blood of all men." 
We have not ceased night and day, from the time 
we came to the holy Synod to protest to the Em- 
peror, Judges, soldiers, priests, and laymen, not 
to be the betrayers of the faith delivered by the 

It was an internecine war, continued even after 
the return of the Eastern Bishops to their sees ; 
the Easterns still absolutely demanded the depo- 
sition of S. Cyril Memnon and all their adherents, 
and that their teaching should be proscribed. 

S. Cyril shewed his peace-loving disposition on 
his return to Egypt. The Orientals had brought 
upon him his imprisonment, its privations and in- 
dignities, and the prospect of banishment. This 
they had done by aping a Council, yet without the 
formalities of a Council, without enquiring into 
anything which the real Council had done, assum- 
ing that they had done what they had not done — 
formally sanctioned the Anathematisms which 
S. Cyril had framed, not as a rule of faith but to 
cut off the evasions of Nestorius, and that these 
Anathemas were heretical. They had persuaded 
the Emperor, that their 40 Bishops, who repre- 
sented one Patriarchate, were the Council of the 
whole world, which he had convoked. Until they 
found it useless to mention the name of Nestorius 


to the Emperor'', they urged his restoration and the 
deposition of S. Cyril. He had escaped in despight 
of them. They would not be persuaded that 
Nestorius was the heretic which he was ; and they 
would repeat that S. Cyril was an Arian, Eunomian, 
Apollinarian, although they must have known that 
at the least he was neither Eunomian nor Arian. 

There was nothing then for S. Cyril to do in re- 
gard to them. They had fallen into the trap which 
Nestorius had laid for them by sending the Ana- 
themas meant to test his own sincerity, without 
the Epistle which would have explained them. It 
became an axiom with Theodoret that they were 
heretical. S. Cyril then could but wait. S. Sixtus 
iii., a peace-loving Bishop who had succeeded 
S. Celestine, bears him witness that he had shewed 
at once how mindful he was of the faith and how 
regardless of contumelies, which he suffered glori- 
ously, according to the Apostle, wishing that the 
Churches should be well-ordered, rather than that 
he should be righted himself ; that one [Nestorius] 
having wrecked himself, he was anxious that all the 
rest should be saved out of the waves. ' The same 
mind is in us also ; to act tenderly towards them, 
when they cease to be impious towards God. Let 
those then, who will to return to the right way, be 
received.' He addresses S. Cyril himself, 

* ''Hold fast, most beloved brother, what has been done 
by the Council, and what has been defined by us. For 
a brother dismisses contumelies which benefit him be- 
fore the Lord of all. For such contumely is victory. 

1 Ep. Theodoret. ad Alex. Hierap. Acta 2. Conciliab. n. 13. 
' Xysti Ep. ad Cyr. in Cotcler. Eccl. Gr. Mon. T. i. pp. 46, 47. 


Whence lie has borne meekly all the sharp blows, nor 
did those things grieve him, wherein he now rejoices ; 
for he strove for a crown. For he knows what prizes 
are in store for the victors in such conflicts.^ 

S. Sixtus coincided altogether with S. Cyril, but 
spoke strongly; 'let him [John] know that he 
shall be one of the Catholic body, if, undoing all 
undone by the Synod, he shew himself a Catholic 

S. Cyril required nothing for himself. The 
Bishops, whom the Emperor assembled at Con- 
stantinople, propounded the terms, at which the 
Emperor was ' exceedingly pleased.' 

' ^ The Bishop, full of piety, John of Antioch, must 
anathematise the doctrine of Nestorius, and acknow- 
ledge in writing his deposition ; and this being done, the 
Bishop of Alexandria will, out of love, forget altogether 
and regard as nothing the contumelies which he endured 
at Ephesus, very grievous as they were, and hard to 

John's party would not accept them. The first 
conditions of peace on John's side, which Aristolaus, 
the Emperor's deputy, selected as the mildest \ 
were in fact, of unconditional submission. 

The terms were, 

'"We acknowledge the Nicene Creed as sufficient, 
but the letter of S. Athanasius to Epictetus explains its 
meaning. We abide therefore therein, and cast off all 

« S. Cyr. Ep. ad Acac. Melit. Cone. Eph. P. 3. c. 35. 

* Ep. Alex, ad Andr. Samos. Synod, c. 58. 

" Propositiones directae ab Acacio Berrh. Cyrillo Alex, in Con- 

cilio &c. Synodicon c. 53. The Bishops in whose names Acacius 

sent it, were John of Antioch, Alexander Hierop., Macarius 

of Laodicea, Andr. Samos., and Theodoret. 


doctrines recently superinduced, either by Epistles or 
Chapters, as disturbing the common faith : ' 

i. e. lie was to acknowledge that he, not Nestorius, 
had been the disturber of the Church. S. Cyril most 
gladly'' received the Epistle to Epictetus", but shew- 
ed them that their own copies had been corrupted 
by heretics^. For the rest, he said that to withdraw 
what he had written would be to unsay all which 
had been said against the heresy of Nestorius. He 
was, in fact, to withdraw by his single act Epistles, 
of which one had been accepted by the Council of 
Ephesus, individually and as a body, the other, with 
the anathemas, had been placed among its Acts (no 
one excepting), and undo his whole work at the 
dictum of John and five other Bishops. 

The Orientals then selected a wiser envoy, Paul 
of Emesa. Yet even him they burthened with com- 
plaints, ' as if some things had been said and done 
wrongly ' in the Synod. This occasioned the only 
reminiscence of the past ill-treatment, ' '■ They who 
ought to seek pardon for the past, how do they add 
fresh contumelies?' When these were withdrawn, 
S. Cyril says, ' we were filled with gladness of 
heart ; ' and ' contrary perhaps to his expectations,' 
Paul found him fully disposed for peaces S. Cyril's 
relation shews how deeply he felt the rent as a 
work of Satan. He accepted at once a Confession, 
written (John said in his letter to S. Cyril) ' by us 

^ Gratissime. 
« Epist. Joh. Antioch. per Paul. Emis. Cyrillo, Synod, c. 80. 
y S. Cyr. Ep. 34. ad Joann. fin. p. 109. Ep. 38. ad Success, v. 
fin. p. 140. 

^ S. Cyr. Ep, ad Donat. Cone. Eph. P. 3. n. 38. 
a S. Cyr. Ep. ad Joh. Ant. Cone. Eph. P. 3. c. 34. 


in harmony^.' He gave to Paul a statement of 
faith, wliich John accepted. Paul preached in the 
great Church of Alexandria ^ ' The people cried 
out, This is the Faith, the gift of God, orthodox 
Cyril. This we sought to hear.' S. Cyril wrote to 
John the exulting letter, beginning with the words 
of the Psalm, ' Let the heavens rejoice and the 
earth be glad. For the middle-wall of partition is 
dissolved ; what saddened has ceased ; all manner 
of discord is removed. For Christ, the Saviour of 
us all, has bestowed peace upon all His Churches.' 

He says, in a sort of under-tone to Maximian ^ 
who had succeeded Nestorius, 

' Strife and contention reign not among us, but we have 
all one mark, looking to peace. And if those who from 
the first have differed in opinion from us and cut them- 
selves off from us, had willed, there would have been no 
strife or difference among the Churches. But blessed be 
the Saviour, Who hath lulled the storm &c.' 

It was S. Cyril's lot, then as now, to be mis- 
understood. He was blamed as to the peace, as, 
before, for the conflict. Theodoret could not but 
acquiesce in the acceptance of his own Synodal 
letter, but held it to be directly contradictory of 
the twelve Chapters ^. To his lord and truly God- 
loving and venerable holy father Nestorius ' he 
apologises for the peace, and assures him, that he 
holds Cyril in abhorrence, as being the author of 
all the disturbance of the whole world ^ The Nes- 

^ Cone. Eph. p. iii. n. 30. It is translated by Dr. Bright, Hist. 
of the Church, pp. 350, 351. « Homil. Paul. lb. n. 31. 

d Cone. Eph. P. iii. n. 39. « Ep. 171 ad Joh. Ant. 

f Ep. 172. A very bitter letter against S. Cyril is ascribed to 
Theodoret in the Synodicon c. 121. 


torianizers were of course very angry ; but he had 
to explain himself, even to his old friend Acacius of 
Melitene as also to others ^. He whom the Orient- 
als had so unrelentingly persecuted was now their 
defender, shewing that they were not Nestorians, 
and trying patiently to win back to the Commu- 
nion of the Church individuals still alienated. 

He had to bear what was still harder, the re- 
proaches of S. Isidore, to whom he had a filial 
affection ''. S. Isidore ^ had told him before of ' the 
jeers of many at Ephesus, as if thou wert wreaking 
thine own enmity, and not seeking, as one orthodox, 
the things of Jesus Christ. For, say they, he is a 
nephew of Theophilus.' 

He had again set forth to him the faith of the 
Incarnation J as something which 'thou thyself 
wouldest not deny,' and now, when S. Cyril had 
himself accepted the same statement as propounded 
by him, he wrote, 

* '' Wondrous man, thou oughtest to remain ever un- 
changed, not betraying the things of heaven, nor 
appearing contradictory to thyself. For if thou com- 
parest what thou hast now written with thy former 
writings, thou wilt seem chargeable with flattery, or the 
minister of ofi'-handedness, yielding to vain-glory, in- 
stead of imitating the strivings of all those great holy 
g See Tillemont S. Cyrille d' Alex. Art. 126. and the extracts in 
Liberatus Breviariura c. ix. ' De Cyrilli Epistolis pro Orientalibus 
scriptis.' ^ see above p. viii. » S. Isid. Epp. i. 310. 

J ' That the Very and supreme God became Very Man, not 
changed from what He was, and taking what He was not, being 
from two natures One Son, without beginning and without end, 
recent and Eternal, thou thyself wouldest not deny, having very 
many evidences thereof from our holy father Athanasius, a man, 
who, above nature, soared aloft to the things of God.' Ep. i. 323, 
k lb. 32 1. 


combatants, who endured to be ill-treated all tbeir life 
in a foreign land, rather than even hear a thought of 
evil doctrine/ 

S. Isidore, in his zeal for S. Cyril's perfecting, 
seems to have written to him according to the say- 
ings of others. It must have been hard to be so 
unjustly blamed by a saint, but S. Cyril seems to 
have received the undeserved censure in silence. 

One more occasion is recorded in which a public 
expression of opinion was asked of him, as to the 
writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia. 

The Council, while sparing his name, had already 
condemned a Creed of his, which had been present- 
ed by some Nestorians to many Quartodecimans 
and Novatians who wished to return to the Church'. 
S. Proclus sent to John of Antioch a Tome contain- 
ing Nestorian passages of Theodore (equally spar- 
ing his name), requesting him to have them con- 
demned. Maximus, the bearer, contrary to his 
instructions, inserted the name. The Antiochenes, 
after this, would not condemn the passages, even 
without the name "". Maximus °, an Archimandrite, 
came to Alexandria, ' speaking much and strongly' 
against the Easterns, the ' orthodox have no room 
there nor freedom to speak the faith.' '°A noble 
officer of the Palace presented to S. Cyril, when at 
Jerusalem, a long Epistle of many Clergy and monks 
and laity, accusing the Eastern Bishops, that they, 
suppressing the name of Nestorius, professed to be 

^ Cone. Eph. Act. vi. S. Cp-il says that it was the Creed of 
Theodore, in his Epistle to S. Proclus Ep. 54. p. 199. 
*" Fac. pro def. 3 Capp. viii. 2. 
" S. Cyr. Ep. 59, ad Cler. et Lampon. p. 194. « lb. 


averse to him, and bounded down to the books of 
Theodore on the Incarnation, in which lie many 
more grievous blasphemies than those of Nestorius. 
For he was the father of the ill-doctrines of Nesto- 
rius, and by speaking his words, the ungodly man is 
in his present condition.' The Alexandrians, having 
refused to sign the Tome of S. Proclus, appealed 
to S.Cyril P. S.Cyril indignantly set aside any 
likeness of ' the ill-reputed doctrine of Diodore and 
Theodore' to that of the great fathers whom John 
alleged i. To John of Antioch he wrote ^ that no 
one should utter in Church the ungodly doctrines of 
Theodore ; but he dwelt on the tenderness, with 
which those returning should be received, and not be 
reproached for the past : to Proclus % that Theodore 
had died in the communion of the Church ; that in 
rejecting his Creed the Council had purposely spar- 
ed his name, lest some should separate from the 
Church ; that in rejecting the blasphemies of Nesto- 
rius they had virtually condemned what was like 
them ; that if it could be done without disturbance, 
it would be best for the sake of others ; but that 
since John of Antioch wrote, that ' they would 
rather be burned with fire than do anything of that 
sort, why should we fan the stilled flame?' that 
those who wished the writings to be condemned 
might be persuaded to be quiet rather than give 
occasion of scandal to the Church. To Maximus, 
who would not communicate with John because of 

P Johan. Ant. et Syn. S. Cyrillo, in S. Cyril, Ep. 50. pp. 192, 
193. This in itself refutes the calumny of his old enemy, Count 
Irenseus, that S. Cyril, for private reasons, suggested this censure 
of writings of Theodore. q S. Cyr. ad Joann. Ep. 51. p. 195. 

adAcac.Ep.52.p. 197. '■ Ep. 51. p. 196. s gp. 54^ p, 199^ 200. 


some siispected of Nestorianism, he wrote * urging 
the reception of those willing to return to commu- 
nion, even though ashamed to own their fall. 

Everywhere he is the peace-maker. The veteran 
pilot, who, under God, had guided the ship through 
the storm, sat, watching each cloud, as it arose. 
His one thought was, 'Peace has been restored; 
take we heed that it be not again broken.' 

S. Cyril thought it indeed right to correct in 
writinof the errors of Theodore ; but this disturbed 
no peace, since Theodore was gone. Theodoret, as 
usual, wrote against him, but Theodoret had not 
S. C3rrirs accurate Theological mind. S. Cyril, in 
his 9th Anathematism, called God the Holy Ghost, 
'the Yery own Spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ' 
adopting the language of S. Athanasius, that '"the 
Holy Spirit was the Very own Spirit of the Son.' 
Theodoret declaimed chiefly, as if S. Cyril had said 
this of the Humanity of our Lord, not of His God- 
head ; but adds, at the end, the sad words, ' If he so 
calls Him as One in Nature and proceeding from 
the Father, we will receive it ; but if, as having His 
existence /rom the Son or through the Son, we will 
fling it away as blasphemous and ungodly.' Theo- 
doret could not have been, at that time, acquainted 
with the great writers before him, S. Dionysius of 
Alexandria, S. Athanasius, S. Basil, S. Gregory of 
Nyssa, Didymus, S. Epiphanius, S. Cyril of Jeru- 
salem ", who used the ' from' or the ' through' which 
he ' flings' from him. S. Cyril's well-weighed and 

t Ep. 49. p. 192. 1 Ep. i. ad Serapion. n. 32. p. 681 

^ See at length in ' On the Clause "And the Son," in regard, 
to the Eastern Church «fee' pp. 113 — 123. or Preface to S. Cyril's 
Commentary on S. John T. i. pp. xxi sqq. 1874. Oxf. 


full laiig-uaofe lias continued to teacli man until 
now. The impetuous language of Theodoret, if it 
had had any lasting weight, would have fostered 
the disbelief of any relation between God the Son 
and God the Holy Ghost, contrary to our Baptismal 

Theodoret thought good to defend Theodore 
against S. Cyril, arguing against all the authorities 
which S. Cyril had adduced '\ The one fragment 
which remains is written sharply -\ S. Cyril had ex- 
plained and re-explained his Anathematisms against 
Theodoret's attacks ; for the alienated Antiochenes 
had to be reconciled, and a breach to be healed. 
This censure of his work against Theodore concern- 
ed only himself, so he went on his way in peace. 

S. Cyril's strong natural love has been inciden- 
tally noticed ^'. One could hardly picture him, such 
as he has been ordinarily represented, in advancing 
years, enfolding and kissing the letter of his friend 
Acacius, Bishop of Meliteue, enquiring about a 
type in the Old Testament, 'the scapegoat^.' Yet 
since all service to God must involve self-denial, 
perhaps one of strong natural love was the fitter 
instrument of God for the hard service of that 
dreary warfare, as it must have aided him in the 
congenial office of reconciling the alienated. 

Outward events give but little insight into the 
inward mind. S. Cyril is now chiefly known (as 
far as he is known at all) as the zealous defender 
of the Faith. But it was the Faith in Him, his 

*• Leont. de sect. Act. 8. B. P. x. 672. » Cone. v. Coll. v. 
y by my son above, p. xxix. ' Ep. 36 ad Acac. p.l21. 


God and his All. Many must have been his peace- 
ful years befoi^e he was called out by the needs of 
his own people, to defend the truth of God against a 
living* assailant. His work against the Emperor Ju- 
lian (which even his opponent Theodoret admired ^*, 
in the midst of his hottest hostility) was written, 
he says, on the exhortation of many, because the 
heathen perplexed Christians, alleging that he was 
not refuted, because he could not ^. This then too 
was wi'itten out of a love for souls. He himself 
explained to Nestorius that, in his book on the Holy 
Trinity, he had written some things akin to what 
he then wrote, but with no reference to him, since 
it was written before Nestorius himself wrote. 

Controversy was not his natural element. Cas- 
siodorus counts him among those who were said*' at 
least to have commented on the whole of Holy Scrip- 
ture. His Commentaries are the largest portion of 
His extant works, yet these are but a part of a 
larger whole''. From these peaceful meditations 
on God's word he was roused by the disturbance of 
his monks through writings of Nestorius. 

'^ mentioned Ep. 83. 

^ Prsef. ad libb. c. Julian. 0pp. T. vi. P. ii. p. 6. Aub. 

•= * Terunt.' Cassiod. Prsef. ad Institt. init. 

** His Commentaries on select passages of the Pentateuch, on 

Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, S. John, are known to all, as forming 

four out of the seven volumes of his works. Besides these, much 

of the Commentary on the Gospel of S. Luke has been preserved 

in the Syriac [published with a translation by Dr. Payne Smith]. 

j Fragments of the Commentary of the Epistles to the Romans, the 

I Corinthians, and the Hebrews were recovered from Catenae by 

Cardinal Mai and Dr. Cramer. The Collection, weeded of some 

passages wrongly ascribed to S. Cyril (as is the wont of Catenae), 

was edited by my son : some things were added from a MS. of Mount 

Athos, and the Svriac MSS. in the British Museum [S. Cyril. 

o- 2 


It lias been noticed already' that types of our 
Lord were the chief object of interest to him in his 
first book on the Pentateuch, ' on the adoration in 
spirit and in truth :' his faith in the Incarnation 
and our union to God through It, are naturally 
prominent, as indeed it gleams through every- 
where K His was the exact contrary of the mind of 
Theodore of Mopsuestia of the Antiochene school : 
as has been said of our Bishop Home and another, 
' the one sees Christ every where, the other no 
where.' A mind Avhich so meditates on God's 
word, not on particular expressions, but on the 
whole, is not- that of the fierce controversialist 
which some of late have pictured him. 

It remains only to collect what has been said as 
to the contents of this volume. 

i. The Five books against Nestoriiis. 'These,' it 
has been said ^, ' may be well called, a Defence of 
S. Proclus. For S. Cyril in it mainly answers the 

in J). Joan. Evang. Vol. iii. Oxou.]. Various old authorities say 
that he also wrote a Commentary on S. Matthew, (Tillemont, 
S. Cyr- d'Alexandrie Art. 158, v. fin). [The fragments on the 
Acts and Catholic Epistles, published by the Abbe Migne, did not 
appear to my son to furnish evidence of having formed a part of a 
regular Commentary 1. c. p. 441. 445]. Of the O.T. large frag- 
ments of the Commentary on the Psalms and fragments of a Comm. 
on Jeremiah have been recovered by Card, Mai. It is certain that 
he wrote a Commentary on Ezekiel. There are not a few frag- 
ments of his Comment, on the Canticles. He also wrote on the 
■book of Wisdom. (See Card. jVrai Bibl. Nov. Patr. T. iii. Prtef.) 
« see ab. p. x. ^ see ab. p. xix. 

g Garnier, Pref. to ' the fifth Sermon of Nestorius de Deo nato 
et Virgine ©eotokw, the second against S. Proclus,' in his edition 
of Marius Mercator P. 2. p. 29. 


sermons preached by Nestorius against S. Proclus. 
For the first two books are on the Virgin being 
(deoTOKo^;^ and the term ' birth ' ascribed to God ; 
the third is of His being our Priest, Who is God ; 
the fourth and fifth are for the most part on God 
suffering and dying.' 

S. Cyril himself says that he undertook the work 
with reluctance, but that the homilies were written 
in a popular and attractive style and were full of 
heavy accusations against the doctrines of the 
truth, and left him no choice '\ Nestorius is not 
named in it. Hence it has been inferred that the 
work was written before the Council of Ephesus'. 
Photius notices that ' in the first book, he refutes 
six heads of the blasphemies of Nestorius ; in the 
second, 14 ; in the third, 6 ; in the fourth and 
fifth, 7 each.' He addsJ that 'his mode of inter- 
pretation is framed according to his wonted way 
of expression, yet brought down to a lower style.' 

ii. The Scholia are said by Photius to ' contain 
much which is useful.' S. Cyril, with his wonted 
simplicity, speaks of them as ' *" brief expositions of 
the dispensation of Christ, very good and useful.' 
A modern writer says, ' ^ The value of the work 
may be inferred from this, that scarce any subse- 
quent writer, who employed the authority of Cyril 
in explaining the mystery of the Incarnation, failed 
to take a passage or more from the Scholia.' This 
work also was quoted, with two other passages of 
S. Cyril, among the testimonies from the books of 
Catholic fathers, appended to the Epistle of S. Leo 

h p. 4. i Tillemont Art. S. Cyrille d' Alex. c. 156. 

J cod. 169. ^ Common, ad Eulogiiim. Cone. Eph. P. 3. n. 37- 
' Gamier Prfef. in Scholia in M. Mercator. p, 218. 


to the Emperor Leo "\ It closed the collection laid 
before the Council of Chalcedon "^ and then ensued 
the acclamations, ' Eternal be the memory of 
Cyril. — Leo and Cyril taught alike.' It is quoted 
even by Theodoret° with sayings of 19 other 
fathers, in proof that ' Saints distinguished the 
Natures after the Union.' He alleges three places 
from it P, two from his Commentary on the Epistle 
to the Hebrews 'J, one from the Epistle to Nesto- 
rius % one from the defence against the Easterns % 
and two more not identified. The Scholia are 
quoted also by Facundus', Leontius of Byzantium", 
and S. Ephrem of Antioch repeatedly "". They not 
only quote it as S. Cyril's, but confirm the faith by 
testimonies from it. 

It was translated into Latin by S. Cyril's con- 
temporary, Marius Mercator. It is extant also in 
a Syriac translation, from which my son, here and 
there, corrected or explained the Latin text of 

Gamier remarks upon the careful arrangement 
which S. Cyril employed in its construction. ' He 
first explains single words ; what is Christ ; what, 
Emmanuel ; what, Jesus ; what, One ; what, Union. 
Then, he turns to the propositions, commonly used 

"^ Ep. 165 eel. Ball. 
>i Cone. Chalc. Act. ii. fin. The passages quoted are from c. 4. 
init., below p. 189. and c. 13. p. 201. « Dial, ii, fin. 

P § 4 init. bel. p. 189. § 13. bel. pp. 200, 201. § 27. bel. p. 215. 
'i See my son's S. Cyrilli Comm. in D. Joann. T. iii. App. 
pp. 420, 421. r S. Cyr. 0pp. T. v. P. ii. p. 23. Aub. 

« lb. T. vi. p. 157 sq. • 
^ pro defens. 3 Capp. L. vi. 3. xi. 7. 
" c. Nest, et Eutych. L i. quoting c. 35 bel. p. 224. 
"" in Photius cod. 229. 


herein, and discusses in what way Christ is One ; 
Emmanuel, One ; Jesus, One ; i.e. One Lord, &c. 
Further, how the Word is said to have been ' emp- 
tied,' united with the flesh, made Man, and yet not 
therefore changed, or ceasing to be Grod. Thence, 
how Christ is not a man ®€0(l>6po<i, [bearing God,] 
or inspired by God, but is really man-God [better, 
God-Man] ; then, in what way the Word is said to 
dwell in us, to be sent to us, to have His own 
proper Body, and how the Holy Virgin is said to 
be Theotocos. Lastly, that the Only-Begotten, 
appearing in visible flesh is called God and Man ; 
how He suffered : in which last he refutes those 
who suppose, that things belonging to man can be 
spoken of God, relatively only. I have already 
said, that almost every chapter is full of distinc- 
tions useful in turning aside the objections of 
heretics.' Photius divides it into ten heads ; 
' y These things,' he said, ' are clearly explained 
in it ; What is Christ ; in v^^hat way the word 
' Emmanuel ' is to be understood, and what is 
' Jesus the Christ ; ' and in what respect the Word 
of God is called Man ; then, in what respect the 
Word of God is said to have been emptied ; and 
how Christ is One, and how Emmanuel is One ; 
and what we say is the Union, and about the coal 
which Elias saw, and other things like these.' 

iii. That Christ is One. The treatise must have 
been written after the condemnation of Nestorius, 
since he is refuted by name in it. It must, how- 
ever, have been written not later than A. D. 441, 
since it is quoted by Andrew of Samosata. It is 

y Cod. 169. 


quoted with praise by S. Eulogius '' and Leontius 
of Byzantium ^ . . The Pere Garnier says of it; 
' ^ Eo nihil exactius elucubratiusque ad historian! 
dogmatis Cyrillus scripsit, ut videatur opus artificis 
prjBcedentibus laboribus absolute eruditi.' 

iv. S. Cyril wrote the three books against Dio- 
dore and Theodore of Mopsuestia and that against 
the Synousiastse or Apollinarians at a later period, 
when, the writings of Nestorius being proscribed, 
Nestorianisers betook themselves to those of Dio- 
dore and Theodore, the real originators of Nesto- 
rianism. The fragments have been collected with 
great pains from every source, hitherto known. 
Some were ready at hand, having been collected 
for the 5th General Council, and embodied in its 
Acts ; others were collected by John, Bishop of 
Cgesarea, in his defence of the Council of Chalce- 
don, which is still extant in MS., in Syriac and in 
Greek at Venice and at Cairo (where my son saw 
it) ; others by Severus of Antioch ". The sources, 
whence the extracts are derived, are mentioned in 
the notes. The originals, as extant in Greek and 
Syriac, are among the collection of Fragments ap- 
pended to my son's third volume of S. Cyril's 
Commentary on S. John 'I It is the completest 
collection extant. 

S. Cyril was my own early teacher on the connec- 
tion of the doctrine of the Incarnation and the 
Holy Eucharist, which Hooker all but reached. It 

^ in Photius Cod. 230. p. 272 Bekk. « Act. 10. p. 329. d. e. 
^ Diss. 1°'« de hseresi et libris Nestorii, in his edition of Marius 
Mercator p. 319. c «^ec beloAv, p. 321 note. 

^ S, Cyrilliin B. Joannis Evang. Vol. iii. e Trpogr. C'lar, 1872. 


was at my wish that, in his uniform fiUal love, my 
son took as the central work of his life, to make 
the text of his works as exact as it could be made. 
For this he visited libraries in France, Spain, Italy, 
Germany, Russia, Mt. Athos, Cairo, Mt. Sinai, and 
applied to this the knowledge of Syriac, which he 
had perfected in view of another object which I 
had suggested to him, the re-editing of that now' 
much undervalued Critical authority, the Peshito. 
Almighty God was pleased to break off the work 
" in the midst of the years." If in this completion 
of his Preface to his volume I have cleared any 
thing as to the self -forgetful, God-devoted charac- 
ter of my early Benefactor, S. Cyril, thanks be for 
this also to Him Who gave and Who took away. 


Christmas Eve, 1881. 


Tome I. 



Tome II. 


Tome III. 


Tome IV. 


Tome V. 


On the Incarnation. 185 


By way of dispute with Hermias. 237 




AGAINST Theodore, of Mopsuestia. 337 




p. 19, note k, col. 2, line 11, before in a slig^htly, insert as part of the 
Sixth Actio of the Council. 

lb. line 22, for A. D. 430 read A. 1). Wl. 

p. 22, note o, line A, for A. D. 430, rend A. D. 429. 

p. .57, note x, line ^,for § 20, rend § 2."». 

p. 1 14, note h, line 3, for A. D. 430, read A. D. 429. 

p. 189, note g, line 5, for of this John nothings else seems to be l<nown, 
read see below, p. 321. 

p. 298, marg., ybr Jer. xxiii. 6, read Jer. xxiii. 16. 

p. 318, marg.,/br Bar. iii. 38, read Bar. iii. 37. 





Truth of human writings must be tested by Scripture. Arian errors and against 
Holy Ghost. Errors of heretics on their heads. Nestorius' book of Homilies. 
S. John i. 1,3, 14, 18. True Union of Person. Mother of God. "Made Flesh;" 
Manichees have no plea; without it, the curse and decay would still have 
been our lot. " Mother of God" except it express a Truth, may no ways 
be allowed. ' Passed through,' objected to. To be Incarnate, belongs to one 
who was, before He was Man. " Mixture " of old used in right sense. 
One of Nestorius' sermons quoted as owning God and Man in one. 
(Tvyd(peia. A mother, mother of a man, though the body only is taken of 
her. Elizabeth mother of S. John the Baptist. Eusebius of Dorylaeum op- 
poses Nestorius in church. God the Son had two Births. The Creed of 
Nicea on the Incarnation. The Creed recited. Nestorius cites from that 
of Constantinople. "Incarnate" begotten after the flesh. If it did but mean 
indwelt it would be common to all. S.John's most careful accurate lan- 
guage. That the Virgin Mary bare God, does not exclude the Eternal 
Generation, nor render her an object of worship. 

Those wlio wish to explore tlie lioly Scripture and who 
drive away negligence in doing so, and thirst rather for 
the attainment thereof, and apply themselves vigorously 
and apart from all sloth — the being in every good shall be 
their's, for they fill their mind with the Divine Light : and 
then applying it to the doctrines of the Church, they admit 
every thing that is right and unadulterate, and that most 
readily, and lay it up in the hidden treasures of their soul, 
and rejoice as much in what they in their desire of know- 
ledg^e have collected, as others who are worldly^, in insati- ^rjayKaTi, 

*= . . -^ •" Thy fiiov 

ably collecting Indian gems or gold, yea rather, yet more : 
for wisdom is better than costly stones, and every ^recions Prov.viii. 
thinff is not worthy of her, as it is written. For I say that * 
they who are wise and prudent and skilled in the Divine 
doctrines, ought to remember what has been profitably 
written by one of the holy Disciples, Brethren try the spirits j g, john 
whether they he of God. And the Divine Paul says that to ^^" ^" 
the saints has been given discerning of spirits. iCor.xJi. 

6f - 

2 E. Scripture the test of all things. Price of the soul. 

AG. NEST. For the one wlio say Lord Jesus, will say it none otlier- 
iCor.xii. ^igg i^jjg^^ through the Holy Ghost: and they who out of 

unlearning let loose a contradicting tongue against them, 
lb. and wherein those think rightly, these all but say Jesus 

Anathema, from Beelzebub will they do so. We must then 

studying to prove all things subtilly and in a finished 

'Stea-jMi- manner^ and with mind awake, light on the writings 

fv/xipws ^^ certain, and test skillfully what words they use of 

Christ the Saviour of us all, and imitate, and that aright, 

, the most approved and experienced of money dealers, who 

/j.r)fifvoy, admit proved coin, and diligently reiect the counterfeit 
subject to ^ \ „ ^ ' , . , , , n V, 1 . . , 

fiwfios, and amiss ^. And to this the blessed raul invites us say- 

iThes's. ing, Be ye sMlful^ hanlcers, prove all things, hold fast that 

V. 21, 22. i^}^{(,]j^ ig good, abstain from every form of evil. And it is in 

other ways also all-disgraceful and unseemly, that in the 

affairs of this life we should be seen no whit sparing of 

what conduceth to profit, but rather make it of moment to 

aim and strive after those things whereby we may live 

splendidly, and neglect things so sacred and count for 

nothing the salvation of the soul, but let it sink down in 

pits and swamps, sometimes exposing unto the mere plea- \ 

sure of those who choose to say what they ought not, our 

« avafxi- mind, not vigilant * for the truth, nor choosing to search ■ 

ovTa diligently what is the true and profitable meaning of what 

has been read, what the perverted one and that outsteps 

accuracy in doctrine and works loss in the soul that looks 

to it. Yet to the soul is there nought equal in value in their 

sight who are perfect in understanding. 

We must try therefore and that most straitly, writings . 

on the Divine doctrines, and if any should go along with 

the sacred Scriptures and speed its clear and most unerring 

^HaraKpo- Way therein, let it be acclaimed ^ by us too with testimonies 

to its orthodoxy : but if it form its language cold and 

6 fifixcc- astray and amiss^, yea rather giver of destruction to the 

Isrxxx. I'eaders, let it hear from every mouth. But ye are uttering 

lOLXX. and telling us another error ^. 

a Tp6<pifioi, reared up, unless it be an tion itself see Translation of S. Cyril's 

error of the single Manuscript which homilies on S. Luke by the Very Rev. 

has preserved to us this work for the R. P. Smith, p. 149 note y. 

usual S6ki^oi, approved. For the cita- b S. Cyril appears to take this not 

Errors against Son & Holy Ghost : we hold the Truth. 3 

Therefore either let tliein make the tree good and his fruit BooKi. 
good, or let them make the tree corrupt and his fruit corrupt ; fjj^g"' 
for tlie good man out of the good treasure of his heart bring- ib. 35. 
eth forth good things, and the evil man out of the evil treasure 
of his heart hringeth forth evil things, according to tlie un- 
lying word of the Saviour. For the god of tJiis world blinded 2 Cor. iv. 
the understandings of the unbelieving heretics, lest the light 
of the gospel of the glory of Christ should shine : and they 
have been deceived manifoldly. For some (miserable!) say 
that the Word sprung of God the Father is lesser than 
He that begot Him, and have not shuddered at apportion- 
ing to Him an alien and slave-befitting measure ; others, 
whetting against the Holy Ghost their unholy and intem- 
perate mouth, do rightly hear the Prophet say, But draw isa. ivii. 
YE 7iear hither, ungodly sons, seed of the adulterers and ' 
the tvhore, against Who7n did ye sport yourselves ? and 
against Whom oyened ye your mouth and on Whom let loose 
your tongue ? are ye not children of destruction, a laivless 
seed ? But these shall loalk in their own light and find the ib. 1, il. 
flames that themselves kindled: for us whose care is ortho- 
doxy, it is meet that we should give a wise and accurate 
account of each of the Divine doctrines and should shun 
the charges [put forth by] their unbridled mouth, lest in 
ought stumbling and sinning against the brethren and 1 Cor. 
wounding their iveak conscience, we sin against Christ. Let ^"^* * 
us therefore hearken unto Him Who saith, If the enemy Ps. iv. 
had reproached Me, I could have borne it, and if he that hated 
Me had spoken proudly against Me, I wotdd have hid Myself 
from him, but thou, a man Mine intimate. My guide and 
My friend, ivho sweetenedst food together with Me, in the 
house of God tve went in harmony. But let these things 
go upon the heads of the enemy, who war against the glory 
of our Saviour, and esteem blasphemy against Him, their de- 
licate meat ''' : for us it is meet and necessary (as I said) that 7 rpvcp^y 
we, zealous to savour those things that please Him, should 
aot follow [doctrine] which is alien from truth or which di- 
«rerges in any other direction, and tends to decay, [but fol- 

umperatively as in the Septuagint but 283 (where it should probably have 
as Indicative: cf, in xii Prophetas 253 been translated as here), 635 O.T.] _, 
"i, 278 a ; in S. Joan. v. 34. viii. 38. [pp. 


4 8. John proclaims God the Son God : and become Man, 

AG. NEST, low] tliat wliicli is for the good of our flock and is crowned 

by tlie Truth itself with testimonies to its rightness ^ 

Y ]y g And this I say having met with a certain book compiled 

ofNesto- Ijysome one, havins- alara^e collection of homilies, orderly 
rius' ser- -^ ., tt- • t ^ ■ • i 

mons and systematically arranged and m no wise lacking m due 

appliances for the reader. And if ought had been said by 

its author, which by passing into forgetfulness should come 

to nought, I would have deemed it a duty both myself to 

hold my peace and to counsel others to do the same ; lest 

8 iKrAirws things so unmeetly ^ and unheedfully said should become 

known to many others, and to those after us. But since a 
multitude of blasphemies has been heaped into this book 
and some great accusation has been made, baying against 
the doctrines of the truth, how was it not necessary that we 

9 afrairo- in turn should (so to say) strip for combat ^ and should fight 

in behalf of its readers, that they may not take harm thence, 

but may rather know how to repulse bravely the damage 

from what is unrightly said ? For the Divine John was called 

_S, Mark by Christ the Saviour of us all the Son of thunder, and with 

reason, for that he well-nigh sounded forth o'er all beneath 

the heaven and thundered over the earth, uttering something 

J e^ai- vast and immense ^. For he makes known full well the truly 

dread and mighty Mystery of the Incarnation of the Only- 

S. John Begotten : for he said. In the beginning ivas the Word, and 

^' ' ' the Word was ivith God, and the Word was God : all things 

were made through Him,, and without Him was not any thing 

made. But when he had made accurate and complete ini- 

2 TETop- tiation ^, and declared that the Only-Begotten being God 

vtjj/tV ^^^ ineffably begotten of God by Nature, is Maker and 

y'Jyiav Creator of all things; then, then, in fit season, does he 

at length begin the allwise economy that for our sakes and 

lb. 14. in our behalf was wrought, and says, And the Word was 

Srijs^ made flesh and tabernacled in us (and we saw His glory, the 

Tramv ' 9^ory as of the Only-Begotten of the Father) full of grace 

l^^sTetp. ^^'^ ^^''^^^^- ^o^ ^® s^icl that the Word was fl,esh, shewing 

19 note k the force of the true union, i.e., understood as one "ofPer- 

Epistles, son 3 :" and by saying that He tabernacled in %is, he does not 


62, 63. " The Greek as it stands is hardly translateable. 

still God unchangeable : lue follow him. 5 

allow us to conceive that the Word which is out of ^ God Book i. 
by Nature passed into flesh which is of the earth. For one 
not thoroughly exact as to what the Divine Nature Which 
surpasses every thing generate is, might (I suppose) have 
deemed that It was haply recipient of change and could 
become regardless of Its own Essentially-accruing goods, 
and change (so to say) into something other than what 
It is, and be brought down to the measures of the crea- 
tion, subjected in unlooked-for way to changes and alter- 
ations. But that this is utterly impossible (for the Nature 
of God is stablished and hath unshaken abidance in that 
wherein it is), he hath testified saying, that the Word taber- 
nacled in us, albeit made flesh : both skilfully explaining 
the wisdom of the Economy and guarding full well that the 
Nature of the Word be not accused by any as though It had 
become flesh by change and turning aside. 

We ourselves too then say, tracking the aim of the in- 
spired, and in no way outstepping the definition of the Faith, 
that He Who is out of '^ God by Nature, tJie Only-Begotten, s. Johni. 
He Which is in the Bosom of the Father, He through Whom ' 

are all things and in Whom all things, albeit having befere 

-■• xT-^ T^- 1 • God the 

every age and time His Own Existence, and ever co-exist- Son 

ing with Him Who begot Him, descended unto voluntary hL own 

emptiness in the last times of the world, and took the ^^\^.^"^ 

servant's form, i.e., became in our condition and Man eco- human 

77-7 • 77 ?• 7-r'7 7 Hature 

nomically, and was made like m all things unto His brethren, Heb. ii. 
by partaking similarly of blood and flesh, and that He thus ib". 14. 
underwent birth with us and like us, and took into Himself 
the passing into being of His own Flesh, not as needing a 
second beginning unto being (for the W^ord ivas in the 
beginning and was God) but, that He might gather together Eph. i. 
the human race, a second first-fruits of all things after that ' 
first one, born after the flesh of a woman, according to the 
Scriptures. For so being Rich, became He iwor, bringing 2 Cor. " 
us again unto His own wealth and having all in Himself ^"J-^ 
through the flesh which was united to Him. For thus Him 

^ d e/c. See " on the clause And the Son, in regard to the Eastern Church and 
the Bonn Conference," Oxford 1876. pp.128 sqq. 

e m 

6 True Union of Person. Mother of God. 

AG. NEST, have we been buried with Christ through Holy Baijtism, 
Eph. ii.6. have been raised and made to sit with Him in heavenly 
places. For so hath written the steward of His mysteries, 
1 Tim. the herald and Apostle, and minister of the Gospel ora- 
"' ^' cles, the most wise Paul. Necessary therefore/alike to the 
faith of the Mystery and to the exact demonstration there- 
*^ rh T^s of, is the fact of true Union *, I mean of Person, that the 
ivdirews mode of generation according to the flesh of the Only-Be- 
T^sKa'e' gotten may be without blame. Who was (as I said) called t® 
vw6(TTa. j^Q second existence (for Himself is the Maker of the worlds), 
but lowered Himself economically to manhood for our sakes, 
and despised not the laws of human nature but chose rather 
to have as His own together with the flesh the fleshly 
generation too. Therefore do we say that He was born 
after the flesh Who is ever Co-existent with the Father. 
Rom.viii. For thus condemned He sin in the flesh and He hath brought 
2'Cor. V. to nought the might of death in us, made as we, Who knew 
Acts xvii. '^^ ^"*j *^^ Whom 'we live and move and are. 
^^' But some (I know not how) wrong the most sacred 

cf, Eph. beauty of the dogmas of the Church and wrinkle the holy 
and all-pure Virgin, bringing her down to the unseemly 
rottenness of their own ideas and arming against us a 
multitude of new-fangled inventions. For they accuse, as 
something bastard and uncomely, yea rather as going be- 
yond all fit language, the word Mother of God, which the 
holy fathers before us have constructed for the holy Virgin j 
and sunder, dividing into two several sons, the One Lord 
Jesus Christ, and take away from God the Word the sufi"er- 
ings of the Flesh, though not even we have said that He 
see 3 suffered in His own Nature, as God, but we attribute rather 
57,64,74. to Him along with the Flesh the Sufferings also that befel 
the Flesh, that He too may be confessed to be Saviour 
Isa. liji. (for luith His stripes were we healed, as it is written, and 
He has been loounded for out transgressions, albeit not 
recipient of sufi"ering any wound) : and we have been saved 
by His undergoing death for us through His own Body. 

But I will essay to demonstrate clearly what I said, for I 
will now read the words of him who has compiled this book, 

Its meaning : no second beginning of Being to the Word. 7 

and first of all those wHcli lie made, inveigliing in no Book i. 1. 
slight terms against the word Mother of God. But since he @(ot6kos 
repeatedly goes through the same words, and it is necessary 
that we should repeatedly go through the same ideas^ 
pardon (I pray) pardon us who do not wilfully repeat our- 
selves but have resolved that in whatever direction the aim 
of his words goes off, thither we too ought to oppose. He 
then spake thus, debasing ^ the title of the Holy Virgin, ^KaraKt$- 
I mean Mother of God : ^ 

Nestorius. „1 often (he says) asked them (i. e., those who 
contradict him) „do you say that the Godhead has been 
„ begotten of the holy Virgin ? They straightway recoil at 
,,the saying: who (says one) is sick of such exceeding blas- 
„phemy, as to say that in her who bare the temple by the 
„ Spirit, in her was God formed ? then when I reply to this, 
„What then that is incongruous do we say in advising to 
,,flee the word, and come to the common phrase signifi- 
„cant of the two natures ? then seems it to them that what 
„is said is blasphemy. Either clearly acknowledge that 
„the Godhead has been born of the blessed Mary, or if 
,,you flee this expression as blasphemy, why saying the 
„ same as I, dost thou feign thou sayest it not ? „ 

They therefore who think contrary to what yourself said § \ 
and think good (I know not how) to hold, these have been 
clearly testified to by your own mouth as having a right 
and most unerring opinion in regard to Christ the Saviour 
of us all, and as holding with their mind the faith which 
they had delivered to the churches which from the begin- S. Luke 
ni7ig were eye-witnesses and ministers of the word and priests^ ^u'povp. 
of our Mysteries and faithful stewards. For they shake "^ 
ofi" (and that most rightly) as a patent proof of unlearning 
alike and extremest impiety, the mere imagining that the 
Word from forth G od the Father has been called unto a se- 
cond beginning of being or took flesh of the holy Virgin as 
a root of His own existence ® : still they call her Mother of 
Ood, as having borne Immanuel Who is by Nature God : 

^ see Dr. Newman's fiia (pvais ffea-apKwfieyq, in his Tracts Theological and 
Ecclesiastic, p. 322 Pickering 1876. 

8 Made Flesli ivliat. Word Jceeps the Laws He gave. 

AG. NEST, for the Word has been made witli us, being God by Nature 
and above us. Do tbey therefore say contraiy to what they 
think ? For some one of those who think with thee will 
(I suppose) say, „If thou say that the Nature of the Word 
,,is not Offspring of the flesh, and free thyself from this 
„ charge, how dost thou affirm that the holy Virgin bare 
„ God ?„ But thou in turn wilt hear from us, The God-in- 

see p. 4. spired Scripture says that the Word out of God the Father 
was made Flesh, i. e., was without confusion and Person- 

7 Kaffh. ally '^ united to flesh : for not alien to Him is the Body 
see below' which was United to Him and born of a woman, but as 
p. note ^^^-j^ ^^^j^ of us his body is his own, in this same way is the 

Body of the Only Begotten His own and none other^s : for 
thus was He also born according to the flesh. Then how 
(tell me) would He have been made Flesh, except He had 
received birth of a woman, the laws of human nature calling 
Him thereto, and bodily existence being able no otherwise 
to have its beginning ? For not (I suppose) giving heed to 

8 npepfi- ^jjg juggleries^ of the Greeks, shall we too romance^ that the 

9 ^aif/cjj- bodies of men are born of oak or rock : but our laws nature 

set us, yea rather nature^s Creator, for as of each of exist- 
ing things is the kin to it born, so of ourselves too, and no 
otherwise (how could it be ?) For nought at all of what 
It willeth to accomplish is impracticable to the Divine and 
Inefiable Power, yet doth It proceed through what befits 
the nature of things that are, not dishonouring the laws 
set by Itself. And it were not impracticable to the Word 
That can do all things, having determined indeed for our 
sakes to become as we, yet to refuse the birth of a woman, 
and from without to fashion to Himself a body by His own 
Power, just as we say was done in the case of our forefather 
Gen.ii.7. Adam : for God took (it says) chist of the ground Sbud formed 
man. But since this were occasion to the unbelievers 
who desire to accuse the Mystery of the Incarnation, and 
(before all) to the unholy Manichees, whom thou sayest 
over and over that thou fearest lest they should spring 
upon those who call the holy Virgin Mother of God, as 
though they were affirming that the Incarnation of the 
AVord existed in mere phantasy; needs did He progress 

Thus curse undone, decay ended, sin overthrown. 9 

tlirongli tlie laws of linman nature^ and since His aim was BooKi.l. 
to assure all tliat He hath become truly Man, He took hold Heb.ii. 
of the seed of Ahraham, and the blessed Virgin being the 
mean to this same end. He tooli part like us in blood and lb. 14. 
flesh; for so and no otherwise could He become Ood ivifh 
us. Most needful in another way too unto those on the 
earth was the Incarnation or Inhumanation ^ of the Word. ' <^«p««- 

(Tts fiyovv 

For if He had not been born as we according to the flesh, fvavOpw- 
if He had not taken part Wee us of the same, He would not ib. 
have freed the nature of man from the blame [contracted] 
in Adam, nor would He have driven away from our bodies 
the decay, nor would the might of the curse have ceased 
which we say came on the first woman ; for it was said to 

her. In sorrotvs shalt thou hrinq forth children. Gen. iii. 

. . .10. 

But the nature of man hath fallen into the disease of dis- 
obedience in Adam, it has become now approved in Christ 
through the utter obedience : for it is written. As by one Rom. v. 
man's disobedience many were made sinners, so too by the obe- 
dience of one shall many be made righteous. For in Adam 

hath it suffered, Dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou Gen. iii. 

return, in Christ hath it gained the riches of being able to 

be superior to the toils of death, and (so to say) to exult - «arop- 

over^ decay, saying those words of the Prophet, death, i Cor/ 

where thy victory ? o grave, where thy sting ? it became ac- from Hos. 

cursed, as I said, but in Christ was this too brought to ^"'- ^"^* 

nought. And verily it has been said somewhere to the holy 

Virgin, Elizabeth prophesying in s-pirit, Blessed art thou S.Luke i. 

among ivomen and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. Sin 

hath reigned over us and the inventor and father of sins 

behaved himself proudly over^ all beneath the skies, ob-^ ''""-, 

. , , (Tofiaptv- 

jecting [to them] the transgression of the Divine Laws : ero 
but in Christ we see the nature of man, as in a second 
firstfruits of our race, having confidence with God. For 
He said clearly. The prince of this world cometh, and in Me S. John 
^hall find nothing . 

But, good sir (would I with reason say) except the Only- 
Begotten had become as we, had become as we no otherwise 
than by means of birth in the flesh from forth a woman, we 
had not been enriched with what is His. For as the most 

10 GoD^s the Body, His the Birth. 

AG. NEST, wise Paul writeth to us, Emmanuel the second Adam liath 
1 Cor. XV. appeared to us, not from the earth like the first, but from 
Heaven. For the Word That is from above and from forth 
the Father hath come down not into the flesh of any one nor 
into alien flesh (as I already said), nor again hath He des- 
cended upon any one of those like us to dwell in him, as 
He was in the Prophets; but having made His own the body 
which was from forth a woman and born from her after the 
loAar* ^^6sh, He gathered up * man's birth through Himself, made 
ovro as we after the flesh. Who is before all ages from the Father. 
This confession of faith the Divine Scriptures delivered to 
us. But THOU feignest to fear lest any of us should sup- 
pose that the Word Begotten of God had the beginning of 
His Being from earthly flesh : thou takest away utterly 
the Mystery of the Economy with flesh, saying that the 
holy Virgin ought not to be called by us Mother of God : 
thou turnest round those who call her Mother of God unto 
a confession inevitable and as of necessity, of supposing 
that the Word out of God became fruit of flesh. But it 
is not so, far from it. For He That hath His Being of 
God the Father before all time (for He is the Framer of 
the ages), in the last times of the age, since He became 
Flesh, is said to have been begotten after the flesh. For 
if the Body is conceived of as His own, how will He not 
okeicS- wholly and entirely appropriate^ the birth of His own 
''make 'his Body ? Yea yourself too would have approved the right 
and undefiled faith of these who thus hold, if you would 
have persuaded yourself to reason and to confess that Christ 
is truly God, the One and Only of God the Father, not se- 
vered into man separately and likewise into God, but the 
Same, both Word out of God the Father and Man out of 
woman as we, while He abideth God. 

But that thou dost accuse the Birth after the flesh of 
the Word, every way declaring two sons and dividing the 
One Lord Jesus Christ, shall be shewn not by my words 
but by thine own. 

„Look what follows, heretic. I grudge not the word to 




Mother of God, imless true, a blasphemy. II 

,,tlie Virgin mother-of-Clirist ^, but I know that she is Book i. 3. 
„ august who received God^ through whom the Lord of all r^^^ 
,, passed, and through whom the Sun of righteousness 
,, beamed. Again I suspect your applause^: how did ye ' «p^^"' 
J, understand passed through? I have not said 2^assed -p. 26, 
^through, in the sense of horn, for not so quickly do I for- °° 
„ get my own words : that God passed through from out the 
,j Virgin mother of Christ was I taught by the Divine Scrip- 
„ture, that God was born from her, was I nowhere taught.,, 
And after more; „ Never therefore does the Divine Scripture 
„say that God was born of the mother of Christ, but that 
„ Jesus, Christ, Son, Lord, [was so born].,. And hereto 
he subjoins that Christ was not truly God, but rather a 
God-bearing man, as he supposes, putting forward the 
Angel's voice saying to blessed Joseph, Arise take the young S.Matt. 
child, and says that the Angels too, though wiser than we, 
knew that He was a child. 

Herein therefore he stiles heretic him who holds the right § 2 
and admirable faith about Christ, and who since He is truly 
God, calls her mother of God who bare Him. But there 
will be no doubt to any of those who think aright, that it 
is himself who, fastening the blame of heresies on them who 
choose to deem aright, is establishing the unbeauty of his 
own words, and has all but confessed openly that he is 
being borne outside of the straight way, and is making cf. Heb. 
crooked paths. Next how (tell me) do you not grudge 
this title to the holy Virgin, albeit you take away the dig- 
nity of the Divine Birth, and say that she is not Mother of 
God? but debasing ^the expression and affirming that it «KaTaKiP- 
is full of blasphemy, how do you bid those who so will, to '''^^•"^" 
apply it to the holy Virgin (though I hear you call her 
august) ? and then deem the so blasphemous word (as you 
alone think it) meet to adorn the most august one ^, and ^ o-e^ao-- 
you feign to crown her, putting about her as some choice 
honour, a calumny ^ against God the Word ? For if it be ' '^"'^f- 
wholly abhorrent to the Word Who is sprung of God to 
endure fleshly birth and you permit her who did not bear 
God to be called Mother of God, is it not true to say that 

12 Wo7'ds of error inadmissible. Mother of God ea^presse,? 

AG. NEST, you have openly depised the Lord's will ? will you not be 
caught insulting rather the august one, than (as you sup- 
pose and say) electing to honour her, by allotting to her a 

2 perh. if name hated of God ? For not^ to those whom we determine 

/or not 

to honour [do] we give names whereby the glory of the 
Supreme Nature is dishonoured, first of all we shall un- 
awares be involving our own selves in the charge of such 
impiety, next we shall do them no slight wrong, decking 
as if in honour those we praise with what is no praise, and 
weaving for them a laudation hated of God, 

One may moreover marvel at this too : that striking right 
and left at the words of the unholy heretics and in no wise 
allowing them to prevail, because they take away the truth 
of the Divine doctrines, next allotting no slight blame to 
the word Mother of God and accusing it amongst other 
things as untrue and impious, you said that you pardon it 
and will not grudge it to the Virgin even if one should 
choose to call her Mother of God, Will you permit it 
therefore to those too who are diseased with the madness 
of Arius, to say that the Son is inferior to the Father ? 
or again to the rest who bring down the Nature of the 
Holy Ghost from its God-befitting excellency ? But you 
would not choose to do this ; and if any one desire to learn 
why, you will (I suppose) surely say, I do not endure a 
blasphemous word. Henceif she be not Mother of God, and 
you permit this to be said, know that you are deserting the 
truth, and reck little about any longer appearing wise. 
For do you not say that Elisabeth too or any other of the 
holy women is worthy of all reverence ? will you then not 
grudge it, if any one choose to call them too mothers of 
God ? But I suppose that you will surely and utterly with- 
stand them and say, This is not so ; for they bare sanctified 
men and none among them was God by Nature, Hence 
either drive away this from every woman ; or if you allow 
the holy Virgin alone among all to have it, what words will 
you use for your defence ? For if it be true of her and she 
has truly borne God, in that the Word of God has been 
made flesh, confess this with us, and you will free yourself 

a truth : her Child God. 13 

from the charge of impiety : but if she hath not borne God, BooKi.2. 
to permit any to call her Mother of God is to partake of 
their impiety. But she is Mother of God_, because the 
Only-Begotten has been made man as we, united of a truth 
to flesh, and enduring fleshly birth and not dishonouring above 
the laws of our nature, as I said before. ^" 

But since he says that he knows that she, i.e. the holy 
Virgin, is august, come I pray come let us consider the 
reason too of the reverence that was done her : „ for I 
„know (he says) that she is august, through whom the 
„ Lord of all passed, through whom the Sun of righteous- 
„ness beamed.,, How then do you say that she received 
God ? or in what way did the Lord of all pass through 
her ? or how beamed the Sun of righteousness ? For if 
she hath not borne God, after the flesh I mean, how re- 
ceived she God ? how passed He through her ? But haply 
you will say this wise word of yours as you think and dare 
to speak it,. The Word was God both connected ^ with ^ '^"''w- 
„ man and indwelling him.,. But the tradition of the faith 
makes itself ready against * your words as to this. No ^^J^'^^"' 
God-bearinar man, but God Incarnate have we been taught strips for 

^ ' 111 the contest 

to worship: but not so speakest thou: how then do you. with{&s^. 
not see that you are babbling and falsely marking^ the truth b'.^apa(T7\- 
that is in the Divine dos^mas ? For the Word has been made At"""^!'' 

o stamping 

flesh. How did you now say that she received God except ivith coun- 

. terfeit im- 

you have believed that she hath borne Emmanuel Who is pression 
God by Nature ? how passed the Lord of all through her and 
how beamed the Sun of righteousness ? And who is he that 
you think fit to embellish by such names ? is he a common 
man, like one of us, yet hallowed, as having the Word of 
God indwelling ? Then how will such an one be Lord of all, 
and Sun of righteousness ? For the power of lordship and 
dominion over all and of illumining things possessing in- 
telligence^, will pertain not to our measures, but will be ^ravo- 
attributed to the Supreme and Most High Nature alone. ''^" 

^ The words, who received God, al- sus (Act. i. t. iii. 1064 ed. Col.), and 

hided to immediately after, appear to translated by Marius Mercator, p. 202 

have dropped out of the single existent ed. Bal. Mercator seems to translate 

Manuscript. The passage is one of less correctly, conceived. 
those cited before the council of Ephe- 

14 God the Son in all through the Spirit ; thus in Elizabeth. 

AG. NEST. But, since taking (I know not whence) the y^ordi passed 
through, you have applied it to God^ explain the word ; 
the meaning of the ijassage through here spoken of^ will 
belong to your wisdom to tell us who know it not. For 
if the Word of God so passed through her, as to pass from 
one place to another, you cast Him down forthwith ; for 

Jer. xxiii. you will hear Him saying by the voice of the saints. Bo 
not Ifill Heaven and earth saith the Lord ? For not in place 
is the Godhead nor knoweth It bodily changes of place, 
for it filleth all things. But if while awaiting the fit 

7 (TxeTj. period of birth. He made an incidental'' indwelling in man, 

Ki]v, not ^ 111 

essential, and SO you Say that God made passage through the holy 
otherholy Virgin, ov passed through her (for I will use in all thy holy 
"^®"' words) : we see nought in the holy Virgin more than in 
other women. For Elisabeth bare the blessed Baptist who 
had been hallowed through the Spirit through Whom the 
Son Himself also makes His abode in us. And the wise 
IS. John John will witness saying, Hereby hnow ive that He is in us, 
because He gave us of His Spirit. The Word of God there- 
fore passed through Elisabeth herself too, indwelling in 
the babe through the Spirit even before its birth. 

But you feel suspicious of the applause as though it came 
to you from the people for having chosen to speak right 
things ? for having called Him Who was born of the holy 
Virgin Sun of righteousness and Lord of all; you then 

8 oLKpi^o- again feign to speak with precision ^, and find fault with 
oyeia- ai ^^^ applause, and accuse again those who are rejoicing over 

you of not having understood. great strength which 
is in your words ! you have made no delay in the needed vexing of them, you turned straightway their joy into 
mourning, you rent off their rejoicing and girt them with 
sackcloth, straightway adding, „ Again I suspect your ap- 
„plause, how did ye understand passed through? I have 
„not said passed through in the sense of ivas born, for not 
„so quickly do I forget my own words. That God passed 
„ through from out the Virgin Mother of Christ, was I 
„ taught by the Divine Scriptures, that God was born of 
„her, was I no where taught, „ 

Passed througli no Scripture word. 15 

Tliose therefore are tliy perverted sayings; the applause Book i. 2. 
was of love, in that your mind had some guise of orthodoxy. 
But I will press on now too no less and say, What is passed 
through, if it mean not birth ? will you say that the Word out 
of God Himself by Himself and apart from flesh hastened 
through ® the Virgin ? yet how would not this be replete ^ M^ao-e 
with all folly ? For it would be necessary to suppose that 
the Godhead were recipient of quantity ^, and of movement ^ wctto- 


which bears from one place to another; or if the Godhead be 
unembodied, at large ^ and everywhere, and not in place and - «^'P" 
circumscripta how will it pass thi'ough a single body ? But 
whatever it be that you are saying, how do you not need to 
clear it up and say it more openly, if confident in your own 
opinions about it, you are able to testify to their incorrup- 
tion ? where (I pray) have you heard the God-inspired 
Scripture say that the Word of God passed through the 
holy Virgin ? For that brief and contracted is the life of 
those upon earth, the blessed David taught saying, Man, Ps.ciii. 
Ids days as grass, as a flower of the field so he flourisheth ; ' 
for the wind passeth through him and lie shall not he, but of 
the holy Virgin what thing of this sort can you say has 
been written ? That God has been born of her, after the 
flesh I mean, God-inspired Scripture has clearly shewn. 

But I will go again to your own words, all-excellent,' ^-^aud- 
for you have yourself too confessed and this most often 
that the Word has been made Flesh, and you reject it not. 
And this too you say besides : for you say that the Godhead 
of the Only-Begotten was clearly and openly Incarnate. 
You have written in this wise, 

,,Thus it says elsewhere too. He spoJce to vs in His Son Heb. i.2, 
j,Whom He appointed Heir of all things through IVliom also germ. 2. 
„He made the ivorlds, Who being the Brightness of His Glory : P- ^^ ^^^' 
„ having put Son, it calls Him fearlessly both Brightness of 
J, His Glory, and appointed Heir ; Heir, appointed after the 
,,Flesh, Brightness of the Father's Glory after the Godhead: 
,,for He departed not, made flesh, from likeness to the Fa- 
rther. And in addition it again says thus, for the times q/"Actsxvii. 
^ignorance God ivinhed at, hut now commandeth all men to 
„repeni, because He fixed a Day in which He ivill judge 

16 God tlie Son Incarnate : God ever and become Man. 

AG. SEST. „the ivorld Inj the Man Whom He appointed, having given 
„ assurance unto all men in that He raised Him from the 
„dead. Having first said, By the Man, lie tlien adds. In 
„that He raised Him from the dead, that no one might sup- 
„pose that the Godhead Incarnate had died. „ 
§ 3 Who then is He Who was Incarnate, or in what way was 
He incarnate, what Godhead was incarnate, tell (0 most 
excellent sir) to us who would learn it. Shall we grant that 
the Word, God out of God, was Incarnate, and say that He 
was made Man, as having been made as we and born in 
flesh? or shall we allow this in no wise, but suppose that a 
man came hereto, connected with God, according to thee ? 
But you will (I suppose) say, that it is better and wise to 
think that the Word out of God was Incarnate and made 
flesh, according to the Scriptures : for one is not I suppose 
seen assuming that wherein one is, but if one come some- 
how to be in that wherein one was not at first, reason will 
forthwith admit that something new has been wrought re- 
garding him. Hence it is unlearned to say that any of us 
having stepped forth of the definitions of human nature 
have been incarnate and been made flesh ; but the Incarna- 
tion, or being made flesh, will beseem (and that with much 
reason) the Nature That is beyond humanity. But if He 
was truly Incarnate and has been made flesh, He is accre- 

■» Si/0pw- dited as Man* and not -connected with a man, by mere 

t'0€7a-eai indwelling or external relation or connection, as you say. 

Toj Yet even though He became Man, He possesseth the being 

5 auaird- God in all security ^, nor do we say that any change took 

place of the flesh into the Nature of Godhead, and we hold 
that neither did the reverse take place, for the nature of the 
Word hath remained what it is even when united to flesh. 
What no one therefore even in bare idea thinks of hold- 

6 see be- ing, why do you putting this in your book ^, as though ac- 
note b. ' tually uttered, pretend to be contending for the doctrines 

of piety ? For the name mixture s, some of the holy fathers 
too have put : but since you say that you are afraid lest 
any confusion be deemed to take place, as in the case of 
liquids mingled with one another, I rid you from your fears, 
s Kpda-fm. See Tertullian, p. 48 O. T. note h. 

Mixture binding in One. Incarnate. 17 

for not so did they deem (Tiow could they ?) but they used Book i. 3. 
the word improperly, anxious to declare the extreme union" ' /^v" f/s 
of the things that had come together ; and we say that the yw(nv 
Word of God came together with His proper Fleshy in 
union indissoluble and unalterable. And we find that the g . „., 
Ood-inspired Scripture itself too, does not look minutely 5p«tV 
into the word °, but uses it rather improperly and simply, Paawi- 
And verily the Divine Paul hath written of some, But the Heb.'iv.2. 
Word preached did not profit them, v:ho were not mixed ^ 
in faith luith its hearers. Were they of whom he spoke 
going to be mixed one with another, after this fashion, as 
wine with water, and to undergo a confusion of persons, 
or were they rather to be united in soul, as it is written 
in the Acts of the holy Apostles, And of the multitude of Acts iv. 
them that believed was the heart and tJie soul one ? But this 
I suppose is the truth, not the other. Be free then from 
all fear on this score, for firmly established is the mind of 
the saints. 

But since to say that the Nature of the Word was Incar- 
nate is (I deem) nought else than to hold that It has been 
made Man and not without birth of woman (for this only 
way does the nature of human bodies know of), how were 
you not taught by the God-inspired Scripture the Birth above p. 
after the flesh of the Only-Begotten ? albeit yourself too, 
when the prophetic lessons were before you. Unto us a Child isa. ix. 6. 
was born, nnto its a Son was given, say thus of the Child 
that was born, „ Great the mystery of the gift, for this is 
„ the Babe That is seen, this the new-born That appears, 
„ this that needed bodily swaddling bands, this the just- 
„ born after the Essence that is seen, in the hidden part ' 
„ Everlasting Son, Son Creator of all, Son Who by the 
„ swaddling-bands of His own aid binds the instability of 
„ the creation. „ And elsewhere again, „ And the Babe 

•* The reading of almost all Greek (TvyKeKpafievos appears in the Edition, 

MSS. and citations seems to lie between but MSS. of any account give avyKe- 

the forms crvyK^Kpafxivovs and crvyKe- Kipaaixivovs and avyKiKpafxivovs- 
Kepaffjxivovs : the Codex Sinaiticus is ' in the hidden part. So Ihaveamend- 

apparently one of the verj' few extant ed, correcting Kara rh KeKpv/j./j.fvov from 

Greek MSS. which agrees with there- S. Cyril's quotation a little below for 

ceived Text in giving the nominative the Kara rh yeypa/xp.€i/ov of the old edi- 

ease. In S. Cyril's Glaphyra, 394 a, tions. 


18 Holy Scripture teaches God horn after the flesh. 

AG. NEST „is God All-free, so far removed is God the Word, O 
„ Arius, from being subject to God.,, In wliicli words he 
styled even the body connected with Him God. And again, 
„ We recognise therefore the human nature of the Babe 

9 T^ Moj'ct- ^, and His Godhead, we preserve the oneness® of the Sonship 
„ in the nature of manhood and Godhead. „ Lo here with 
all clearness you say that the Babe, the just-bom, the 
visible, the new-born, the swaddled, is Son and Creator 
of all ; and the Babe the holy Virgin hath borne to us. 
You know therefore that God has been born after the 
flesh, and this you have learnt out of the God-inspired 
Scripture. For who will be conceived to be Creator of all, 
save He alone through Whom the Father hath made all ? 

But I said (you will haply say) „ in the secret part Son 
„and Creator of all.„ Well, I agree, but I will ask you : 
You say that the hidden is the Word of God and that this is 
the Creator of all : how then did you but now point out as 
with your finger the Babe just-born and new-born and in 
swaddling clothes, and called this same both Son of God 
and Creator of all ? or do you haply suppose that the Word 
out of God has been transformed into the nature of the 

see p. 16. flesh, and accuse yourself, not others, of daring to say this ? 
Surely if the Babe be the hidden Son and Creator of all, 
and have been born of the holy Virgin, you have acknow- 
ledged with us even against your will that she is Mother of 
God in some unlooked-for way, since how is a babe God 

1 auTe|oi5- all-free ? For if you use the word, all-free ^, in the sense in 
which each one of us too may be so conceived, as entrusted 
by God with the reins of his own free-will, what is there 
special in Him beyond the rest ? or why do you put about 

^rhavTii,- Him the freedom ^, as some God-befitting and truly choice 
Dignity r albeit it is m the power of all upon the earth 
to possess it and indeed they already have it. But if the 
freedom here signify the being not subject to the laws of 
another, and He be free in such sort as the Divine Nature 
itself too is conceived of, how do you say that the new-born 
Babe is in case so august and befitting only the Supreme 
Nature and glory ? albeit that all which is called into being 


a-vvdcpeia, said of the Son, an empty wo7'd. 


is subject unto God and runs under the yoke of bondage. Book!. 
But you will percliance deem that that empty word ^ of 

1^ This word ffwaTTTw and its noun 
ffvvdcpeia, S. Cyril had used long before 
to express the kind of Union which 
Christ gives us with Himself. S. Cyril 
says, "For as elsewhere He says that 
He is a Fi?ie, we the branches, shewing 
that not alien nor of other kind are the 
branches from the Vine but of it by 
nature, so here He says that He is our 
foundation (1 Cor. iii. 11) in order to 
shew the natural kindship to Him when 
He was made man, of them which are 
built upon Him. For then are we co7i- 
nected {(TvvaTrTOfxeOa) with Him by na- 
ture too, and suspended as it were from 
our relation to Him as the branches from 
the vine, we bear the fruit of piety to 
God-ward," Thes. cap. 15. p. 171 c d. 
" If on receiving Christ's Spirit we are 
through It brought near to God the 
Father, as made partakers of His Divine 
Nature, how is It a thing made, through 
which we are connected {avvairTOfieda) 
with God as being now His offspring ?" 
Thes. cap. M p. 360 D. And in his trea- 
tise de Trinitate written more than five 
years before this date, S . Cyril says," Nor 
could human nature any othenvise have 
been partaker of the Divine Nature, had 
it not gained this through the Son as Me- 
diator, receiving it as a natural {cpvcnKhy) 
mode of connection {avvatpela!)," Dial. 
i. p. 406 a : "we are temples of the 
Spirit Who existeth and is, we are called 
therefore gods as being participant with 
the Divine and Ineffable Nature, by 
connection {ffvi/atpeia) with It," Dial. 
7 p. 639 fin. Of God the Son's union 
with His human nature, S. Cyril says, 
" But that the Son was Lord, before His 
concurrence with flesh and His connection 
therewith through union (Kal rrjs Ka6' 
evwcriv (rvvacpeias) we shall see without 
any trouble," Dial. 6. p. 605 d. S. 
Cyril then used the word to denote our 
union with Christ in which our own 
personality is preserved to us entire. 
When he" speaks of the Incarnation in 
which God the Son's himian nature was 
so made His own, by Union with Him, 
as to have no distinct or separate person- 
ality, S. Cyril uses connection by ivay of 
union, a connection that makes the Two 
natures but One. 

Nestorius on the other hand following 
his own earlier teaching speaks of a con- 
nection between God the Son and His 
human nature no closer than that of any 
holy person with Christ. 

The empty_ word is found in the creed 
against which Charisius priest and 
steward of the Church in Philadelphia 


brought a complaint before the Council 
of Ephesus (t. iii. 1205 sqq. ed. Col.), 
and of which Marius Mercator gives a 
Latin Translation (see On the Clause And 
the Son, pp. 76, 77 and note) : he gives it 
at pp. 41 sqq. ed. Baluz. with the head- 
ing, Now the setting forth of the corrupt 
faith of the above men Honed Theodore, and 
further on, pp. ISO sqq. when giving the 
session that washolden aboutCharisius, 
he gives it over again in a slightly different 
translation with the heading Nestorian 
Creed. This Theodore to whomit is attri- 
buted was a contemporary of S. Chry- 
sostom about half a century before and 
was Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia. 

To this empty word S. Cyril opposed 
his Personal Union {Kad' inrScTTacnv e- 
vuxTis). Fleury (Eccl. Hist. Bk. 25 § 8 
fin.) speaks of, as the first place in which 
he has met the expression S. Cyril's 
2nd Letter (the first (Lcumenical Letter) 
to Nestorius in which he says, " The 
Word having united to Himself Per- 
sonally flesh ensouled with a rational 
soul " (see 3 Epistles Parker 1872 p. 50). 
In the final Letter which S. Cyril and 
his Council of Alexandria wrote A. D. 
430 to Nestorius were appended 12 Ana- 
themas which Nestorius was required 
to sign (3 Epistles p. 68). These Ana- 
themas or Chapters were much misun- 
derstood by John Archbishoj) of An- 
tioch, and his suffragans in Cilicia, 
Palestine, Euphratesia &-c, who thought 
that they contained Apollinarian error; 
Liberatus who wrote about 12o years 
after tells us in his Bre-saarium (cap. 4 
Gallandi Bibl. Patr. Vet. xii. 127) that 
John of Antioch " sent to Andrew and 
Theodoret, Bishops of his Council to re- 
ply in writing to the 12 chapters as re- 
newing the dogma of Apollinaris." Theo- 
doret too in sending his replies back to 
Jolui sends him aletter beginning," I was 
greatly grieved on reading the Anathe- 
mas which you sent me, bidding me an- 
swer them in writing and lay bare to all 
their heretical meaning." S. Cyril de- 
fended his Anathemas or Chapters 
against the exceptions made by Andrew 
and Theodoret separately : in the close 
of his Letter to his Priest Eulogius, his 
Proctor at Constantinople, he says that 
he sends the Provost (inter alia) copies of 
his answers to each of these Bishops. 
The second chapter begins, " If any con- 
fess not that the Word out of God the 
Father has been united to flesh Person- 
alli/, KaO'vTTOtjTaa'ii' rjvciaOai." No pos- 
sible misunderstanding of this term, 
Personal Union, united Personally, seems 

20 Nestorius excej^tts against S. Cyf^iVs Letter to Monks. 

AG. NEST, yours suffices unto all tliis^ that I mean in respect of the 
natures being connected one with another, and that, not 
Personally, but rather in honour unvarying [in each] and 
equality of rank : for this is what you are always unlearn- 
edly saying to us. But that in saying such things, you 
will be caught to be staying yourself upon rotten and fra- 
gile conceptions, will be shewn and not at length, when 
opportunity offers to us to speak upon this too. 

But to these he subjoins some others by which he deems 
that he can shew and that skillfully that the mode of a 

3 d/faAA.7j generation like ours is unmeet^ and impossible. And our 
words he arrays against himself, and deems that he caa 
over-master them easily and shew that they are nothing 
although they set forth the truth. He says thus : 

,/If Christ (says he^) be God, and Christ be born of the 
„ ' blessed Mary, how is not the Virgin mother of God V I 
„ hide none of their objections : for the lover of the truth 
„ takes and objects to himself all that comes of the false- 

to have occurred to S.Cyril, for in his 
Explanation of his Chapters made at 
the request of the Synod in order that 
they should be clearer (as the title tells 
us), during the days while the Council 
was awaiting its dismissal, as Alexander 
of Hierapolis writes to Constantinople 
to John of Antioch, S. Cyril does not 
allude to this. There is no trace of 
Andrew Bishop of Samosata having 
written against this 2nd chapter nor 
against the fifth and sixth : so probably 
no objection occurred to him either. 
Nor does Eutherius bishop of Tyana 
in his Letter to John of Antioch, rim- 
ning briefly through the chapters, ex- 
cept against the Personal Union. Theo- 
doret objects to the term, Personal 
U?iion, from its novelty and from its 
appearing to imply mixture. Again in 
his letter to the monks of Euphratesia, 
Osroene, Syria, Phoenicia and Cilicia, 
giving briefly his objections to some 
of the ciiapters, he repeats that the ex- 
pressions Personal Union and concur- 
rence (ffwoSov) by Natural Union, 
some mixture and confusion of the Form 
of God and the form of the servant (Ep. 
151 p. 1292 fin.) In answer to Theodo- 
ret's objection to the second chapter( writ- 
ten perhaps but a few weeks after this 
present treatise.) S. Cyril explains the 
term and says. Seeing that Nestorius is 
always tmdoing the birth after the flesh 
of God the Word and insinuating merely 
an union of dignities and saying that man 

is connected ((rvvrj(pdai) with God, ho- 
noured with the co-name of Sonship ; needs 
do WE opposing his words say that a Per- 
sonal Union took place. Personal CkuO' 
virSaraa'tu) hailing no other meaning titan 
only that tJicnatnrv or Person of the Word , 
i.e. the Word Himself, united in truth to 
human nature, apartfrom any turning and 
confusion (as we have fill often said) is 
conceived of and is, One Christ, the Same 
God and Man. 

S. Cyril uses the word habitually e.g. 
it occurs five times in his Treatise to the 
Princesses Arcadia and Marina on tlie 
right faith : he uses also other like ex- 
pressions, true union, true and Natural 
Union, inseverable, indissoluble. S. Eu- 
logius, one of S. Cyril's successors in 
his see (A. D. 581) and a contemporary 
of Pope S. Gregory, in his famous ex- 
planation that the Council of Ephesus 
forbad oppositions to, not definitions of, 
the Faith, alludes to this expression and 
says. For it [the Council of Ephesus] 
does define what none before it defined. 
Nay its 7] KaO" virdaracriv evcocns is a 
definition not made by the elder Si/nods. 
(S. Eulogius in Phot. Bibl, cod. 230 
translated in the above-cited On the 
clause, And the Son in regard &c. p. 80.) 

M. e. Nestorius is citing S. Cyril him- 
self in his letter to the monks ; see Epp, 
p. 3 d, and S. Cyril's reply just below, is 
that blamed by you which has beeti said 
by us ? 

God creates each soul. 21 

„ liood;,j and then he endeavours to apply the solution, us- Book i. 4. 

ing some such conceptions as these. „ For the babe (he says) 

,, is formed in the womb, but so long as it have not yet 

„ been formed, it hath no soul, but being formed at length, 

„ it has a soul made it of God. As then the woman bears 

„the body, God ensouls it "*, and the woman is not called ^ '^"xo' 

„ mother of soul, because she bare a man endowed with 

„ soul, but rather mother of man, so (he says) the blessed 

„ Virgin too, even though she have borne a man, the Word 

„ of God passing forth along with him,, (for this word did 

he use) „ not therefore is she mother of God.,, 

Is therefore (tell me) that blamed by you which is said by § 4 
us ? does it seem right to you without understanding to 
find fault with what is so rightly and purely ^ said, and do ' "«'^Stj- 
you not rather attach the blame of not being able to think 
aright to your own understanding ? For they to whom the 
truth is repugnant ^, to them will belong (and to© readily) ^ «■■^i^oi 
the receptivity of what is not so, and the rebuke of 
those who are wont to speak most excellentlv '^ , will not " "Pj^'^^o- 
be without its harm, yea rather will be even a manifest 
demonstration of the having declined unto falsehood and of 
choosing to honour what it would be more right to hate, 
in that one has missed of right reason. But no man, having 
conceived of things so base . . . "", he said that himself was the 
lover of the truth, and that we had contrived the lie ; albeit 
one may see on the contrary that ours is right and true. 
For the advocate of the lie and fraud endeavours to fasten 
the blame of his falsehood on the champions of the truth, 
haply driven to forgetfulness of the Prophet who says. 
Woe unto them that call evil good and good evil, that 2}ut 1s?l.v.20, 
daj-hiess for light and light for darh'iiess. 

But I will endeavour to shew by the example adduced 
by him that he does not even clearly know what he is 
saying. For flesh confessedly is born of flesh, and the 
Artificer of all performs the ensouling ^ in the mode and » ipixw- 
way that He knows. Yet is the woman who bears, albeit *^"' 

™ The Roman Editors of the Con- lating, But icith no thonght of how base 

cilia, who first published this treatise in these things (ire. Perhaps some words 

1608, conjectured that ouSels, no one, have slipped out. 
might be a slip for ovhkv, nothing, trans- 

22 3Iaru Mother of Word, not source of Word. 

AG. NEST, she is the source of the flesh only, believed to bear the whole 
man, made up (I mean) of soul and body, although she con- 
tribute nothing of her own to the being of the soul. Yet 
when one says man^ one signifies surely the soul united to 
the body. As therefore the woman, albeit she bear the 
body alone, is said to bear him that is made up of soul and 

9 \6yots body, and this no wise damages the account ^ of the soul, 
as though it found in flesh the origin of its being " ; so will 
you conceive as to the blessed Virgin too : for even though 
she be mother of the holy Flesh, she hath nevertheless 
borne Grod the Word out of God truly united thereto ", and 
though any call her Mother of God, he will not be defining 

1 T^ ceci- a more recent beginning ^ of God the Word nor that the 

theArians flesh hath been made the commencement of His Being : 
"^"^ but will understand rather the mode of the economy and 

Hab. iii. wondering at it will say, Lord, I have heard Thy hearhuj 
and was afraid, I considered Thy works and ivas asfonied. 

But our all-wise and prudent expounder, having pondered 
the force of the example says, „ Thus the holy Virgin too, 
„even though she hath borne man, God the Word passing 
„ along with him, yet not therefore is she Mother of God : 
„for not from the blessed Virgin was the Dignity of the 
„Word, but He was God by Nature. ^^ 

What therefore is the meaning of, that the Word passed 

see p. 14. forth along with the flesh, he alone knows, but I marvel 

■aKpi- much at his subtil refinement^. For the word of truth 


^ ws ffapKa Tr)i/ rrjs iSias virdp^ews the Father, so too all things beseeming 

\afM0avovcrr]s a.pxi]v. the flesh save only sin : but chiefly and 

o See S. Ath. against Arians, iii. § 29 before all else will birth of a woman be- 

p. 440. O.T. note e. where this passage seem the flesh. Hence the Godhead by 

is translated. S.Cyrilin his 16th Paschal Itself if it be conceived of apart from 

homily, about tliis same time (A.D. 430) flesh will be 'without mother' and that 

says, "Yet He was (as I said) God in full rightly: but when the mystery 

the manhood too, allowing to the nature Christ- ward isbrought forward,the truth 

that is ours to advance through its own as to this will be other and subtil exceed- 

laws, yet along therewith preserving the ingly. For we shall deem, if we choose 

genuineness of the Godhead : for thus to think aright and go the most unerring 

and no otherwise will both the bairn (rb way, that the Virgin bare not bare 

TfX^ii/) be conceived of as by Nature {yvfjLvhv) Godhead but rather the Word 

God, and the Virgin which bare will be from forth of God the Father, Incarnate 

said to be mother, not of flesh and blood and United to flesh, she who was taken to 

simply, like the mothers with us, but of aid in bearing after the flesh Him who 

the Lord and of God Who hath hidden was united to flesh. Enimanuel there- 

Himself under ourlikeness." ..."For fore is God: and mother of God will 

as the Precious and all-holy Flesh which she too be called who bare after the flesh 

was forth of the holy Virgin hatli become God who forour sakes appeared in flesh." 

the own of the Word who is forth of God t. v. ii. pp. 227, 228. 

No analogy betiveen Birth o/Cheist S)- the Baptist. 23 

sets forth tliat the Word of God has been Personally united Book i.5. 
to the Flesh; and he keeps affirming the passing forth along 
with'^, meaning I know not what. Next, when our ? discus- ^ t^ o-yyu- 
sion was all about nature and Personal Union, and aimed '^"''^ 
at enquiring not what the Word out of God is in respect 
to Dignity, but whether He has been made Man economi- see Letter 
cally, making His own the flesh born of a woman : he remov- 12 sqq. 
ing the question to quite other matters says, „Not from 
„the holy Virgin was the Dignity of the Word, but He was 
„ God by Nature : „ albeit how are not Dignity and Nature 
two entirely different things? But our discourse hereupon 
does not need overmuch skill*: we must therefore see what * 'cx""- 


comes next. For he fortifies yet another outpost against 
what has been said by us, as he thinks invincible and com- 
petent to shew with all force that the Birth out of woman 
of Emmanuel is empty talk^ of ours : he says again thus, * "^^o" 

„The blessed John Baptist is fore-heralded by the holy 
„ Angels, that the babe shall he filled with the Holy Ghost S. Luke 
„ even from his mother's ivomb, and having the Holy Ghost, 
,,was this blessed Baptist born. What then ? call you 
„ Elizabeth mother of the Spirit ? apply your mind here, 
„ although there be some among you who are startled at 
„ what is said, pardon their inexperience.,, 

And who on hearing such words will not straightway § 5 
say in Prophet's voice, For the fool will utter folly and his Isa.xxxii. 
heart will conceive vanity, to accomplish iniquity and to utter 
error against the Lord ? For error confessedly is it and 
nought else, to trust in such frigid and childish thoughts 
as though they were true. One may then marvel at him for 
his gentleness, for he said that they ought to be esteemed 
worthy of pardon and clemency who had no acquaintance 
with those words of his : yet were it a thing thrice-longed 
for by us ourselves (if so be), yea rather by all too who are 
Christians ; for how should not all long to be rid from 
words so burdensome^ and perverse? But we say this : " ^"x^i- 

■I. puy 

P i. e. S. Cyril's Letter to the Monks, above-cited, which Nestorius was in part 
contradicting in the sermon to which tlie extract belongs. 

24 S. John Baj,jtld received Spirit ; Gob the Son bom. 

AG. NEST. Elizabeth batb confessedly borne the blessed Baptist an- 
see Letter minted in the womb with the Holy Ghost : and if it had been 

to Monks oi • 11 

p. 8 e. any where said by the God-inspired Scriptnres, that the 
Spirit too was made flesh, rightly would you have said that 
she ought to be called by us mother of the Spirit ; but if 

7 Th T€x- the bairn '^ is said to have been honoured with bare anoint- 

8 Th xpv- ing only, why deem you it right to put the fact^ of incarna- 
^" tion on an equal footing with the grace of participation ? for 

it is not the same thing, to say that the Word was made 
flesh and that one has been anointed through the Spirit 
with prophetic spirit. For of the holy Virgin it is writ- 
Isa. vii. ten, Beliold a Virgin shall conceive and hear a 8(m, and He 
^^' who is born is called the fruit and moreover Emmanuel, 

S. Matt, ivhich being interpreted is, God ivith us ; but of Elizabeth, 
S. Luke ^^^6 shall bear a son who shall go before Him in the spirit 
i'b'iV ^'''^^ power of Elias, and shall go before the face of the 
lb. 76. Lord to 'prepare His tvaijs. By no means therefore is Eli- 
lb- zabeth mother of the Spirit, for she bare a prophet of the 
chap. 1 Highest : but the holy Virgin is truly mother of God i, for 
she hath borne carnally, i. e., according to the flesh, God 
united to flesh. For since she is human who bare, therefore 
and rightly do we say that the mode of generation has been 
wrought in human wise ; for thus and no otherwise was it 
possible that He Who is over all nature could become as 
we, not slighting the being what He is (how could He ?) 
but rather abiding what He was and is and will be : for 
superior to change is the Divine and Most High Nature. 

1 S. Cyril vises exactly the same ex- i. e. accordmg to the flesh. . . . Saying 

pression in his Letter to the Monks according to the flesh is not taking away 

(Epp. 8 c) and in the first of the chap- the miraculousness of the Birth .... 

ters that he appended to liis great Letter but teaches that as God begets Divinely 

to Nestorius (see note k), " If any con- or in God-befitting manner according to 

fess not that Emmanuel is God in His own Nature, so too man humanly 

truth and consequently the holy Vir- or flesh carnally." Def. xii capp. adv. 

gin Mother of God: for she hath borne Episc. orient, cap. 1. p. 160 d e. See also 

after the flesh the Word from forth of below Schol. § 31. & abovep. 23. note o. 
God made flesh, be he anathema." Theodoret's objection to S. Cyril's 

But the word carnalli/ or after the flesh first chapter is of a ditlerent kind and is 

was not understood by many : e. g. identical with that of Nestorius (above 

Andrew Bishop of Samosata thought p. 7, below p. 33 and note b): the notion 

tliat it contradicted the miraculous Birth that yeyepvriKe, she hath borne, necessi- 

from a virgin. S.Cyril explains his tates the conversion of the Godhead into 

meaning in his reply to Andrew ; " we flesh. In Andrew's case, the meaning 

said that the Virgin bare the Word of of the word rnran//?/ was misunderstood, 

God made flesh according to the Scrip- in Theodoret's, the' word was apparently 

tures, i.e. Man; bare Him carnally, unnoticed. 

Nestor ills uiislnter^rets Greed. 

That we therefore think aright in affirming that God Book i. 5, 
has been born according to the flesh for the salvation of all, 
God-inspired Scripture hath testified : but since to his most 
nov^el dogmas he opposes the truth and the very symbol 
of the Church's Faith, which the fathers once gathered 
together at Nicea through the illumination of the Spirit 
defined ; he, fearing lest any should keep whole the Faith, 
instructed unto the Truth by their words, endeavours to 
calumniate ^ it and alters the significance of the words, and 
dares to coin with false stamp ^ the very force of its ideas. 
For while himself in the midst of the Church was usiug 
profane babblings ~, a certain man ^ of those who were of 

^ arvKo- 

' irapa- 
p. 13, ref. 

' Eusebius an Advocate at Constan- 
tinople ; he afterwards put out a protest 
addressed to the Clergy and Laity of 
that City (Cone. Eph. part, i. cap". 13 
t. iii. 888 ed. Col.) that Nestorius was 
reviving tlie false teaching of Paul of 
Samosata, condemned nearly two cen- 
turies before (Marius Mercator, whose 
translation into Latin of S. Cyril's De- 
fences of his 12 chapters or Anathemas 
against Nestorius' errors and of his 
Scholia on the Incarnation, has come 
down to us, likewise put out a paper of 
like kind, Opera pp. 50 sqq. ed. Baluz 
1684). Many years on we read of Euse- 
bius, as Bishop of Dorylaeum in Phry- 
gia, as a friend of Eutyches, but after 
fruitless efforts to reclaim him, also his 
accuser before S. Flavian, Archbishop 
of Constantinople. In November 448, 
a Synod was called of Bishops who 
chanced from one cause or another to be 
there : these amounted to thirty. The 
circumstance of Constantinople being 
the capital of the Eastern Empire occa- 
sioned Bishops to be often there. (The 
Archbishop of Alexandria though appa- 
rently he had habitually one of his 
Deacons there, as a sort of deputy, or 
Proctor, in the Imperial City, seems 
on more especial occasions to have had 
a Bishop there: e.g. S.Cyril sent liis 
great Synodal Letter to Nestorius by 
four Bishops, Theopemptus, Daniel, 
Potamon and Comarius : of these Theo- 
pemptus Bishop of Cabasa and Daniel 
■Bishop of Darnis, went to Ephesusand 
vored in the Council: Potamon and 
Comarius remained at Constantinople, 
for one of S. Cyril's earliest Letters 
after the Council (Epp. p. 84) was 
directed to them conjointly with the 
great Archimandrite Dalmatius, the 
Priest Eulogius, S. Cyril's Proctor, 
and another. A brief letter of S. Cyril's 

written a few days later (pp. 91 sq.) ksvo- 
when he was in ward at Ephesus, is di- <pooi/lais 
reeled to Theopemptus, Potamon and 
Daniel. Fleury (bk. 26 § 3) suggests 
that Theopemptus and Daniel went 
back to Constantinople with Letters 
from the Comicil.) Before this Synod 
the Bishop Eusebius accused Eutyches, 
who was condemned. The August of 
the next year, 449, the Robber-Council 
of Ephesus deposed S. Flavian (whose 
Martyrdom followed immediately for 
he was driven into exile to Epipa in 
Lydia and died there) and Eusebius. 
Eusebius was likewise ejected from his 
See and stayed at Rome as Pope S. Leo 
tells the Empress Pulcheria in a letter 
(S. Leo ad Pulch. 59 [79 col. 1037 ed. 
Ball.] cited by Fleury 27, 49 english 
translation) : Eusebius was at the Coun- 
cil of Chalcedon, he was vindicated at 
the close of the 1st Session (t. iv. 1189 
Col). In the third Session he presents to 
the Council a petition against Diosco- 
rus(ib. 1249, 1251). In the fifth Session 
he was one of those engaged in the hand- 
ling concerning the holy faith, rpaKrai- 
advTwv irepl ttjs ayias niarTiics (ib. 
1452) : he signs in the sixteenth session 
(ib. 1737). A rescript of the Emperor 
Marcian annuls all that had been done 
against him. This Rescript addressed 
to Palladius, Praetorian Prefect, Valen- 
tinian, Praefect of Illyria, Tatian Prae- 
fect of the City, Vincomalus Master of 
the offices (see Theod. Ep. 140 tit.) and 
Consul-designate, is given as a sequel 
to the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon 
(part. 3 cap. xi. t. iv. 1809 ed. Col.). See 
Fleury Eccl. Hist. Books xxv. xxvii.and 
xxviii. in the Englisii translation edited 
by Dr. Newman, Oxford, 1844. 

Eusebius' brave and loyal conduct 
on this present occasion while i/et a laif- 
man, is mentioned in the Council of 

26 Eiisehius undauntedlij affirms Two Births of WoRD. 

^ tpiKoQe(f 
* rop6v 

Tl KiKpa- 

^ 5iaXa- 


Heb. vi. 

i.e. Euse- 
bius after- 
bishop of 


7 Iffxvo- 

■ great piety and yet among tlie laity, but who had gathered 
within himself no mean learning, was moved with fervent 
and devout ^ zeal and with piercing cry * * said that the 
Word Himself Who is before the ages endured a second 
Generation also, viz., that after the flesh and forth of a wo- 
man ; the people being disturbed hereat, and the more part 
and wiser having honoured him with no mean praises, as 
pious and most full of wisdom and not imparticipate in 
uprightness of doctrine, the rest being mad against him, 
he [Nestorius] interrupting ^, straightway approves those 
whom by teaching his own he had destroyed, and whets his 
tongue against him who could not endure his words, yea and 
against the holy fathers who have decreed ^ for us the pious 
definition of the Faith ivhich ice have as an anchor of the 
soul both sure and steadfast, as it is written. 

„ For (said he) I rejoice at beholding your zeal ; but 
„from the thing itself is a clear confutation of what has 
J, been said by the pollution of this wretched man ; for 
„ whereof the births are two, two sons are they, but the 
„ Church knoweth one Son Christ the Lord.,, 

Most foolishly therefore put he forth the definition of his 
ideas on this matter saying, „ for whereof the births are 
„two two sons are they.,. But letting alone for a while his 
subtil accuracy '' herein, come, come let us gather what per- 
tains to accurate investigation for the consideration of the 
matter. He therefore made it inadmissible [to speak of 

Chalcedon itself; for when that Coun- 
cil had heard the Letter of S. Cyril to 
John Archbishop of Antioch to which 
they gave the Ecumenical sanction of 
the church, some of the Bishops called 
out, Ever 4^ 10 s 'Neardptov KaOelKe, Eiise- 
bius deposed Nestorius. It is likewise 
mentioned by Evagrius ( Eccl. Hist. i. 9) 
who says, rrjv iTncrKOirr^v rov SopvXaiov 
SifTTOVTos, t)S Kal prjTcop %TL Tvyxo-voiv, 
■nplinos TTjv NeffTopiov fi\aa<prifxiav 5i4- 
Xey^eu, exercising the Bishop's office at 
Dorylaeum, who while yet an advocate 
first convicted the blasphemy of Nestorius. 
Leontius (in the 7th century) writing 
against Nestorius and Eutyches (contra Eutych. lib. 3 in Galland.Bibl. 
"Vet. Patrum xii. 697) speaks of it too. 

^ The people's applause during the 
sermons of S.Augustine and S.Chry- 
sostom are often mentioned : Nestorius 
alludes to the applause of his own ser- 
mons a little above, p. 11. Two or 
three years later when the troubles which 
followed on the council through the 
Eastern Bishops misunderstanding S. 
Cyril and his language, were beginning 
to be allayed, and one of them, the pious 
and aged Paul Bishop of Emesa, was 
preaching at Alexandria before the 
Archbishop, the very words that the 
people uttered in their delight are pre- 
served to us (concilia t. iii. 1617, 1021 
ed. Col.). Here Eusebius' cry was one 
of zeal for the Faith, contradicting the 
denial of Truth which he heard. 

God the Son has two Generations. 27 

two generations *] but says that one ought to be confessed Book i. 6; 
by uSj that we conceive not of two sons (as though it were s^^has 
necessary if the births be two, that two sons also should two Gene- 

1- 1 T\ii' n 1 Tjn 1-1 rations 

be introduced) : let him come forward and tell us which 
of the generations he will admit, that before the ages from 
out the Father, wherein the "Word was God not yet Incar- 
nate, or this one, recent and out of a woman. 

If then he say that alone, I mean the one before the 
ages from out the Father, that one alone will be Son Who 
is out of Him by Nature and not yet participate of flesh 
and blood : and vainly (as it seems) is the Mystery of the 
Incarnation uttered, and in no wise hath He emptied Him- 
self nor been made in servant^s form, but hath remained 
thus, rejecting the true concurrence ^ with flesh even until » avvo^ov 
now. But he who is in the last times out of woman, shall 
be styled by himself son, and we will admit this one gene- 
ration, I mean out of woman ; needs has the Word out of 
God the Father fallen away from being by Nature Son. 

But the pious man sees full surely the absurdity of such 
ideas and its exceeding swerving unto impiety. In ©rder 
then that we may proceed along the royal road, we say 
that two were the Births, one the Son through both, the 
Word out of God not yet made in flesh, the Same after- 
wards Incarnate and enduring for us the birth of a woman 
after the flesh. For if one said in regard of men that two 
sons must surely be conceived of, if we speak of two births, 
he would say rightly and it would be true ; but since the 
Mystery of Christ and the mode of the Incarnation hath an- 
other path ^, and is not beheld in like wise with what is » 6^hv 
ours, why is he, looking at our habits, and then fastening his 
mind on what is marvellous and above speech, caught fall • 
ing into feeblest and unlearned pettiness of belief^ ? What i o\iyo. 
surprises me is this : he confessing herein that the Church 
knows one Son, and adding, The Lord Christ, hath no 
longer kept One, for he sunders one from another things 
united, and putteth each apart, not enquiring what the 

t See the same objection brought forward in the treatise Quod Unus Cliristus, 
given below. 

28 Incarnate in Nicene Creed inldnterijveted. 

AG. NEST. Word is by Nature^ wliat tlie flesli also; but gathering 
rather into one, man and God in equality of glory only, as he 

2 h-Ki. deemeth, which is a thing utterly implausible ^, yea rather 
Kara- impossible, he casts down ^ the scheme of the mystery unto 
uncomeliness. Thus he saith : 


„But we must (for it has now come into my mind) 
„ learn that the Synod of Nicea too nowhere durst say that 

Creed of i, Grod was born of Mary ; for it said, We believe in One 

tinole"" >}(^od the Father Almighty and in One Lord Jesus Christ. 
„ Observe that having first put the word Christ, which is 
„the indication of the two natures, they did not say, in 
„ one God the Word, but took the name that signifies both, 
,,in order that when lower down you hear of death, you 
„ think it not strange ; in order that the words crucified 
„and buried may not strike the ear as though the Godhead 
„sufi"ered these things.,. Then it goes on, „ We believe in 
„ One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten Son, tlie Begotten 
„ out of the Father, the Consubstantial tvith the Father, Who 
„ came down from the heavens for our sahes, and was Licar- 
„nate of the Holy Ghost. They said not, and begotten of 
„the Holy Ghost.,, And he says that the holy fathers 

see p. 31 interpreting what is the meaning of hicarnate say. Made 
Man, And what being made Man means he himself mak- 
ing clear, said again, „His own Nature not undergoing 
„ change into flesh, but inhabitation in man. „ 
X 7 Will any one of those who rank as Christians endure 

4 , „ . either the infatuation * that there is in these words or the 

■» apf\re- 

pias impiety of his ideas ? To those of really sound mind are 

s Q^ not these things a manifest ribaldry ^, and no mean kind 

Kox'ia of openmouthedness ® against Christ ? for he slanders the 

a\yias truth, he says that He is not truly Son, allotting this to 

another (for „ observe, he says, that having first put the 

„ word Christ which is the indication of the two natures, 

„ they did not say. We believe in One God the Word).,, 

And as regards the Name, I mean Christ'', I will presently 

enquire whether it be significative of the two Natures or 

" see Book 2, beginning of Book 5 and §§ 4. 5. Def. xii capp. contr. Theod. cap. 
7 init. de recta fide to the Emperor, pp. 32, 37, 38, to the Princesses, 47 b 70 e 

Fathers ofNicea did affirm the Son horn of a woman, 29 

not, but what is before us we will exercise ourselves in, as Book!. 7. 
we can. For in no wise to be borne may tbose things be 
that are so absurdly and heedlessly babbled forth by him, 
but one might (I deem) say, speaking in behalf of the holy 
fathers, What art thou doing, noble sir, putting forth rude 
tongue against holy men, to whom will beseem that which 
was said by Christ Himself the Saviour of us all. It is not s. Matt. 
YE that speak, hut the Spirit of your Father WJiich speaketh ' '» 
in you ? for what has there not been conceived of by them 
of things exceeding well polished unto an admirable sub- 
tilty ? what of needful doctrines has been overlooked, or 
what method of safeguard neglected by them ? „ They have 
„ not dared (he says) insert in their words concerning the 
„ Faith that Grod the Word was born of Mary.,, If there- 
fore thou for this reason accuse those who have been be- 
fore us, and sayest thou art aggrieved because they are 
not found to use thy exact words, it is time (I suppose) 
to accuse along with them the holy Apostles and Evange- 
lists too, for thev have compiled the books of instruction ''' ^ H-^fra- 
concerning Christ, yet one will not find them using word 
for word your expressions. But (if it please you) pass 

this over as ^ but consider rather that they have 

well wrought out their explanation of this matter, for faith 
in the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity is exacted^ of us. ^Tpdrre- 
But since they say that they believe in One God the Father 
Almighty, Maker of all things hoth visihle and iiivisihle, and 
in One Lord Jesus Christ His Son, and none other (accord- 
ing to us) is Jesus Christ the Lord than the One and by Na- 
ture and truly Son, Who beaming from out of God and being 
God the Word has been made Man, by birth (that is) out of 
woman, how will they who proclaim the mode of the economy 
not be found to speak also of His Birth of a woman after the 
■flesh ? for then in truth has the Word which is God and Wis- 
dom and Life and Light, the Son, been named Christ Jesus. 
It is manifest therefore that the time of such naming has 

85 c 115 c d 120 d, to the Empresses y Here the MS. leaves a blank of 

Pulcheria and Eudoxia 131 b & § 18 p. about 12 letters : these blanks sometimes 

148 b Quod Unus Christus see below, mdieate that the scribe could not deci- 

See also Theodoretin his letter to Bishop pher the word in the ms. which he was 

Timothy (Ep.l30). copying. 

30 Christ Jesus God the Son Incarnate. 

AG. NEST, concurrent ^ with it the Birth^ that I mean through the holy 
9 (Tvveiff- Yipo-in. That believing on Christ Jesus, we believe in 
cav the One and by Nature and truly Son, our faith moun- 

ting up unto the Father through Him, will be clear, in 
S. John that He Himself hath cried aloud to the whole world. He 
45';'*'*' that helleveth on Me heUeveth not on Me hut on Elm that 
sent Me, and he that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me, and 
lb. xiv. 1. again. Believe on God, and believe on Me. And we do not 
(I suppose) say that He asks of us two faiths, but rather 
He teaches that if any admit the faith to Himward, he hath 
believed on the Father Himself. 

But since (as is probable) he will be making use of the 
1 SfjLU)- community ^ of the names, saying that Christ and Lord, yea 
*'''^'' and Son, are common titles, and will be affirming that they 
suit the Word That sprung of the Father even though He 
be conceived of as alone and not yet ^ participate of flesh, 
and likewise the Temple that sprang of a virgin, this 
matter needs (I think) considerable investigation : put- 
ting it off for the present to a season (as I said) fitly be- 
longing to it, let us go to another utterance of the holy 
Synod which this man perverting unto his own liking, does 
violence to the force of truth. For he says that the fathers 
have written. We believe in One Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Only-Begotten Son, the Begotten from forth the Father, the 
Consubstantial with the Father, Who came down for our 
sahes, and was Incarnate of the Holy Ghost. He adds hereto 
and says of the holy fathers, „ lower down they interpret 
„ that He who was made man. He it is who is said to be In- 
„ carnate, the Divine Nature not enduring change into flesh 
„ but inhabitation in man.,, In his explanation he again 
keeps hold of the same mind and moreover says thus ; 

„ They followed the Evangelist, for the Evangelist too 

„ when he comes to the being made man, shunned saying 

„ Birth in respect of God the Word, and hath put Incarnation, 

lb. i. 14. „ Where? Hear, And the Word tvas made flesh ; he said 

2 ovTw Cod. I have translated as li oimv yet, following the conjecture of the 
Roman Editors. 

Nicene Creed. One of the Constantino]} olitan expansions. 31 

„ not^ Was born tlirough tlie flesli. For where the Apostles Book i. 8. 

„ or the Evangelists make mention of the Son, they put 

„ that He was born of a woman. Give heed to what is said, 

„ I beseech you ; for where they utter the name of the 

,, Son, and that He was borne ~ from forth a woman, they 2 irexOv 

„ put the word. Born ^ ; where they mention the Word, no 3 e'^ewi;- 

„ one of them durst speak of birth through the human ^ 

„ nature. For the blessed John the Evangelist, when he 

„ came to the Word and to His Incarnation, hear what he 

„ says. The Word ivas made flesh.,, 

Come therefore putting beside what he said, the defini- § g 
tion'^ of our Creed, let us see if ought has been innovated ^hTrd^omv 
by this man regarding it too. 

We believe in One God the Fathee Almighty, Maker 


Christ, the Son of God, Begotten out op the Father, Only- 

out op Light Very God out op Very God, Begotten not 

EARTH : Who for us men and for OUR SALVATION CAME DOWN 

Come now therefore, noble sir, where (tell me) have they 
put of the Son, Incarnate of the HoJy Ghost and the Virgin 
Mary ^ ? but this he can by no means shew. But con- 

° The Creed that S. Cyril (here as came well-known beyond the more im- 

elsewhere) recites above is the Nicene mediate neighbourhood of Constanti- 

Creed, as actually put forth by that nople itself see " On the clause, And 

Council : Nestorius, being Archbishop the Son, in regard &c." pp. 37 sqq ; for 

of Constantinople, had (not imnatural- the beginnings of its Liturgical use, in 

ly) been quoting from that of Constan- Spain, pp. 49, 65 ; in France p. 65 ; Ger- 

tinople, which is the Nicene Creed in many, Rome p. 66 ; the East, note 2 

the form in which it was afterwards put pp. 184, 185. Even John Archbishop 

forth by the Council of Constantinople of Antioch in his Letter to S. Proclus 

(A. D. 381), and in which it is familiar written a few years after this treatise of 

to us. See the two in Rev. Dr. Heurt- S.Cyril, inserts the Creed of Nicea, 

ley's De Fide et symbolo, pp. 5 and Synodicon cap. 196. Cone. iv. 452 Col. 

17 ed. 1869. and translated in parallel Diogenes bishop of Cyzicus, in the 

columns with the variations marked in Council of Chalcedon, said, "The holy 

my Father's, The Councils of tlie Church fathers who were afterwards, explained 

to the close of the second general Council the, ivas Incarnate, which the holy fa- 

of Constantinople, A. D. 381, 1857 pp. thers in Nicea said, by ' From forth the 

312 sqq. For the very slow steps by Holy Ghost and Mary the Virgin.'" 

which the Creed of Constantinople be- The Egyptians and the most pious 

32 Incarnate and made Man^horn after the flesh. 

AG. NEST, sider this. They say that the Word out of God, the Only- 
Begotten, He That is from forth the Essence of the Father, 
He through Whom are all things, the Very Light, was both 
incarnate and made man, suffered and rose, and too, that 
He will in season come again the Judge. 

But in order that submitting to accurate scrutiny his 

s xp^/"a words also, we may see what is the amount ^ of the un- 
learning that is in them, he affirms in plain terms that 
they say that the Word out of God was both incarnate 
and made man, and he crowns them with his vote unto their 
truth as saying what was convenient. Do they therefore 
(tell me) in saying that He was both Incarnate and made 
Man mean ought else than that He was begotten after the 
flesh? for this would be (and alone) the mode of iucarna- 

see above tion to One who has his existence both external to flesh and 

^' ' in his proper nature ; for no one would say (I suppose) that 
flesh has been made flesh nor will any one be made what 
he was [already]. But if one should conceive a certain 
economic change to have been made regarding him unto 
somewhat else which he was not, the expression will then 
have great fitness. Hence if they say that the Only- 
Begotten has been Incarnate, and this would be wrought 
(I suppose) through fleshly generation and in no other 
way, how have they not plainly said that the Word being 
God has been begotten after the flesh ? 

But (he says) the Birth is not named in plain terms. 

see p. 8. Yes, but the nature of the thing knows (as I already said) 
no other way of being incarnate. So that, although it be 
not in plain terms said in matters of this kind, we will not 
for this, forsaking the only way recognized by nature, go 
off to another. For it is written in the Book of Genesis, 

Gen. iv. And to Setli there iva.s made ^ a son, and he called Ms name 


^eyeyero Enos. Shall WO then, because the Scripture has put, was 
made, not admit the mode of birth? how would not this be 

Bishops with them called out, No 07ie 451, only 7 years after he had departed 

admits addition (Cone. Chalc. Act 1. 1. to his rest. 

iv. 91.3 ed. Col. quoted On the &c. p. On the antiquity of these words though 
40.): probably with a keen recollection not in the actual Nicene Creed, see my 
ofwhattheir great Archbishop had here Father's note P to Tertullian in the Li- 
said, objecting to Nestorius as adding brary of the Fathers, pp.503, 504. 
them; for the Council was holden in 

Incarnation iwt hidwelling Jnit Birth. 33 

unlearned ? for the very nature of the thing will all but Book i. 8. 
compel us even against our will to confess the idea of birth. 
How then on hearing of the Incarnation does he not forth- 
Avith admit the idea of Birth ? and when the being made ^ ivav- 
man ''' has been plainly mentioned, how did he not straight- ^^JJ^' 
way understand, that being made man would befit not a 
man, lest he should seem to be made that he already was, above p. 
but the Word originating from God ? But where being 
made man is believed to truly take place, there is full surely 
the birth whereby he may be seen to be made man. 

But not thus does it seem to you is the saying to be 
conceived of, that the Word of God was both Incarnate 
and was made Man ; for you said again, endeavouring to 
oppose the idea of every one else, that the being made 
man, means, not the change into flesh of the Divine Nature '^, ^^°g^ „„ 
but its indwelling in man. He sa^^s then that the conver- 
sion into flesh of the Divine Nature is both impossible and 
that it in no wise befalls it (and veiy rightly, for we will 
approve him who herein has chosen to speak aright ; for 
I say that It is stable^ and that It will not be transformed ^««paSai/. 
into ought else than what It is believed to be) : but that 
his discourse hath missed of the fitting and true, in that 

^ Theodoret, having lived amid the SS.Basil,Gregory, Amphilochius, Pope 

same school of thought as Nestorius, Damasus, Ambrose, Cyprian, Atha- 

shares with him the dread of the Divine nasius, Alexander his teacher, Meletius, 

Nature being imagined to be changed Flavian, lights of the East, Ephraim 

into flesh. In his objection to S. Cyril's the lyre of the Spirit ; John [Chrysos- 

first chapter (see above p. 24 note q) torn], Atticus, Ignatius, Polycarp, 

Theodoret says, "It is plain then from Irenaeus, Justin, Hippolytus, and the 

what has been said that the form of God then Bishop of Rome, the most holy 

was not turned into servant's form but Leo, all taught that " One Sou is the 

remaining what it was, took servant's Only-Begotten Son of God and God be- 

Form having moulded Himself fore the ages Begotten ineffably from 

.Temple in the Virgin's womb, He was out the Father, and that after the In- 

o-with that which was moulded and carnation He is called both Son of man 

jonceived and formed and borne: where- and man, not turned hereinto but 'as- 

X)re we style that holy Virgin too. Mo- suming what is ours." Ep. 145 p. 1253. 

;her of God, not as having borne God by Further on in the same Epistle Theo- 

aKaturehutmauunited(7)i/'^/"f''o'')loGod doret speaks also of the Manhood re- 

iW'ho moulded him (p. 20 led e)." Inhis maining : he says that whereas our Lord 

Letter to the Monks of the province he raised other bodies free from all blem- 

;ays, " For in his first chapter he casts ish. " in His own He left the tokens of 

>ut the economy that was wrought for sufferings that He might through the 

)ui' sakes, teaching that God the Word sufferings convict of erring those who 

lath not taken human nature but was deny the assumption of His Body, and 

liniself changed into flesh," Ep. 151 through the print of the nails might 

?. 1292; Migne, t. 83. col. 1417. In teach them who imagined that the Body 

lis letter to the Monks of Constantino- had been changed into another nature, 

le written in his later years (Tillemont that it had remained in its proper form." 

Lrt.xi.fin.thinksabou't451)hesaysthat ib p. 1254. 


34 Indwelling belongs to all, Incarnate to the Son. 

AG. NEST, he maintained that the being made Man is the indwelling 
in man, I shall essay to shew. For if he says that this 
matter is true of Emmanuel singly and alone, let him teach 
the reason why (for I cannot learn it) , or no one will tolerate 
him as a definer and layer down of the law in respect of 
those things as to which he is pleased to speak inconsider- 
ately. But perchance the force of the things defined does 
not extend unto one [alone], there will then be no blame, 
even though it extend unto all. Hence not once for all 
but many times over shall we find that God has been made 
man, and not only the Word out of God the Father, but I 
will add both the Father Himself and besides, the Holy 
Ghost. For He said through one of the holy Prophets of 
2 Cor. vi. them that have been justified in faith, J ivill dwell in them ■ 
from Lev. and ivalk in them and I will be their God and they shall 
^^^^' ■ be My people. And Christ Himself also said. And if any 

^.••^°}l" man hear Me, we will come I and Mii Father and maJce 
XIV. 23. ' . . 

Our abode ^vith him and lodge in him'^. The most wise 

Heb. iii. Paul too hath somewhere written, And Moses was faithful 

in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of the things 

which ivere to be s])olien of, bnt Christ as a Son over His own 

house whose house are wb ; and moreover of the Holy Ghost 

1 Cor. iii. too, Kuow ye not that ye are the teinjjle of God and that the^ 

Spirit of God dwelleth in you ? Hence if when the God of 
all is said to dwell in any, if this be the being made manj 
or the incarnation, let it be said in respect of each one als 

2 S. Pet. of those who were made partahers of the Divine Nature an 

have moreover had Him indwelling them, that he has hoi. 
been made man and besides was incarnate. This now be 
ing so and admitted as true, the Word out of God the Fa- 
ther might even be said to have been most often made 
9(r€^o/x. flesh, yea and He indwelleth even now in many of those 
fear, do who fear ^ Him. 

reverence. Yea (he says) for it is written of God the Word, that 
j/i4° " He tabernacled in 21s ^ ; the Divine-uttering Paul too said 
cS.IS. °^ Christ the Saviour of us all, that in Him hath dwelt all 
the fulness of the Godhead bodily. 

« This addition occurs in the same words on S. John i. 13 p. 107 O.T. (" «k 
allusion on S.John xiv. 24.) and in Scholia, § 18. 


Made flesh, Bodily, Ojie : tabernacled, ever God. 35 

He tabernacled in us confessedly, for so it is written; Book i, 8. 
and moreover that He hath dwelt : I will not oppose you 
saying it, but rather will I search into ^ the words of the ■^^««^a»"'- 
Divines. For the blessed Evangelist, having aforesaid. And 
the Word was made flesh, profitably added too the, taber- 
nacled in us, that by means of both he might work in us 
unmutilated the knowledge of the mystery Christward. For 
that the Word out of God the Father was united Personally 
to flesh, he hath openly declared ^ by saying that He was 
made flesh : that made flesh, He hath not passed into the 
nature of flesh, undergoing change into what He was not, 
but together with becoming as we, hath abode what He 
was, he again clearly states, adding to the former, the ta- 
bernacled in us. And the Divine-uttering Paul saith that 
171 Christ dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, that 
no one might suppose that the Indwelling was simple or 
accidental ^ but (as I said just now) Very and Personal. 
For that the Word of God is Incorporeal and not subject 
to touch, the Spirit-clad was not ignoi'ant ; but since it was 
needful that the declaration of the mystery should be seen 
to be in no wise a matter of blame ^, but should be made ..^T'^^Jll 

' fifvriv, see 

SO accurate and exact ^ unto what is right and true as to P-^» ref. 
be beyond all marvel : — he is doing violence (it seems) " * Stvpe- 
and all but overlooking what befits the Unembodied and o'^Karafii- 
Supreme Nature, for he hath added. Bodily, being able in ^£^^"' "^^ 
no other way to speak than may be attained by our mind 
nd tongue. 
Do not therefore, when he tells us of simple indwelling, 
jthink that he is saying ought that needs not the strongest 

reprobation. For overthrowing as he thinks and that with 
igour ^ the birth according to the flesh of the Son, he com- ® f^aviKus 

d Stafieiu.r]vuKfv. This emendation of mans have reached us either published 

he Roman editors for Siaij.eiJ.ei'7jKiv is or in MSS.: for the psahiis and S. John 

ionfirmed to us by citations of Niketas at least Niketas made use of the labours 

nhis catena on S.John. (This Niketas of those who beforehim had constructed 

ras Archbishop of Heraklea in Thrace catenae of Fathers and he had besides 

n the xith century, he compiled ample access to works of the Fathers now 

Commentaries on Holy Scripture made lost, of which he has thus preserved 

ip of copious extracts from the Fathers : something. ) 

^hose on the Psalms, SS. Matthew, " ffxfriK^p, something possessed and 

liuke, John, the Epistle to the Hebrews, so accruing, and not a natural essential 

oerhaps a fragment of that to the Ro- inseparable property, seep.47andnotel. 

D 2 

36 The Eternal Generation. 

AG. NEST, pounds an argument befitting old wives and foolish and 
having no foundation of truth. For he writes again after 
this manner ; his discourse was made touching the Arians : 

„ Yet ^ though they prate that God the Word is junior to 
„ the greater Godhead, these make Him second to the 
„ blessed Mary, and over the Godhead, Creator of times, 
„ they set a mother born in time, yea rather they do not 

' TT?" ,, even allow that she who bare Christ ''' is mother of Christ. 

t6kov „ For if not the nature of man but God the Word was, as 
„ these say, that which is of her, she that bare was no 
„ mother of that which was born. For how will any one 
„ be mother of him who is alien from her nature ? But if 
„ she be called mother by them, that which is born is man- 
„ hood not Godhead, for it is the property of every mother 
„ to bear what is consubstantial [with her] . Either then 
„ she will not be mother, not bearing what is consubstantial 
„ with herself, or being called mother by them, she bare 
„ that which was in essence like to herself.,, ■ 

§ 9 How deep the matter of his cogitations ! dread and hard 

8 avdyKi) to escape is clearly the compulsion ^ resulting from the 

reasonings of him who hath compiled such things ! Whence 
comes he having gathered into the midst unto us such 
fables ? or who ever sank down to this extent of unlearning 
in his conceptions, as to think or say that the Godhead of the 
Only-Begotten has not its existence before the ages from 
the Father but rather makes flesh and blood the begin- 

9 iix^p6v- niug of its passing into being ? who is so distraught ^ and 
1 0A170- slight of understanding ^ and wholly without ear for the 
yvw^l.<.lv \^o\j Scrij)tures? who remembereth not Isaiah who hath 
Isa. liii. 8. Cried aloud of Him, Who shall declare His generation ? John 
S. John too who hath written clearly. In the beginning was the Word 
^' ' ' and the Word was with God and the Word was God; all 

things were made through Him and without Him was not any 
thing made ? And if all things through Him, how will He 
Who is before every age and time be later in birth than 

This passage is given rather fuller, when he is speaking as it were against 
and at greater length by Mercator, with Arms. (p. 112, Bal.) 

the title, Also in the nineteenth quire, 



B.V. heijat God not Godhead, herself a woman. 37 

tlie tilings that were made through Him ? why then do you BooKi.iO. 

bring in what is repudiated by all, as though it had been 

said ? cease accusing those who rightly blame what you say, 

and who laugh at the vastness of the unlearning that is 

therein. Since therefore there is no one who says that 

the Virgin hath borne from forth her own flesh the nature 

of the Godhead, do not contend to no purpose, twining for 

us reasonings not made out of premises ^ that are true and ' -^wm»- 

acknowledged by all. 

But what was it that persuaded you to let loose a tongue 
so sheer ^ and unguarded against those who are zealous to ^ ««paT^ 
think aright, and to pour down accusal dire and all-cruel 
upon every worshipper of God ? For you said again in 

„ But I have already full often said that if any simpler 
„ one either among us or any other, rejoice in the word 
„ Mother of God, I have no grudge against the word ; only 
„ let him not make the Virgin a goddess. „ 

Again dost thou rail upon us, and put on a mouth so § 10 
bitter ? and reproachest the congregation of the Lord, as it Num. 
is written ? But WB, my friend *, who call her mother of et alii)! 
God, have never at all deified any one of those that are 
mnnbered among creatures, but are accustomed to know 
as God the One and by Nature and truly so : and we know 
that the blessed Virgin was woman as we. But thyself wilt 
be caught, and that at no long interval, representing to us 
Emmanuel as a God-bearing man, and putting upon another 
the condemnation due to your own essays. 

Right utter auce : sinjul speech. 


The Word after the Union One Incarnate Person. Similitudes of unlilte 
tilings united. ' Connection ' does not unite. The Name Christ means 
God the Son Incarnate. Jacob's pillar a type. To His human nature be- 
long the anointing and His subjection to the Law : yet He is God. Cyrus 
how Christ, the Babylonians how holy. Personal Union. Christ's glory 
no imparted glory but His own inherent glory. If community of names 
unite, Emmanuel has nought more than we. The human cannot be al- 
lotted to a distinct person. God the Son Incarnate to be worshipped just 
as before His Incarnation. Speak not of ' hidden ' and ' manifest ' as though 
Two, they are One. Worship of Him taught by God the Father. 

"•' ''(f's^^ Tn^E tongue is a fire and an unruly evil, as it is written ; 
thrusting from him the mischief therefrom, the Divine- 

Ps. cxli. uttering David says, Set a watch, Lord, before my mouth A 
' ' a door of fencing around, my lips, incline not mine heart to] 
words of wickedness. For to be able to speak aright % and 
to have an exact control over the tongue, as to what it 
should speak, what not, is of a truth God-given, and is no 
slight matter with those who practise a conversation not , 
void of admiration. But recklessness in speech and un- 

> repOpei. "bridled licence unto trickery ^, are replete with danger andl 

Prov. ix. bear down to the pit-fall of hell those who use it. And it : 

18 LXX J. •/ t/ 

lb. xviii.' is written. Death and life are in the hand of the tongue, they 

21TXX • • . 

that master it shall cat the fruits thereof. A certain other 

Ecclus. V. too of the wise men hath said to us. If thou hast a word of 

understanding , answer, if not, lay thine hand upon thy 

mouth ; for how is not silence better than unlearned speech ? 

But accursed is it in another way too to belch forth bitter 

woi'ds, and to heap down sinful sayings upon the ineffable 

Glory, albeit it ought to be honoured by us with unceasing 

J P^ praises. And when we sin against the brethren and tvou.ud 

viii. 12. their weak conscience, we sin against Christ, for so hath 

written the Divine-utterinsr Paul. 

a iv(TToixuv:=iv<prini7v, to keep from all words displeasing to God, 


God Incarnate One Christ, 39 

And this I say having read Nestorius^ words and observ- Book ii. 
ing- that he not only says that we ought not to say that 
the holy Virgin is Mother of God and that she hath borne 
Emmanuel Who is God, but yet in addition to this and in 
many ways is he minded to make war upon the glory of 
(,'hrist. For he endeavours to shew us that He is God- 
bearing and not truly God, but man associated- with God, " f""»?/^- 
as in equality of rank. For thus seems good to him alone connect- 
apart from every one else, to think and to speak, albeit united, 
the Catholic Church, which Christ Himself presented to no^te^k!^' 
Himself, has not the wrinMes of him who has compiled such Eph. v, 
tlimgs, but rather as unhlemished, she keeps wholly without " 
nbuke her knowledge of Him, and hath made full well her 
tiadition of the Faith. For ive believe in One God, the 
Father Almighty, of all things both visible and invisible the 
Maker, and in One Lord Jesus the Christ, and in the Holy 
Ghost: and following the confessions annexed hereto of see Ep. to 

Nest 3 

the holy Fathers, we say that the Very Word Essentially Epistles, 
sprung from forth God the Father, was made as we and^^^ '^^' 
was Incarnate and made Man, that is^ took to Himself a 
Body from forth the holy Virgin, and made it His Own : 
for thus will He be truly One Lord Jesus Christ, thus let 
us worship Him as One, not putting apart Man and God, 
but believing that He is One and the Same, in Godhead 
and in Manhood, that is, God alike and Man. 

But the inventor of the most recent impiety, albeit 
making feint of saying One Christ, ever divides the Na- 
tures and sets Each by itself, saying that they did not truly 
come together; but malang excuses in sins, as it is written, Ps. cxli. 
devises some mode of connection ^, of merely (as I said) tg-yy^'^i, 
equalitv of rank, as shall be shewn from his own words : "*' ^^ 

. . . (rvvTifx/x- 

and he makes the Word out of God indwell by participa- ^"ov, 
tiou, as in a common man, and distributes the sayings in 
the Gospels, so as one while to attribute certain to the chap. 4 
Word alone ^ and by Himself, other while to him that is 

b See S. Cyril's fourth chapter, " If the saints or by Hun of Himself, and 

any one allot to two Persons or Hypo- ascribe some to a man conceived of by 

stases the words in the Gospel and Apo«- himself apart from the Word That is of 

tolic writings, said either of Christ by God, others as God-befitting to the Word 

40 Words belong to Godhead and Manhood, yet to One, 

AG. NEST, boru from fortli a woman separately^. Yet how is it not 

' '5''? obvious to all that the Only-Begotten being God by Na- 

tm-e has been made man, not by connection simply (as lie 

alone That is of God the Father, be he 
anathema." Neither Andrew nor Theo- 
doret understood this chapter ; Andrew 
allows that the words must not be allotted 
to two persons, and uses the term aKpa 
of the Union of God and Man both here 
and on chapter 11 end, just as S. Cyril 
Hom. Pasch. 7, p- 102 d had said rh eh 
aKpou kvovv and in the Hom. 1(5 (A.D. 
42'J) so often quoted by Andrew, p. 230 b 
(as well as at p. 17 above and elsewhere) 
had used the expression ti]v els ixKpov 
fvcocriv [Nestorius § 8, below p. 64 had 
called it a.Kpa crvvdcpeta] ; but appears 
to think that S. Cyril had denied any dis- 
tinction of the words at all. Theodoret 
after an allotment to the Human nature 
of our Lord of words said by Him of 
His Human nature, shews his misunder- 
standing of S. Cyril's chapter by adding 
what is quite true, but is ei|ually ad- 
mitted by S. Cyril, " Hence, the things 
spoken and wrought in God-befitting 
sort, we will allot to God the Word, 
tliose spoken and wrought in lowly wise 
to the servant's form, lest we fall into 
the sickness of Arius' and Eunomius' 

What S. Cyril is obiecting to is the 
notion that He who is One with the Fa- 
ther is God the Son absolutely distinct 
from His own Manhood, that He who 
said. Ml/ God My God why forsoohest 
Thou Me is, not God the Son, speaking of 
and through the Manhood which He had 
for ever united to Himself but, a man 
distinct and apart. But even in his 
quite early writings S. Cyril had never 
overlooked what the Eastern Bishops 
were (a year or two after this trea- 
tise was written) so anxious to have 
brouglit prominently forward, viz. that 
" as to the Gospel and Apostolic words 
concerning the Lord, we know that Di- 
vines make some common, as to One 
Person, apjjortion others, as to two Na- 
tures, and give to Christ the God-befitting 
according to His Godhead, the lowly 
ones according to His Manhood " (Con- 
fession of Eastern Bishops, approved by 
S. Cyril and incorporated by him in liis 
Ecumenical letter to John of Antioch, 
Three Epistles p. 72). In his Thesaurus 
cap. X init., S. Cyril says, " But we 
must know and Ijelieve that the Word 
being God and Consubstantial in all 
tilings with the Father, put on man's 
nature and hath been made Man, in 
order that He may both sometimes speak 
as man by reason of the Economy with 
flesh, and may also as God utter the 
things above man as so being by Nature 

and when opportunity introduces the 
need of this. But if any one should 
wish to refer the things which are more 
humanly and economically spoken (as 
I said) to His Godhead and again to 
refer the things which are Divinely 
spoken to the time wherein He has 
been made man, such an one will wrong 
the nature of things and will destroy 
the Economy : for one while He saith 
as God, Verily I say to you, before 
Abraham was, I am, and again, / have 
come down from out of heaven. If 
one wishes to preserve to Him only the 
God-befitting Dignity, he will utter- 
ly take away His being made man in 
the last times (for He was not in human 
nature before Abraham was nor yet has 
He as man come down from Heaven): 
and again if one should choose to attri- 
bute to bare God the Word before the 
Incarnation the words and acts of the 
human nature, such an one will do im- 
piously : for what will he do when Christ 
says Noiv has My Soul been troubled and 
is very sorrowful^ will he admit that 
sorrow and dismay befel the Nature of 
God and that fear of death gat hold 
thereof? what when he sees Him cruci- 
fied, will he admit that the Godliead of 
the Son suffered this just as man ? or 
will herepudiate theblasphemy ? There- 
fore let what is suitable thereto be kept 
to each time and fact and let Theology 
practise herself not surely in those things 
whence it is clear that He is speaking 
as man, but those whence He is from 
forth the Father as Son and God ; and 
let it allow to the Economy with flesh 
that He should sometimes say what does 
not belong to the Godhead bare and by 
Itself." pp. 72, 73. See also de Trinitate 
ad Herm. dial. 1. p. 398, dial. 6. p. 600 a 
b, 002 fin. Hom. Pasch. 7 (A.D. 420) 
"Foras tocreatein God-befittingmanner 
is not conceived of as pertaining to aman, 
so is to die alien from God." p. 101b 
and through the Homily. These belong 
to the earlier years of S. Cyril's Episco- 
pate : they do not differ from what 
S. Cyril wrote about this time, in ex- 
planation of his fourth chapter, and in 
reply to Andrew's criticisms, p. 171 a b, 
nor from what, in A.D. 432 when the 
Egpytian and Eastern Churches had 
explained to one another what each 
meant, S. Cyril wrote to Acacius Bishop 
of Melitene as being what the Eastern 
Bishops said and as being one of the 
essential points in whicli they differed 
from Nestorius (Epp. pp. 117, "118 a). 

God Sj- Man with Body 8f Soul in their proper nature, yet One. 41 

says) considered as external or accidental ^^ but by true Book ii. 

union^ ineffable and passing understanding. And thus He " fx«T'- 

is conceived of as One and Only, and every thing said ^ "^ "^^«5 \6- 

befits Him and all will be said of One Person. For the ^gg 3 

Incarnate Nature '^ of the Word Himself is after the Union Epistles, 

p. 66. 

now conceived of as One, just as will reasonably be con- 
ceived in regard to ourselves too, for man is really One, 
compounded of unlike things, soul I mean and body. But 
it is necessary now too to notify that we say that the Body 
united to God the Word is ensouled with a reasonable 
Soul. And I will for profit's sake add this too : other 
than the Word out of God is the flesh, in regard to its 
proper nature, other again Essentially the Nature of the 
Word Itself. But even though the things named be con- 
ceived of as diverse and sundered in diverseness of nature, , ,. 
yet is Christ conceived of as One out of '^ both, the Godhead 7e| ) '^ 
and manhood having come together one to another in true 

And the God-inspired Scripture confirms us hereto by 
ten thousand words and acts : using similitudes whereby 
one may (and that without labour) clearly advance so as 
we may behold the Mystery of Christ. The blessed Pro- 
phet Isaiah said therefore. And there was sent to me one o/lsa. vi. 
the Seraphim and in his hand a live coal which he had taken ' 
ivith the tongs from off the altar and he touched m.y mouth and 
said, Lo this hath touched tlty lips and shall tahe away thine 
iniquities and purge thy sins. And searching according to 
our power into the depth of the vision, we say that none gee Schol. 

<= fj.ia yap ijSri j/oeiTat (pvcris fj-ira. (as I said) Incarnate. For not merely * 

tV evcacriv T] auTov tov A6yov cnaap- of thino;s which are simple by nature is 

KwjjL^vov. S. Cyril in his second Letter the One rightly used, but also of those 

to Successus bishop of Diocaesarea in which are brought together as com- 

Isauria, written probably about 3 years pounded ; such as is man, of soul and 

after this, explains the Term One Na- body : for such things are diverse in 

ture Incarnate thus, " For even if the fomi and not consubstantial one to an- 

Only-Begotten Son of God Incarnate other ; yet united, they made up one na- 

and Made man be said by us to be One, ture of man, albeit in the plan of the 

He has not therefore been mixed up (as compounding, the difference of nature 

some please to think) nor has the Na- in the things brought together into 

ture of the Word passed into the nature Union exists." Epp. p. 143 a b c. The 

of the flesh nor yet that of the flesh into great estimation in which this letter was 

His Nature, but, while each abides and held is indicated by its frequent citations 

is conceived of in its natural property, in controversies on the Incarnation. 

He united unspeakably and unutterably See also the Letter to Acacius Bishop 

shewed us One Nature of the Son, yet Melitene, Epp. pp.115, 116. 


Ty])es, the Coal, Pearl, Lily. 


Rom. X. 
8, 9, 10. 

^ (TVVoSqj 

" fjLfra- 

S. Matt 
xiii. 45, 

Cant. ii. 

1 tJ) vtto- 
see Schol, 

. other save our Lord Jesus Christ is the spiritual coal laid 
on the altar whereon by us it gives forth the sweet savour 
of iucense to God the Father : for through Him have ive 
had access and are acceptable^ oflFering the spiritual wor- 
ship. This Divine Coal therefore^ when it touches the lips 
of him who approaches thereto, will straightway exhibit 
him pure and wholly imparticipate in any sin. And in 
what way it touches onr lips, the blessed Paul will teach 
saying, Nigh thee is the word, in thy mouth and In thy heart, 
that if thou say with thy mouth Lord Jesus and believe in thy 
heart that God hath raised, Him from the dead, thou, shall 
he saved, for ivith the heart man helieveth unto righteousness, 
and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. And 
He is compared to a Coal, because conceived of as from 
two unlike things, yet by a true concurrence ^ they are all 
but knit together unto union. For the fire entering into 
the wood, will transelement ^ it somehow into its own glory 
and might albeit it hath retained what it was. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ again likens Himself to a Pearl, 
saying, TJie hingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man 
seeking goodly pearls, who when he had found one Pearl of 
great price hath gone and sold all that he had and hought it. 
I hear Him in another way manifesting Himself to us and 
saying, I am the fower of the plain, the lily of the valleys. 
For He has in His Proper Nature the God-befitting Bright- 
ness of God the Father, and gives forth again His Savour, 
in respect I mean of spiritual fragrance. As therefore in 
the pearl and also the lily, the thing itself^ is conceived 
of as body, the brilliancy or fragrance therein considered 
in its proper definition as other than they in whom they 
are, yet are the things inseparably innate again the own 
properties and not alien from those which possess them : — 
in this way (I deem) shall we both reason and think of 
Emmanuel too. For of diverse kind by nature are God- 
head and flesh •*, yet was the Body of the Word His own, 
and not severed from His Body is the Word which is 
united thereto ; for thus and not otherwise will Emmanuel, 
•i See S. Cyril's first Letter to Successus, Epp. p. 137 d. 

Christ 6;peaA;s asGoDand as Man. Nestorius fears mixture. 43 

i.e., God with us, be conceived of. Hence one wliile as Book ii. 
Man, and making Himself manifest to us from the mea- 
sures of the emptiness too, He said, No man takes My Hfe s. John 

. . . vis 

/i'o>>t. lie, another while again conceived of as God the Word 

and out of Heaven and One with His proper flesh. He says. 

No man hath ascended up to Heaven hut He That came dotvn ib.iii. 13. 

from Heaven, the Son of Man. 

The Holy Scripture therefore from every side knitting 
together unto inseverable and true union the Son and 
bearing us back in faith unto One Person, this extraor- Trpoa-uTrov 
dinary ^ man manifoldly severs, and hath babbled idly, call- - TreptT- 
ing the Word out of God the Father God of Christ Himself chap. 6 
too, as our discourse as it advances will clearly demonstrate 
in its own time and place. For he feigns that he is afraid 
lest any overcome by reverence for the holy Virgin, and 
calling her Mother of God, should, supposing that there is 
a mixture and immingling of the Persons ^ one with another ^ vTro<rra. 
pour forth uncomeliness upon the doctrines of the Church, 
albeit no one thus thinks : and rectifying (as he deems) a 
thing so dire^, he utterly confuses all things, regardless of \'^^^*'" 
ideas which pertain to rightness and truth : for he said thus; 

„ If in simple faith you had been putting forward the 
„ word Mother of God, I would not have grudged it you, on 
,, examining the sense of the word. But since I see that 
„ you, on plea of honouring the blessed Mary, are main- 
„taining the blasphemy of the heretics, I therefore ward 
„ ofi" the putting forth of the word, suspecting the danger 
„ that is concealed therein. But to speak clearly and more 
„ intelligibly to all, it is the aim of the party of Arius and 
„ Eunomius and Apolinarius and of all who are of like 
„ brotherhood % to bring in Theotokus, as though, a ming- 

e The following extract from Tille- that Archiepiscopate felt. Apollinarian- 

mont (Hist. Eccles. Les Apollinaristes, ism had been their last great heretical 

Art 2. t. vii pp. 604, 605 ed. 2. Paris onslaught, only about 60 years previous, 

I7O0), will illustrate that dread of Apol- and Antioch its head-quarters. Tille- 

linarianism, which not only Nestorius mont says, " Car ne voulant pas recon- 

but John of Antioch (see a letter of his noistre qu'il y eust deux substances et 

to S.Cyril, Synodicon cap. 80. Baluz. deux natures en J. C, I'une divine et 

Nova Collectio Conciliorum t. i. 783 ; iv. I'autre humaine, ou bien Tune de Dieu 

346 Col.) Theodoret and the Bishops of et I'autre de la chair, non seulement ils 

44 ApolUnariafiism dreaded by Nestorius and by Theodoret. 

AG. NEST. ,,ling having taken place and the two natures not divided^ 
„ nought of the meaner things were taken of the human 
„ nature, and they had place at length against the Divi- 
„nity^, as though all things were spoken of One, not in 

[les ApolHnaristes] soutenoient, apres 
les Aliens, qu'il avoit une seule nature 
mixte et composee de la divine et de 
I'humaine : mais ils se reduisoient a dire 
que sa chair estoit consubstantielle a sa 
divinite, qu'une partie du Verbe avoit 
este changee en chair, en os, en cheveux, 
en un mot en un corps et en une nature 
toute diflerente de la sienne, que ce 
n'avoit pas este un corps comme le nos- 
tre, qu'il en avoit seulement la forme et 
Tapparence exterieure, mais qu'il estoit 
coeternel a la nature divine, forme de la 
substance mesme de la sagesse eternelle 
et de celle du Verbe changee en un corps 
passible : Qu'ainsi c' estoit la substance 
inesme de la sagesse qui avoit cree le 
monde, et la divinite du Fils consubstan- 
tielle au Pere, qui avoit este circoncise 
et attachee a la croix ; et non un corps 
terrestre comme le nostre. 

Ils ajoutoient, par une consequence 
bien naturelle de ce faux principe, que 
la substance de son corps n'estoit pas 
prise de Marie, mais avoit seulement 
passe par elle comme parun canal [this 
was the ancient blasphemy of a portion 
of the Gnostics, see S. Iren. 3. 11. 3. 
p. 231 O.T.] : d'ovl vient qu'ils luy re- 
fusoient le titre de Mere de Dieu, et 
qu'ils pretendoient qu'on ne pouvoit dire 
que le corps de J. C. fust tire d'elle, 
sans mettre une quaternite en Dieu au 
lieu de la Trinite ; de sorte qu'il est 
visible que selon eux, le corps de J. C. 
estoit compris dans la Trinite. lis 
disoient aussi que ce corps avoit este 
avant Marie et que J . C. I'avoit toujours 
eu, ayant toujours este fils de I'homme, 
qu'il I'avoit pris du ciel [S. Cyril in his 
Ecumenic Letter to John Archbishop of 
Antioch (see 3 Epistles p. 72) says that 
some had reported that he himself had 
held this very thing], qu'il n'avoit eu 
qu'il descendre en terre avec son corps 
qui luy estoit uni substantiellement, 
qu'ainsi ce corps estoit non seulement 
consubstantiel a la divinite, mais aussi 
celeste et incree." 

When therefore S. Cyril insists on 
the Word having been made flesh, the 
Eastern Bishops thought that while 
using S..Tohn the Evangelist's words, 
he was pressing the y4yovi to mean hath 
become, been actually turned into : and 
the " One Incarnate" Hypostasis of the 
Word" seemed to them to mean not 
Union but the mixture and confusion 
of the Apollinarians. Theodoret, in his 

objections to the 12 chapters which S. 
Cyril and his Council had drawn up for 
Nestorius to sign, does not in general 
use language that differs very much from 
S. Cyril's own mind ; but sets out with 
the conviction that S. Cyril was an Apol- 
linarian and so reads and interprets the 
chapters as really intended to bring in 
Apollinarian error secretly by use of 
veiled language. Thus in reply to S. 
Cyril's " for she [the blessed Virgin] 
hath borne after the flesh the Word 
from out of God made flesh " (chapter 
1), Theodoret remarks, ,,we say that 
He has not been made flesh by nature 
nor was God the Word changed into 
flesh, ,, ,, it is plain therefore that the 
Form of God was not turned into form 
of servant:,, in objection to Chapter 2, 
,, Superfluous therefore is Personal u- 
nion, which as I think he is putting for- 
ward instead oimixture :,, the objection 
to chapter 3 ends with the words, ,,he 
who is teaching us mixture by means of 
other names:,, in objection to chapter 
5, ,, but that the Word has been made 
flesh by any turning, we not only do not 
say, but we accuse of impiety them that 
say so :,, the objection to chapter 6 
closes, ,, for not by being turned did God 
the Word become flesh, but assumed flesh 
possessed of an intellectual soul;,, in 
the objection to chapter Soccur similarly 
the words, ,, For neither did God the 
Word receive transformation [tpotttji/ 
see S. James i. 17] nor again did man 
lose what he was, and become changed 
into the nature of God:,, the objection 
to chapter 10 begins, ,, Not into nature 
of flesh was the Unchangeable Nature 
turned:,, in the objection to chapter 11 
occur the words, ,,for first of all, he 
nowhere mentioned flesh endowed with 
mind nor coniessed that he which was 
assumed is perfect man, but everywhere 
he says flesh, following the doctrine of 
Apolinarius ; next he intersperses in 
his words the notion of mixture, infu- 
sing it by means of other words.,. Hence 
it is clear that Theodoret's objection was 
not to the chapters themselves but to 
the chapters in that he approached them 
possessed with the notion that S. Cyril 
was an Apollinarian and was endeavour- 
ing to disseminate their error by dis- 
honest use of apparently orthodox lan- 

f Nestorius means that whereas it 
was the object of the Arians and Eu- 


Nestorius says One, makes Two. 45 

„ regard to the rank from connection ^, but to Nature. BooKii.l. 
,, For One is Christ, and One Lord : but in respect of ^ ^T" 
,, Christ, I mean of the Only-Begotten Son^ both Christ 
„and Son are said, one while, of the Godhead, another comp. 
„ while of the Manhood and Godhead.,, p.66Bal. 

Seest thou how with manifold inventions of ideas he § 1 
impiously embellishes the generation after the flesh also of 
the Only-Begotten, how he essays to shew that it will take 
place no otherwise than by some infusion or commingling 
of the substances having place : albeit the Teachers of the 
Church do not initiate us this fashion ; for we say that a 
true concurrence^ had place, the Word uniting to Himself "ffwoSoj/ 
the Body, yet abiding what He was. But this man tak- 
ing nought of these things to mind, hath blasphemed in 
no mean degree, parting Him into two persons and hypos- irpoaunti. 
tases s wholly severed one from the other, and attributing 
to either separately the words to it belonging : and again 
he says One Lord Jesus Christ, as though man were con- 
nected with God by rank only, not by true Union, i. e., 
by Nature. How then is He One^' Christ and Son and 
Lord, if to both severally will belong, as thou sayest, the 
being thus called and so being in truth, by reason of the 
hypostases coming together in no wise by union one with 
another, but being united in respect of rank only or sway 
or authority ? And yet if we examine into the nature of 

nomians to assert that God the Son Part ofthis passage is quoted by S. Cyril 

was inferior to God the Father, suppos- in his defence of his fourth chapter 

ing all the lowly actions that are re- against Andrew. For the last portion 

corded of God our Saviour and His of the extract compare serm 2, p. 68, 

purely Human actions, His hunger and Bal. 

thirst and weariness and sorrow and s TrpoVoiTra re /cat uiroo-TOcrets. S.Cyril 

pain, could be referred to His Godhead, in his second Dialogue de Trinitate, 

it would go to make out their case, similarly joins the two words together 

Whereas the actions are not referred "Howtheushould we be able any longer 

to the Godhead considered by Itself, to distinguish and what K6'yos will sever 

but all the actions recorded of our Lord the distinction of Person and Hyposta- 

after His Birth in the flesh, whether sis (t^ eV izpoa-iinyci} re Kal inro'cTTdcrei.) 

Divine or Human, are referred to One in the Father as regards the Son, or the 

Person, God and Man in One, of God Son as regards the Father." p. 431 a. 
the Son. Just as (to use our little com- i» One is added on the authority of a 

parisons to help our frail understanding) Syriac citation in a MS. in the British 

no distinction is made in human actions ; Museum, Cod add. 14533 fol. 9 and again 

we say, he ate, he slept, he read, he fol. 30. The Roman editors had given 

wrote, he thought: we do not distin- it in their margin as a conjectural emen- 

guish and say, his body ate, his body dation. 
slept, his soul read, or wrote, or thought. 


Equality of honour or rank does not unite. 

see 3 
p. 63 

S. Matt. 
Ib.x. 8. 

chap. 3 

7 ff{ifi0a- 


° frepos 
Kal tTfpOS 

. thing's, we shall observe that things which are in equality 
of dignity, have not for this reason parted with their indi- 
vidual existence : nor yet will the having equal degree 
in point of glory, suffice to union, as for example, Peter 
and John were both of them Apostles and holy and adorned 
with equal honours and might through the Spirit by Christ 
the Saviour of us all. For they along with the rest heard. 
Ye are the light of the world, and again, Heal the sick, 
raise the dead, cleanse the lepers ', cast out devils. Shall 
we th-erefore say that from their equality of rank or sway 
accrues to them that they too should be counted as one 
man, and this is sufficient for unity, I mean unity of their 
persons ? And how will not such an opinion be with reason 
conceived of as foolish exceedingly ? Why then dost thou 
feign that thou art right in the Faith, saying that One is 
Christ Jesus the Lord, aud then, severing into two persons 
and hypostases the One, dishonoui'est the mode of the 
True Union through which the Christ is One and Alone, 
and unlearnedly callest equality of honour connection ? 
Wliat is this mode of connection ? knowest thou not that 
dear it always is to those in this life who are rich in honours 
from the rulers to be in worldly renown ? yet they being in 
equal dignity sometimes, are yet separate one from another 
in individual being and moreover in their desire of think- 
ing and doing the same things. But if the kind of rank 
were any necessary bond gathering them into unity just 
like a physical coming together ^ ; — they would not, being 
in equality of honours or rank, have been parted one from 
another in persons and mind so as to be one and another ^. 
Where then shall we put thy connection, what shall we count 
that it wrought ? did it persuade them to be of one league, 
did it cause that they should come together unto a mystic ^ 
union ? But you cannot say this, for reason has shewn that 
the connection is utterly weak to both these. 

Tell me this too (for I will ask it as well, as matter of ne- 
cessity), what good did the rank do for the man born from 

' The syriac too has the clauses in ^ fj.v(TTiK7iu. The Roman editors 

this order. conjecture (j)vaiKiiv, of ■nature. 

One Christ. Nastorius malces no oneness. 47 

out a woman wlio was (as you said) connected with God the BooKii.l. 
Word? for did it make him equal in glory and excellency, 
and render him as great as He too is believed to be ? And 
how then will He not speak falsely saying, My Glory ivill Isa. xlii. 
I not give to another, and vainly hath the Divine-uttering 
Psalmist too prated, saying on this wise, Who among the ps. 
clouds shall he made equal to the Lord ? who shall be made ^^^^^^- 6- 
like to the Lord among the sons of God ? Is not he other than 
the Word, One and by Nature and fof th of God the Father, 
who in his proper person has been verily parted from union 
with Him ? and how is this not clear to all ? Now rank has 
not made equal to God the Word that which was con- 
nected, but it is seen to be and is in lower place : how then 
dost thou say One Christ and Son and Lord, although one 
excels, at least according to the force of reasoning, the other 
settles down below equality with Him and glory ? Besides 
(for I will add this too to what I said) the Word That is forth 
of God the Father has given (according to him) His proper 
rank to him that is born of a woman : but how he says that 
this very thing has been wrought, it is meet to examine. 
Has he too been made Very Light ? is he by Nature God 
and Life and Creator and Wisdom and Might, Image and Heb. i.3. 
Brightness of the Person of the Father ? and the Endow- 
ments of the Supreme Glory, have they passed Naturally 
into some one of things made ? what then is the Excellence 
in God by Nature ? what great and above us, if it is possi- 
ble for the creature to be rich and that essentially ', in the 
good things wherein Itself is ? But perchance it has been 
clad in rank, as participant of the Divine Preeminence ? 
there are again two undoubted sons, if it is true that 
something other and inferior by nature to Him Who 
wrought in him the participation is that which is honoured 
with relationship ® to Him : you are therefore caught now 9 o-xeVet 
as not even knowing what you are saying. For why do 
you blame those who attribute the words in the Gospels 
to One Person ? is it not because you are inventing ^ two ' kuii/oto- 
sons ? for how is there any longer One Lord and Christ 

1 i.e. as one of the things not imparted to it, but so part of its own being, 
that it may not lose it without ceasing to be what it is. 


Commimify of name disunion. 

" \6yos 

the fact 

and Son, if each have his proper person and mode of be- 
ing ^ and moreover hypostasis withdrawing unto diverse- 
ness, repudiating the reality^ of true union and having utter 
irreconcileabihty with the other ? And what is strange 
and shews the loathsomeness '^ of his blasphemies, he says 
that the names are common, I mean Son and Christ and 
Lord. And if he say that they are common, i. e., to One 
Christ and to others besides Him, his statement would 
have probability : but if he ignorantly sever and supposes 
that these terms befit the Word by Himself and moreover 
him that is forth of a woman, there are again surely and 
unmistakeably two christs and sons and lords. For he 
said, „The name Christ must one while be put for the 
„ Godhead Itself, other while for the Manhood too, or also 
„ for both.,, But the community of name ^ will help him 
not a whit to conceive of one Christ and Son and Lord 
while he severs (even though the hypostases themselves 
part not one from another), and the Persons are disjoined 
in their own proper diverseness. 

For making manifest to us the force of his innate un- 
learning he subjoins and says, 

,, When therefore the Divine Scripture is about to speak 
„ of either the birth of Christ which was forth of the blessed 
„ Virgin, or His Death, it is never seen to put God, but 
see above „ either Christ or Son or Lord, seeing that these three are 
„ significant of the two natures, one while of this, other 
), while of that, other while of this and that. As for ex- 
„ ample when the Scripture declares to us the Generation 
„ out of man ^, what says it ? God sent forth His Son ; it 
„did not say, God sent forth God the Word'^, but it takes 

serm. z p. 
66 Bal. 

* fl bfJLUVV- 

p. 28. 

Gal. iv. 

^ The ms. gives avOpdirov, a mortal : 
the word virgin is used in this passage 
as cited before the council of Ephesus : 
I wrongly edited o'lpavov, heaven, fol- 
lowing former edition. 

1 Nestorius in the fourth of the ser- 
mons which Mercator has published 
(preached after he had received from 
S. Cyril the Great Letter of the Alex- 
andrine Synod with the 12 Chapters 
appended, accompanied by Pope S. Ce- 
lestine's Letter), preached against op- 
ponents of his and re-affirms what he 

had said before, repeating a few words 
here and there from the older sermon 
from which these extracts were taken : 
a sermon not perhaps belonging to the 
volume which was first published (see 
above p. 4) but preached (as was cer- 
tainly the next piece, p. 51) to oppose 
S. Cyril's letter to monks, p. 13 b. 
In this sermon 4, p. 82 Nestorius 
says, ,, God sent His Son, a name com- 
mon to the natures, i. e., of man and 
God. He did not say, God sending God 
the Word.,, See too further on where 

Tlie Son Incarnate, Born, Personally united to flesh. 49 

„ the name whicli indicates tlie two natures. For since tlie BooKii.2. 

„ Son is Man and God, it says. Sent forth His Son made 

„from out a woman, that when you hear the word made out 

„of a woman, then you may see the name put forth which 

„ indicates the two natures, that you may call the Birth 

„ from forth the blessed Virgin, the Son^s Birth, for the 

„ Virgin mother of Christ too bare the Son of God. But 

„ since the Son of God is two-fold in His Natures, she 

„ bare ° indeed the Son of God, but bare the manhood which 

„ is son by reason of the connected Son. „ 

But WE my friend, who know how to think better than § 2 
thine empty whistlings ^ and who track out the order p of " T^pf-ri- 
the God-inspired Scripture which says that One is God the j Cor. 
Father out of whom are all things and One Lord Jesus^^^^-^' 
Christ through Whom all things were brought into being: 
when we hear that Christ has been born of the holy Virgin, 
then, then in all wisdom and zealous to go the straight 
way of the Truth, do Ave say that the Word Which sprang 
forth of God the Father was both Incarnate and united 
Personally to flesh and born after the flesh : and we will 
not endure thy trickery ''', but to One and Only, the Son ^J*''^''^'" 
That is by Nature, will we allot the name Christ, with 
reason, when the Birth through the holy Virgin is spoken 
of. For common (as I said) to Him with others also will 

other similarities or re-capitulations are from the 17th quire (Merc. p. 205), 
referred to in margin. The passage The Greek editions of the council hovv- 
which stands at the head of § 13 (see ever agree with Mercator in styling 
below p. 77)is from serm. 2. p.65 Bal. this extract eis ^oyjxa, but omit the 
and some of it also in serm. 1. p. 55. words in the title to the other extract, 
The whole passage as cited here and appending it instead to two citations 
in the Council of Ephesus (see next from the 15th quire ; one of which is, 
note) is given hy Mercator with the title, in part, at the head of § 14, the other is 
From the. hook of Nestorius himself, out given by S. Cyril both there and in his 
of the I6th quire, on dogma. In the letter to Acacius of Melitene written 
volume from which the extracts were after the reconcilation with the Eastern 
taken for the Council of Ephesus, the Bishops, Epp. p. 115. 1. 5-9. 
sermon on dogma seems to have nearly <* She bare : the Roman Editors sup- 
followed that which Mercator gives us plied ovk in the margin, as if it were, 
complete pp. 56-70, and which is there she bare not, as is also edited in the 
called sermon 2 : for the extracts from concilia where this piece is cited before 
this sermon 2 are extracted from the the council of Ephesus (t. iii. 1064 
15th and 16th quires, see Mercatoris Col., so too ed. Commel. p. 125 init.) 
^ opera pp. 205, 207, 210 Bal. : while the but Mercator gives, peperit quidem 
two extracts given from the sermon on {= iyevuriae /xtv) p. 202 Bal. 
Dogma are from the 16th and 17th p Kda/xov. The Roman Editors con- 
quires, viz. this one from the 16th jecture trfcoTrbi/, which more falls in with 
(Merc. p. 201, or 17th as Greek edd.) S. Cyril's usual expression, 
and the extract at the head of § 8 below 

50 Christ tJie Incarnate Word. 

AG. NEST, such names confessedly be, for many are sons by grace 

iCor.viii. and gods and lords botli in heaven and in earth, as the Divine- 

^' uttering Paul too writes to us : yet [they are so] as par- 

ticipating with Him Who is so by Nature and in imitation 
[of Him]. Still the name Christ and its reality will per- 
tain in no wise to the bare Word from forth the Father, 
conceived of by us as bare [Word] by Himself and apart 
from flesh : but if now He be said to have emptied Him- 
self and to have come down [to be] in servant's form and 
been made as we by reason of the flesh, He too will be 
called by reason of the anointing, Christ; for not in His 
own Nature has the Word being God been Anointed, but 
the anointing hath happened to Him in regard to His Hu- 
manity. Thus therefore when that has first entered in, 
in regard to which the anointing takes place (for His is 
the Incarnation whereto belongs the anointing), when 
Christ is named by us we will not (according to thy un- 
bridled speech) suppose that just a man, severed from the 
Word and put apart, has been born of the holy Virgin but 
the very Word (as I said) out of God the Father united to 

Ps.xlv. 7. flesh and anointed humanly ivifh the oil of gladness by God 
the Father. 

But that the anointing hath happened to God the Word 
in respect of the manhood, when He became as we, holy 
Scripture will prove to us ; for the Divine-uttering Jacob 
departing from his father's hearth was hastening on his 
way unto Mesopotamia and going to Laban the son of 

Gen. Bethuel, and having lighted on a certain 'place on the way 
■ thither he was lodging there and, laying his head on a 
stone, he sleeps : and having seen a ladder, stretching on 
high from earth to heaven and angels both ascending and 
descending by means of it and the Lord resting thereupon, 
he marvelled much at the vision and taking- the stone he 

lb. 18. ^^^ ^'^ ^y^ ^s a pillar and poured oil upon the top of it. Ee- 
gard now herein our Lord Jesus Christ, the One and only 

Isa. and truly Son, as a pillared stone. For indeed He is a 

xxviii. 16. 7 . , 7 7 . - - . 

Ps. cxviii. cnoice Stone, a head corner-stone, precious, set for the head of 
22- the corner and for the foundation ofZion by God the Father. 

Stone anointed on surface type o/ Son's Jiuman 7iature. 51 

Regard (I pray) moreover how it was anointed, for not BooKii.3. 
tlie whole stone throughout did the Divine-uttering Jacob 
bedew with oil, but rather poured it iqjon the top ^ of it. t"'" *"'- 
Therefore not wholly (so to speak) nor in that the Only- ^^pov 
Begotten is Word, has He been anointed in respect of 
His proper Nature (for how could He be conceived of as 
participate of His own Spirit ?) but rather is anointed (as 
I said) on the surface ^, i. e., externally ^ and as in part ^^ ^^^^,'g 
and on the surface on the Body that was His own by true ^ iW«- 
union : and as He is said to siifei- in the flesh humanly, i S. Peter 
albeit by Nature Impassible as God ; so is He conceived 
of as anointed in regard to the human nature, albeit Him- 
self anointing with His own Spirit those whom it befits to 
partake of His holiness. 

Thus are we minded to think and are accustomed to 
walk aright^, goi^^g on the royal and unperverted road : g"/^"'^"" 
but he saying that such names are indicative of the two Gal. ii. 
natures, allots to either with authority what seems good 
to him and is ashamed of the lowliness of speech belong- 
ing to the economy with flesh, and though you hear the 
blessed Paul say, God sent forth His Son made from out a Gal. iv. 
woman, made under the laiv, Away, says this man, think 
not that the Word Which sprang forth of God has been 
sent, for He has not been made from out a woman. He has 
not been made under the law. 

And that our words are no empty guile, but we have used 
rather his own speech, I will again bring forward the very 
things he said, 

„ For God (he says) sent forth His Son made of a wo- 
,,man, made under the law. Here he points out the two 
„ natures, he says what took place as to the human nature, 
„ for demand of the wrangler^. Who was made under the see semi. 
„ laiv ? was it God the Word ?„ Bai. 

And how will not he be verily distraught, who essays to § 3 
overturn, as far as in him lies, things so clear and known of 

q i. e. S. Cyril himself: for Nestorius the monks, to which (p. 13 b) he is here 
looked not kindly on S. Cyril's Letter to referring, see note on book 4 § 5 below. 

E 2 

52 Christ God and apart of the world. Sent, a human word, 

AG. NEST, all and undoubted ? Whom hath the Father sent to us 
out of heaven, Saviour and Redeemer ? was it not the 
Word Which sprang forth of His Essence ? Who is He 
Eph. iv. That descended and ascended far above the Heavens that He 
might fU all things? Dost thou say that the being able 
to fill all things is the work of our nature and will you affix 
it to the measures of humanity ? of whom hath the blessed 
S.John John written, He that comethfrom above is above all? Or 
"^•31- ■will haply Himself too lie in rebuking the people of the 
lb. viii, Jews and saying, Ye are from beneath, I am from above, 
jIj' and again, I am not of this world ? For if He were man out 

of woman like one of the rest, and not rather the Word That 
is from above and out of God the Father, Incarnate and ap- 
pearing in human form, how will He be conceived of as 
both above and out of heaven ? how above all and not of this 
world ? albeit a part of the world by reason of the flesh 
and (so to speak), according to the measure that befits the 
human nature, made along with all under God. There- 
lb. xx. 17. fore He called the Father His God, though He too is God 
by Nature and beamed forth out of His Essence Only- 
Ps. cvii. Begotten Son. Of whom says the blessed David, He sent 
^^- , ^... forth His Wo7'd and healed them ? for no elder, no angel but 
9. LXX. the Lord Himself hath saved us, according to the Scrip- 

„ But yea, he saith, God the Word able to fill all things 
see serm. }> ^^^ been sent. How ? for where do we say that He is not ? 
4p.82Bai. ^^ or whither will He be sent ? „ 

Will you accuse therefore the all-wise Moses too, as hav- 
ing wronged in no slight degree the Ineffable glory of God ? 
Exod. for he said that God descended in the form of fire upon 
XIX. 18. ^jjg, ^Q^j^^ Sinai. And if you hear the blessed David say 
Ps. civ. unto God mighty over all. Thou shall send forth Thy Spirit 
and they shall be created and Thou shall renew the face of 
the earth, wilt thou then perchance put aside the Spirit-clad 
and suppose that he speaks falsely ? for no motion involv- 
ing change of place "" does the Godhead make, nor will It 
pass from place to place, as though the being in all and 
filling all things were not inherent in It. These things (I 

" Kivr)<riv fiiTa^ariK^y, Liddell and Scott quote Plutarch for this expression. 

to he understood Divinely . The Son, Free, made under the Law. 53 

suppose) thyself too ^ ; but you will be reasoning BooKii.3. 

again, and rising up against the ti'ue doctrines, choosing 
to follow yourself alone. But you would surely have better 
thoughts if you reasoned thus, that our whole speech as to 
God has been framed in human wise, but is understood 
as befits Him Alone. 

But it has troubled him not a little that the Word out 
of God the Father is said to have been made under the Laiv. seeserm.4 

p. 84 beg. 

But the fear herein is nought, for He hath remained what 
He was, Lawgiver (that is) and God. And if He have not 
been made man. He hath not been made under the Law; 
but since it is true that He hath humbled Himself Who 
in His own Nature is above and high, hath been made as 
we Who is above the whole creation, and being Rich he- 2 Cor. 
came poor through being made as we, how will He not be 
said with us to have been made under the Law too ? Shall 
we not, if we think ai'ight, conclude that the measure of 
man's nature is defined to lie in his having to be subject 
to the Law ? for the exemiDt ^ and above the Law and by \ '^^ , 
Nature and in truth free will be none other than the God- 
head. Hence when He was made flesh then was He made 
under the Law too, for He paid to the collectors the di- 
drachm ^, albeit in His own Nature Free as God and Son 
even when He was made flesh. But if to thee it seems good 
to sever into two the One and to declare to us that he 
which was forth of a woman is man apart by himself, how 
will he be said to have been made under the Law too, who 
is of the nature which is under the Law ? for not that which 
hath to be subject to the Law, will be made under the Law, Gal. iv.4. 

^ The present text as it now stands allusion to it in 2 Kings xii. 4, the 

is ravrd ttov koI aavrhv, the Roman moneji of ever// one that passeth the ac- 

Editors conjecture /cara for Kal, but it count. This tax our Lord paid, S.Matt. 

is just as likely that the difficulty is xvii. 24—27, yet told S. Peter that He 

occasioned by omission from honioeote- wns free, as a Son.) Every male who 

leuton, from which even a good MS. had attained the age of 20 was to pay : 

(as is the one in which the Greek text it amounted to a hundred talents, 1775 

of these books is preserved) is rarely shekels of silver : with the hundred 

exempt. talents were cast a hundred silver 

< i. e., the tribute money of half a sockets for the sanctuary and the vail, 

shekel which was the acknowledgement the 1775 silver shekels were used in 

of God's sovereignty appointed in the making hooks for the pillars and in 

first instance by God, Exod. xxx. 12 — overlaying the chapiters (Exod. xxxviii. 

IB. (It does not appear to have been a 25—28). 
regular tax, though there seems an Dr. Edersheim, learned in Jewish 

54 The Godhead Free. Moses 

AG, NEST, but that wliicli bath a Nature above Law and external to 
Law. For the Divine and Most High Nature alone (as I 
said) is both beyond law and also free, and hath no master 
whatever, but Itself rather ruleth all and subjecteth all to 
His own yoke. 

But this man having missed right reasoning, slid down 

to this extent of impiety in his ideas and arrived at such 

< <TKai6- height of awkwardness *, from dividing into two the One 

^llllo- Lord Jesus Christ, as unshrinkingly ^ to say that Em- 

ardAws manuel is neither truly God nor yet by Nature Son, but is 

so called Christ and holy, as certain other too of men like 

us or of those who have worshipped impure devils : for thus 

again hath he said : 

„ But as we say that the Creator of all is Cod and Moses 
Exod. vii. „ god ; for it says, I have made thee a god unto Fharaoh : 
li). iv. 22. )} and Israel God's son, for it says, Israel is My firstborn 
"xp"^- ..son; and as we sav that Saul was christ^, for it says, I 

TOv, an- " ' f ' ^ ' 

ointed „ will not stretcJi forth my hand upon hivi, because he is the 
xxiv. 6. „ Lord's christ, and Cyrus likewise. Thus saith the Lord to 
^sa. X V. ^^ Qyfug My christ, and the Babylonian holy, for I (it says) 
y^r'b^"^'^' ,,'^^ci'^'shal them"^: so do we say that the Lord''' is christ 
Seo-Tr^TTji/ ^^ and god and son and holy. But the community of names 
„ is similar, the rank not the same.,, 
§ 4 What are you saying ? what word are you belching forth 

Jer.xxin. ^^^ o/" your own heart and not out of the mouth of the Lord, 

customs and deeply versed in their of a self-imposed ordinance and at the 

hooks, tells us, " It had only been about rate ot a third, not a half shekel (Neh. 

a century before [our Lord's payment x. 32 — 34). But long before the coming 

for Himself and S. Peter], during the of Christ very different views prevailed." 

reign of Salome- Alexandra (about 78 The Temple , its ministry and Services 

B. C), that the Pharisaical party, pp. 49, 50 (Religious Tract Society). 

being then in power, had carried an en- Dr. Edersheim tells us that the money 

actment by which the Temple-tribute was paid in the month previous to the 

was to be enforced at law It is Passover, pp. 47, 48. 

a matter of doubt whether the half- " In this passage as cited before the 

shekel had ever been intended as an an- Council of Ephesus are given the words 

nual payment. Its first enactment was , which S. Cyril also (see de Trin. dial. 6. 

under exceptional circumstances, and p. 589 e and elsewhere,) with the Alex- 

the mode in which, as we are informed andrine MS. of the LXX. reads, 7)yia- 

a similar collection was made during a/xevoi eiffiu, they have been sanctified 

the reign of Joash(2 Chron.xxiv. 6—11) (corresponding to Mii sanctified ones in 

suggests the question whether the ori- our version) and I lead them. These 

ginal institution by Moses was not words are required to explain Nestorius' 

treated rather as affording a precedent assertion that the Babylonian was called 

than as laying down a binding rule. hob/. 
At the time of Neheniiah we read only 

aided by Aaron in type of Christ. 55 

as it is written? No ouq calleth Jesus Anathema save in BooKii.4. 

Beelzebub. As Moses for instance may be conceived of or ^ ^^^' ''"• 

called by us God, so will Christ too ? after the likeness of Christ 

Israel, will He too be Son, tell me ? O impiety ! O words Moses 

that reck not of lifting up themselves against the glory of 

our Saviour ! sheer stupidity ^ ! and that o'ercomes all ^ Syo-^ia- 

hesitancy in respect I mean of unholy daring against the 

doctrines of the Church, Let the blessed David now too 

sinof. The enemies of the Lord lied unto Him : for the Ps.lxxxi. 

. . . 15. 

Divine-uttering Moses was by nature a man as we and lxx. 

nought else : but when on God saying, Come I am sending Exod. iii. 
thee to Pharaoh Icing of Egypt and thoushalt bring the chil- 9 i'^g_ 
dren of Israel forth of the land of Egypt, he was putting mv^;'"". 
forward as reason for begging off, his slowness of speech^ ^wi/ojEx. 
and want of utterance, since yesterday and the third day, he ib.'iv.'io. 
heard God say. See I have made thee a god to Pharaoh and lb. vH. 1. 
Aaron thy brother shall be thy interpreter^ . For feeble was t^^°'^^' 
the law to rid any from bondage unto the devil, but on 
Christ becoming our Mediator, this too has been achieved, 
just as here when Aaron was along with the Divine-utter- 
ing Moses, Israel was delivered from the bondage in Egypt. 
But since Christ was about in due course of time to be 
made under the Law too, in that He was as we and was 
man, Aaron was put in second place to Moses ^. And the 
plan of the mystery is thus, — but if one should choose to 
say this too, that by the calling of God has that mighty 
Moses too been honoured, according to this which has been 
said to us in common and as by God^s favour and munifi- 
cence, I said. Ye are gods and all of you sons of the Most Ps- 
High : — is Christ in this way God ? yet how is not this 
madness and the empty froth ^ of an unlearned mind ? for - «7^0- 
the one (as I said) beiug man by nature has been honoured 
with the mere title only, the Other is truly God (for the 
Word was God) in human form, having the preeminence 
over all of His own Nature unmutilated (for not in change 
for the worse will be the Divine Nature by reason of Its 

" See this at greater length in S. Cyril's Glaphyra on Exodus, lib. i. cap. 4. pp. 
305 sq. and especially 306 c ; also lib. iii. 3. pp". 327 sq. 

56 S. John tells that CTiRiSThiewhearts,gavethe'H.oLY Ghost : 

AG. NEST, descending to communicate in blood and flesli)^ and verily 
He is recognized as God when appearing as Man also. 
And a clear demonstration of this are the things that have 
been written in the Gospels concerning Him. For the Di- 
S.John vine-uttering John said, Now ivhen He was in Jerusalem in 
ii.23— 25. fji^j'gf^gf^ many helieved in His Name when they saw the mi- 
racles which He ivas doing, but Jesus Himself did not trust 
Himself to them, because He knew all things and needed not 
that any one should testify of man, for He hiew luhat was in 
man : albeit the being able to see the heart of man and to 
know its secrets, will not belong to any one (whence should 
it ?) of men like us, nor yet to ought other of things made, 
Ps.xxxiii. but rather to Him Alone Who is said to fashion our hearts 
^^' by Himself. Then how has Emmanuel, being called God, 

been honoured like Moses with the mere title alone, and is 
not rather in truth that which He is also said to be ? Thus 
S. John again does John write of Him,/or He whom God sent speaheth 
111. 34. ^y^g ivords of God and giveth not the Spirit by measure "^. Un- 
derstandest thou then how, albeit beheld a man as we. He 
speaheth the words of God ? For to God Alone Who is by 
Nature and truly will pertain as something choice and above 
the creature, the being able by a word to achieve what He 
will and to render partakers of the Holy Ghost them who 
have been justified in faith : — and one may see that Christ 
S. Matt, is in this case. For He said to the leper, I ivill, be clean. 
S.Luke to the widow^s son. Young man, to thee say I, Arise : and 
^"' ■ His own Disciples He manifested partakers of the Holy 
S. .Tolin Ghost, for He breathed on them, saying, Receive ye the Holy 
Ghost. Then how will He Who has advanced to this point 
and been crowned with God-befitting renown be god after 
such sort as was Moses ? whose heart knew he ? who hath 
believed on his name ? whom hath he justified through faith 
in himself? where hath he as son spoken the words of God? 
albeit he hath openly cried unto them of Israel, Thus saith 

^ oiiK e/c /xfTpov SiBciKTi rh irvivfia. naiticiis and the three uncial MSS. of 

The received translation after StS&jcri the Alexandrine family BCL have not 

adds o Sihs with the Codex Alexan- 6 dihs, whence S. Cyril takes Christ to 

drinus, God giveth not the Spirit by be the nominative case, i. e. He whom 

measure, the words, to Him are added God sent. See in his Encyclic Epistle 

to fill up the sense. But the Codex Si- to Nestorius, 3 Epistles p. 62. 

the Angels hidden to luorshirp tlieir Incarnate God. 57 

flie Lovd^, and liath a servant^s measure^ for he was made BooKii.4. 
f'lifhful as a servant in the liouse of God. Heb.iii. 

And if Emmanuel was son in tlie same way too as was not like 
Israel who was made so after the fleshy thou hast brought ^^ 
down among bondservants Him Who is in His own Nature 
FreOj even though He became in the form of a bondman by 
reason of the flesh and the things thereto pertaining : thou 
hast set in equal measure with the sons by grace Him on 
account of whom they have been enriched with the grace of 
sonship : for He has been called first-born of us by reason 
of the manhood, yet even so hath remained Only-begotten 
as Gxjd^. Therefore (as saith the most wise Paul) the 
powers above are bidden to ivorship the First-hegotten when lb. i. 6. 
introduced by the Father into the world, and on learning 
the mystery regarding Him, with ceaseless praises do they 
extol the One and by Nature and truly Son. For if He 
gives authority to them that received Him to become children §. John 
of God, as John saith, and if it is true that His Spiint effects /v^^' .. 
that we too should become.sons^ (for God sent forth the Spirit Gal.iv.6. 
of His Son into our hearts crying Ahha, Father), none who """^'"*' 
are accustomed to think aright will endure this man say- 
ing that He too is son in such manner as was Israel. 

And how was He in such wise too christ and holy, as may 

be called christ both Cyrus the King of the Persians and not like 
-r. • «- on- Cyrus. & 

yet again the Persians and Modes themselves ? for it were theMedes 
time to say that neither has Christ been sanctified humanly 
albeit the Holy Ghost soared down upon Him in form of a 
dove. For Cyrus son of Cambyses led an expedition against 
the land of the Babylonians in his time, but he was in 
error, and used to oflPer worship to foul devils : but when, 
on God stirring him up and rousing him into wrath, he 

" This contrast between our Master mortalroot and springing up out of Him 

and our fellow-servants to whom Hehad Who ever is (for all things have been 

delegated His authority before His own made through Him and consist) might 

Advent, is argued on by S. Cyril below, itself too be preserved for aye." {ava- 

Schol. § 26, also Thes. cap. 12 p. 108 c fiAaar-fjaacra' y^yofe yap ra iravra 

d and often. Si' avrov koI crvvtcTTTiKev els oei Kal 

y S. Cyril in his Thesaurus, cap. 25 avrrj Siao-aS^rjrai is Aubert's text slight- 

p. 2-38 d says, " He is therefore Only- ly emended from the beautiful Munich 

Begotten by Nature, as Only out of the Codex 331, written in the tenth century). 

Father, God out of God, and Light See also De Trin. ad Herm. dial. 1. p. 

beaming forth of Light : First-Begotten 405 c: and 7th Paschal homily (A.D. 

for our sakes, m order that all the crea- 420) p. 103; 10th Paschal homily (A.D. 

tion engraffed as it were in a certain im- 423) p. 159 e. 

58 Heathen of old separated, received not Holy Ghost. 

AG. NEST, took the land of the Babylonians, by a name common ^, al- 

4 Koiv^ l^g-^ ^^^ anointed with the Holy Ghost, he was called 

Christ. And in this way were the Persians and Medes holy 

1^°'"- '• 'vvho were his fellows (for they too served the creature more 

tJian God the Creator and worshipped the works of their 

own hands) ; but since the offering that was once, accord- 

aefv, ing to the words of the Mosaic Law, separated ^ unto God, 

xiL°i2. whether calf or sheep, was called holy ; therefore have they 

^^' too been called holy through the Prophet^s voice, by reason 

they were set apart by the Divine assent to take captive 

the land of the Babylonians. If then Emmanuel is in such 

sort christ as was Cyrus too, and in such wise holy as were 

the Medes and Persians, one might with reason say as of 

their absurdity of notion that neither hath He been anointed 

with the Holy Ghost nor is He holy at all. The Divine 

Ps. xlv.7. David will therefore lie saying unto Him, Thou lovedst 

righteousness and hatedst tvrong, therefore God, Thij God, 

anointed TJtee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. 

And he chattering after this sort against the Preemi- 
nence and glory of our Saviour, thinks that he thrusts away 
the charge of impiety, by saying something childish and 
without understanding, „ for the community (he says) of 
„ names is like, not the rank the same.,. How, tell me, 
for I do not understand ? For if He is in such wise God 
as was Moses too, and in such wise son as was Israel, and 
in such wise christ as was Cyrus and moreover in such 
wise holy as were the Medes, how will He escape having 
to be in equality of rank with them ? 

Now therefore you will be caught in having blasphemed 
against the very Nature of the Word too, for thou saidst 

„ Say of Him Who assumed that He is God, add of that 
„ which is assumed that it is the servant's form, bring in 
„ next the dignity of connection, that of the two the sway 
„ is common, that of the two the dignity is the same ; while 
„ the natures remain, acknowledge the union of rank. „ 
§ 5 He divides therefore again into two, in exceeding lack 

of understanding he lavishes on rank the force of union, 

Manhood, if not united to God the Soii, surpasses not Moses. 59 

haply not understanding wliat union is, and wliat the rank ^ BooKii.5. 
really is. But tliis we say: he said that of the two na- ^,!'/'^^^ 

J ... at^ias rb 

tures one is the sway, one the Dignity. Since then he who is xp^m» 

in equality of glory with God the Word will not surpass 

Moses in respect of being god, it is I suppose clear that the 

yery Word which is forth of God, will haye equal status 

in nature and srlory with Moses, for if the mean '^ be like ^ T^ ^'^ 

and in every respect haye exact resemblance with the first 

and third, the plan ^ of their nature will not be diverse. * ^oyo^ 

But haply he will say that the mode of rank is not na- 
ture : how therefore do you deem it fit to gather into one 
(as yourself say) sway and to crown with equal rank things 
essentially so far severed from participation one with an- 
other and also from equality ? for where a nature is wholly 
in inferior place, the other overtopping it, how will there 
accrue to it both equality of honours and even dignity and 
the mode of glory be not diverse ? 

But that on mentioning connection, haply conceived of 
as that of mere proximity and juxta-position, or as an ac- 
cidental one, himself rises up against his own words, build- 
ing what he undid and setting up what has been overthrown, 
will be clear by this again also : for he said thus ; 

„ Therefore ^ I would have you hold fast with all assur- 
„ ance : there is no severance of the connection of the 
„ dignity of the sonship, there is no severance of his being 
„ Christ, of the Godhead and Manhood there is a severance ; 
„ Christ is indivisible, in that He is Christ, for we have not 
„ two christs nor two sons, for there is not with us a first 
„ and a second, nor yet other and other, nor again another 
„ son and another again; but the One is Himself twofold, 
„ not in rank but in nature.,, 

2 This is given diiFerently in Marius there is no severance in these, but in re- 

Mercator's collection of extracts made gard to Godhead and manhood there is 

by S.Cyril from Nestorius'writings. The severance. In that He is Christ, the Son 

17th extract is as follows, „ Also from is undivided, in that He is Son, He is 

another tractate quire 25. Wherefore undivided. For we have not two christs 

I would have you secure in your assent and two sons, nor is there with us a first 

or acclamation [/cporeT;/ for Kpare?!/, no christ and a second, nor one and another, 

doubt rightly]. There is no severance nor again one son and again another son, 

of the connection and of Godhead [^dei- but Himself the Same, Himself a two- 

tatis, perhaps, dignitatis, dignity'] nor fold Son, not in respect of dignity but 

of the sway. In that the Son is Christ, of nature.,, p. 117 ed. Baluz. 

60 Curtains connected, Christ made His Body His oivn. 

AG. NEST. Tell me again what it is you term inseverable connec- 
§ 6 tion : is it the union, I mean in respect of Person, which we 
set forth, striving together for the doctrines of the Truth ? 
or is it this which is conceived of as one of juxta-posi- 
tion and proximity of any to anything ? for thus does the 
God-inspired Scripture take the word. And verily He spake 
to the most holy Moses^ when He was discoursing with him 
Exod. respecting that olden tabernacle, And thou shalt make f ft y 
^Tvviids ''«c/^es of gold and connect ^ the curtains one to other with the 
lb. 3. taches. For being five and each having individually the be- 
ing other than the rest, they were connected by the taches. 
But not thus do we say that the union has been wrought 
as to Christ, for neither as one may be connected with aTr=^ 
other, either in respect to like mindedness or bodily near- 
ness, was He too like this, but (as I have repeatedly said) 
He made His own the Body which was taken from forth 
the holy Virgin ; and we say that the Word out of God~^ 
has been truly united to flesh not without a soul. 

Hence if the force of the connection which has been 
spoken of by him, signify the union which we mean, i. e. 
of Person, reasonably will he have said that there is no 
severance of Christ, in that He is Christ ; for He is „ not 
„ one and another, nor yet son and son, other and other, 
„ first and second, „ but One both before flesh and with flesh • 
for thus will He be in respect of rank (as thou sayest) 
and also of sway, inseverable, yea rather the Same. Then 
how dost thou say that the One and Inseverable is twofold, 
and that not in regard of rank but of nature ? for not be- 
cause the Word out of God the Father having taken flesh, 
proceeded forth man as we, will He for this reason be called 
also twofold, for One and that not without flesh is He Who 
is in His proper Nature external to flesh and body *. For 
as, were one to kill a man such as we are, he would not with 
reason be accused of having wronged two men but one 

^ flesh and body. Thus I have trans- Sergius the Grammarian on the con- 

lated, following the translation given of troversy about the two Natures in the 

this piece of S. Cyril by the Syriac MS. Incarnation. Severus quotes S. Cyril 

in the British Museum (Add. 17154 fol. throughout his writings, and this passage 

21 v) written in the seventh century. The is cited in Severus' reply to Sergius' 

MS. contains a correspondence betweeh second letter. The Greek has the more 

Severus Archbishop of Antioch and usual phrase, flesh and blood. 

Interval of natures most vast yet of them One Christ. 61 

alone, even tliougli the man be conceived of as being of soul BooKii.7. 
and body, and the natui^e of the things that have been 
brought together be not the same, but diverse : so again 
must we conceive of Christ, for He is not twofold, but One 
and Only Lord and Son is the Word from forth God the 
Father, not without flesh. For that of Manhood and God- 
head most vast is the diflference or interval I myself too 
would allow, for other in respect of the mode of their being 
and nothing like one to another are plainly the things 
which have been named. But when the mystery Christ- ward 
is brought before us, the plan ^ of the union ignores not i ^^^^^ 
indeed the difi'erence, but puts aside the severance, not con- 
founding the natures or immingling them but, because the 
Word of God when He partook of flesh and blood, even thus 
is conceived of and called One Son. But you ^ in saying 
that they ought not to be called two christs, nor should 
one confess two sons, aud hereby filching ~ the semblance - viroKXe- 
of Tightness in dogma, are caught in the act of saying two 
christs, and dividing into his own diverseness man and 
God, and you endeavour to shew that the one is operated, 
the other operates : for your words are thus, 

„ The *^ good glory ^ of the Only- Begotten one while is 3 e£,So^j'a 
„ ascribed to the Father, for it is, He says, My Father ivhich s. John 
„glorifieth Me, other while to the Spirit, for the Spirit ofY^^'-^^i 
„ Truth, He says, shall glorify Me, other while to the power 13, 14. 
„ of Christ, for they, it says, went forth and preached the s.Maxk 
„ word everyivhere, the Lord co-ivorhing and confirming the 
J, word through the signs that followed. „ 

If he says that the Only-Begotten Word of God, as § 7 

•» I have translated ovSe as if it were second volume, first quire (i. e. of one 

ffi) Se, following the conjecture of the of the volumes of published sermons, 

Roman Editors. see above p. 48 note n). Mercator tells 

<= S. Cyril had looked on these words us that this volume began, ,, I have yet 

of Nestorius as replete with gravest un- much to say to you.,, (Mercator has 

truth, for S. Cyril's seventh chapter is, apparently only three extracts out of the 

" If any says that Jesus has been in- first volume, i.e. two on the Creed, and 

wrought-inasmanby God theWordand the one given above p. 51.) In the ex- 

that the good glory of the Only-Begotten tracts made for the Comicil of Ephesus, 

has been put around Hini as though He part of the passage is also cited and there 

were other than He, be he anathema." too as taken out of the first quire : see 

They may belong to one of Nestorius' Merc. p. 207, top of page, and the cor- 

earlier sermons. Mercator (p. 110 ed. responding place in the diiferent editions 

Bal.) cites them as being out of the of the Council of Ephesus. 

62 If Only-Begotten distinct, Christ is not One. 

AG. NEST, thougli lacking glory in that He is and is conceived of as 
Word and not yet Incarnate, is glorified by the Father and the 
Holy Ghost : — that he both blunders ^ and has missed the 
truth, I will leave saying for the present (for occasion leads 
us to something else) ; but he seems to me to have forgotten 
what he had just now thought out and said, for he said, 

see p. 59. ^^ Not One and another is Christ, not other and other son, 
„ for we have not two Christs and two sons.,, But, 
most understanding, would I say, if thou affirm that the 
good glory of the Only-Begotten is ascribed to the power 
of Christ, how will He be not one and another, or how not 
wholly and surely two ? for if not the same be giver and 
receiver, or he ascribe to another than himself the things 
which accrue to him by nature, Christ hath wrought being 

* evrip- possessed ^, as being other than the Only-Begotten : for 

ivepyov- if the good glory of the Only-Begotten have been (as you 
say) ascribed to him ; and the Divine-uttering disciples using 
the power that came from him, pi'eached and wrought mi- 
racles, how is that not true that I said ? for he hath wrought 
using other's power, that he which wrought and not him- 
self^ rather may be glorified by those in the world. What 
then (tell me) appears there more in Him than in the holy 
Apostles ? for they have wrought wonders not by their 
own power, and this themselves clearly confessed, for they 
were worthy of admiration in knowing this too and glori- 
fying Him Who worketh in them. Then how ought not 

evepyov- Cljrist Who accordiug to thee was possessed ^ by another 
and had from without the good glory of the Only-Begotten, 
to have proclaimed to those who approach Him as God, and 
supplicate succour from Him, In the name of the Only- 
Begotten, or in His Might, be to thee this good thing : for 
so used to do the all-wise disciples, every where naming 
Jesus of Nazareth. But to no one whatever hath He de- 
clared this, but rather to His own power used He to attri- 
bute what was accomplished, one time saying to the blind 
fx 28^"' ^^^' Believe ye that I am able to do this ? and requiring " 
6 a-iraiTwp their assent, at another ordering ^ with authority saying, 

'1 Trapoirraiej, but perhaps tlie read- <= I have translated avrS as if it were 
ing should be TrapaTraiei, is beside him- avr6s, following the conjecture of the 
self, as elsewhere. Roman Editors. 

Ezeli.xxxiv. 18, 19. 63 

I v:Ul, he clean. Why dost thou not, letting go the fables BooKii.7. 
fit for old women "which have been invented by thyself alone, yjii* 3, 
occupy thyself with wise mind about the depth of the 
mystery ^ ? 

But one may see that he little recks of things needful 
unto profit, but is afraid lest he let drop ought true and 
be caught thinking anything praiseworthy : and thinks 
every thing that is most discordant and makes a condem- 
nation utterly inconsiderate of the doctrines of the church, 
albeit he should have remembered God saying by the mouth 
of Ezekiel to those who are over the spiritual flocks. Ye ate Ezek. 

7 7 7777 xxxiv. 18, 

the good iiastuve and dvanhthe jpure' water and troubled the ly. 
residue with your feet, and My flock fed on the treading s ffT-'^^is 
down of your feet and dranli the water troubled by your feet. 
For when we apply our minds to the God-inspired Scrip- 
tures, we eat the good pasture, as it is written, and we 
drink the untroubled'^ water, i. e. the unmixed with false- 
hood, translucent and most pure word of the Spirit : but 
if we thicken it and immingle therewith like mud the 
cheerlessness of our own devices, we plot against the 
flocks of the Saviour. 

And that this too is true, the things which he has thought 
out and heedlessly said of Christ, will shew ; for it is thus : 

„ For God the Word even before the Incarnation was 
„ Son and God and of one mind " with the Father, but in 
the last times He took the form of a servant. Yet 
being before this Son, and being [so] called, after the 
assumption He cannot be called Son separately ^ lest we a Kexcopt- 
, teach the doctrine ^ of two sons. But since he has been g^s',,^^^»- 
, connected with Him which is in the beginning Son, Him <^'^m«»' 
„ who was connected with him,he maynot admit of severance 
„ in respect of the dignity of sonship, in respect I say of the 

^ S. Cyril in liis sixth Dialogue to Unspeakable such as is conceived to be 

Hermias explains that " Hence He is that of the Word with His human na- 

glorified by the Fathernot as though He ture." De Trin. ad Herm. dial. G. p. 

needed glory while conceived of as apart 601 a b. 

from flesh, and believed God forth of s a-vvaivaiv. The Greek as cited be- 

God : but since He was man, which fore the Council of Ephesus gives rightly 

does not possess as fruit of his proper crvviiov, which is a very common usage 

nature, the power of working God-befit- of S. Cyril, p. 126 ed. Comm. and t. iii. 

ting acts. He receives the power by the 1068 Col. The Latin has ivith for and 

Union and Concurrence {aw^poix))v) co-wifh (Mercator p.20o Bal.) 



64 Man not made man, bond not made hond. 

AG. NEST. „ dignity of sonsliip, not in respect of the natures. Where- 
„ fore God the Word is called Christ also, since He has His 
„ connection with Christ perpetual. And it is not possible 
• aTrrj/cp.'- „ that God the Word should do ought without the manhood, 
2rl7 „ for it has been with all exactitude brought ^ unto exact 
Soyfiart- connection, not unto deification, as the wise ones of the 

ffTUV TUIV ^' 

veurepwv ^^ neo-dogmatists ^ say.,, 

§ 8 He that durst say that the good glory of the Only- 

Begotten has been ascribed to the power of Christ, and 
that plucked asunder the bond of Oneness, gathers again 
into union and again dissolves it and parts the natures one 
from other. And most plentifully does he vainly talk and 
poreu- rhodomontade ^ to us respecting these things, so that even 
though he should say ought that tendeth unto orthodoxy, 
he may be clearly convicted of not knowing what he saith. 
For he says here that the Word of God ,is both Son and 
, God even before the Incarnation, moreover that in the last 
, times He took the form of a servant. , Tell me therefore, 
if I do not seem to thee to say what is meet. Who is it 
now that is said to be made man ? and what dost thou 

16^ 32 * ^^y ^^^^ being made man is ? who is he that took the 
servant^s form ? and how was it taken by him ? That in 
saying therefore that a man was made man, you will dis- 
play as worthy of ridicule your own understanding, how 
can one doubt ? for he that is man by nature '', how will he 
be made what he was, and pass as though to somewhat 
else, in respect I mean of nature ? that which in its own 

see p. 53 nature is not free, how will it be said to have become bond, 
as though it were not so at the beginning ? Hence to have 
been made man, will not pertain unto a man, far from it, 
and to take the form of a servant, belongs not to him 
who even at the beginning has the measure of bondservice, 
but to Him rather Who being not man by Nature, is 
believed to have been made so, and Who being Lord of all 
as God, abased Himself in our condition, uniting to Him- 
self Personally the human nature, and taking the form of 
the servant. For thus will that too be true which thou 
b See this also in the Quod Unus Christus, below. 

Name christ common to many: One Christ Gob and Manunited. 65 

saidst, that ,,after the assumption, He cannot be called BooKii.8. 
„ Son separately lest we teach the doctrine of two sons,„ 

And the right andunpervertedand straight-going path of 
doctrines^ is this and no other. But he again who mentioned 
to us the being-made-man of the Word Which is forth of the 
Father, borne almost straightway unto forgetfulness of 
what he said, severs again into two the One, both in vile 
sort* floating in feeblest^ ideas' and using ever words un- ^wT 
tested, for he said, ,, But since he has been connected with " ^'1''^'?^^- 
„ Him, Who is in the beginning Son, Who was connected 
„ with him, he may not admit of severance, as regards the 
„ dignity of sonship, as regards dignity I say of sonship, 
„ not as regards the natures.,, Hightly, my friend, dost 
thou reject as ^ unprofitable that which seems to be inse- 
cure, studiously has it been set before thee to use ever 
vigilant mode of speech. For lo, lo, severing the natures, 
thou gatherest them into union as regards the dignity of 
sonship. Sufiiceth therefore unto true union in things 
by nature severed one from another, the sameness or 
identity of names and the dignity in respect of this ? for 
thus too does it seem good to thee to say. Therefore since 
the name Christ, and moreover son and lord, have been given 
to others too as names common [to several] (for very many 
have been made chi'ists and have been called sonsand lords) ; 
they too will be as regards the dignity of sonship, both dis- 
severable one from another and all of them one in respect 
of the union which you think was wrought in respect of 
Christ too. But a man such as we will be wholly distinct 
from the Word out of God : how therefore they have not 
been severed, how too there is one son, I cannot conceive, 
unless we say that the human nature and the Word have 
come together by a true union. 

But since one must, on account of these words of his, 
carry round the argument even unto absurdity ^, that on all Trovsil- ' 

voias, to 
■ vorj^oLTuiv. Thus reads the MS., but caused only by the erasure of So/ceij/ ^"^ ^?" 
the Roman Editors give ovoixaToou which had been written twice over, as ductio ad 
and put vot]yLdroiv in the margin as a Dr. SchoU, who collated this MS., ^osur- 
reading. says. I have supplied ds which seems dum 

k There is a slight lacuna in the MS., almost necessary to complete the sense. 


66 The Word of God, the Fkee, God and Man. 

AG. NEST, sides he may be convicted of having thought not aright, come 
now, come, let us say this too. For if the dignity of sonship 
suffices unto union, since the Word Which is from forth Him 
is called and is Son of God the Father, and the name is com- 
mon to many more, where is the harm (tell me) of saying that 
the rest too all of them have themselves been united with 
Him, in order that Emmanuel may have nought more than 
7tJ>... .. they? for the claim ^ of the same names will (it seems) be 
T) lufj.fyoi' jjQj^^gmjjjjg -with Him and be striving for equality, and the 
mode of connection will lie in bare and mere appellation or 
community of name. What then is being made man under- 
stood to be ? what too the descent in the servant's fomn ? 
for if the mode of the being made man is (according to him) 
a mere connection, and consist in the dignity only of sonship 
what is to hinder our saying that it has been effected in regard 

8 (pi\o- to all the rest too? But the friend of learning^ sees assuredly 
'^" ''* the uncomeliness of what is said. Whither therefore is he 

now borne off, distraught, unto things not lawful ? by us 
Isa. Ivii. shall be said to him what is uttered by Jeremiah's voice, Thoio 
Eph. iv. waxedst weary in much journeying, for he is tossed to and 
^^' fro home about with every wind, as saith the most v/ise 

Heb. vi. Paul. Therefore receive the anchor of the soul sure and 


Ps. xl.2. stedfast, set thj feet upon a roch. If thou sayest that the 
Word of God was made man, this will suffice to shew that 
He Who is above all the creation was made as we. He took 
the servant's form although He possessed freedom as God ; 
for He was in equality with the Father, Who possesseth 
dominion over all. Cease to sever the natures after the 
union : for that one thing and another is the Divine Nature 
and the nature of man it will be fit to know, and needful I 

9 apT(- deem to those who are sound in mind ^ (for they are parted 
above p. One from another by incomparable differences) , but in regard 
^}- a- to Christ the Saviour of us all, do thou having brought 
Kal KaO' them together into union true and of Person, reject severance, 
ffraffiv for thus wilt thou confess one Christ and Son and Lord. 

• 6|iT^- But I know not how the inventor of feeble ^ doctrines 
has made exceeding petty account of the fact of union, 
and thrusting away both it (as seems) and the miglit of 

Word, God made Man : Christ^ the Word Incarnate. 67 

the truth, hath gone again unto what liketh himself and BooKii.8. 
saith, „ Thei'efore is God the Word called Christ also, see- 
„ ing that He hath His connection with Christ perpetual. 
„ And it is not possible for God the Word to work 
„ ought without the manhood ; for it hath been accurately 
„ adjusted unto exact connection, not deification, as the 
J, wise ones of the neo-dogmatists say. „ When therefore 
he says that the Word from forth God the Father has been 
separately called Christ, as having connection with Christ, 
i. e., with another, how has he not idly prated in saying 
that after the assumption He cannot be so styled sepa- 
rately ? since not as One is that conceived of by us which 
is said to have been accidentally - connected with ought ' 5^^"^'" 
else, for two of a surety will be rightly conceived to be 
the things which come together, and not one, itself con- 
nected with itself. False speech thei-efore are his words, 
and in another sense are they idle talk : but we after the 
union, though one name God the Word, conceive not of ^ 

Him apart from His own flesh ; though one say Christ, we ' 

recognize Jhe Word Incarnate ^ What then is the mode 
of the connection which you speak of conceived to be ? for ^ /^ ^ 
ifjousay that the human nature has been united Person- i -^ 
ally with the Word That sprang forth from God, why (tell 
me) do you insult the Divine Flesh ? albeit you refuse not 
to worship it, while the duty of being worshipped belongs - 
only to the Divine and Ineffable Nature : but if^ou do 
jiot think that a true union took place, but call rather by 
the name of connection, the rank which consists in identity 
of name and in mere and only equality of style, why do you 
prate in solemn language'^, saying that he that is born of ^^!^*""^^- 
the woman has „ been accurately adjusted unto exact con- 
„ nection, „ i. e., with the Word ? for they are synonymous'* ^ oixdiw- 
one with another, son with son, and lord with lord, nor are 

M.e. S.Cyril says here and elsewhere God the Son before the Incarnation, 

(de recta fide ad Iniperatorem 32 e, ad except as looking on to the Incarnation 

Arcadiam Marinamque 47 b 70 e 85 e- (de recta fide ad ArcadiamMarinamque 

115 d 12(J d, ad Pulcheriam et Eudociam 120 d) but is the name of God the Son 

131 b 148 b, in his Explanation of xith Incarnate God and Man : not as though 

chapter, and three or four times in the there were a connection with Christ 

treatise Quod Unus Christus) that the but because " God and Man are One 

name Jesus Christ does not belong to Christ." 

F 2 

68 Connection seems to mean co-operation. 

AG. NEST, the names a wliit inferior one to another, and to inquire 
into any superiority in them is (I suppose) idle, for son than 
son qua son, hath neither greater nor less. You are there- 
fore talking superfluously (clearly so) in saying that he has 
been „ accurately adjusted unto exact connection. „ But 
to say that they have been accurately adjusted one to 
another will belong (as appears to me) not to things pos- 
sessing an identity of name, but to those rather, which 
obtain the equality and likeness in every thing of things 
that are believed to be one. As for example we say that 
there hath been accurately adjusted unto exact corres- 
pondence to the form of such an one, either the son that is 
begotten from out him, or one might say his image : but 
as regards connection, how can things be conceived of and 
said to have been accurately adjusted ? 

But himself interpreted to us the force of connection : for 
„ it is not possible (he says) that God the Word should do 
„ ought without the human nature.,, Likeminded there- 
fore with one another and harmonious according to thee, 
and from common counsel advancing unto each action shall 
we believe the pair of sons spoken of by thee. How then 
are there not two christs and sons and lords ? But you affirm 

6 opydi^cfi (it is like) that the Word used His Body as an instrument ^. 

Yet if you say One Son and One Person, the Incarnate 

Person of the Word, He will not be an instrument of Deity, 

see de "but rather will use as an instrument His own Body, just as 

TQCtSi IlQ.6 • I -1 f-T-» j~\. 

ad Imp. a man s soul too does. Therefore confers One, not dividing, 
the natures, at the same time knowing and holding, that 

c \6yos of the flesh the count ^ is one ; of the Godhead again, that 
which beseems It alone : for we say that the flesh of the_. 
Word by no means became Godhead, but rather Divine, as 
being His own. For if the flesh of a man is called human, 
what hinders that that of God the Word should be called 
Divine ? why then dost thou mock at the beauty of the 
Truth, telling us of the deification of the holy flesh, and 
all but casting in the teeth of those who have chosen to 

7 06O7ro/- think aright, a god-making ^, albeit thyself sayest, 

„ In order therefore that it might be pointed out to the 

Ineffably confesses Union. 69 

„Magi too^ AVlio this is That is worshipped by theni^ and 
„ to Whom the grace of the Holy Ghost led them — that 
„ it was not to a mere babe viewed by itself, but to a body 
„ connected ineffably with God. „ 

Since therefore he says that the body has been ineiiably § ^ 
united to God, and that which is truly ineffable is beyond 
understanding and speech, true of a surety is the union or 
the (according to him) connection. For such things are 
ineffable, and of things that thus come together with one 
another one would not (I deem) know the mode. But if 
thou art able to say it, and deemest that thou canst declare 
the force of the connection, how is it any longer ineffable ? 

But I marvel that albeit he says that the Body has been 
connected with God and that ineffably, he does not say 
that it is His very own, in order that it might be conceiv- 
ed of as one with Him, but parts again into man and God, 
separately and apart, the One Christ and Lord Jesus, and 
feigns that he thinks aright, when he says, 

„ Yet °' not mere man is Christ (o accuser) but Man alike 
„ and God : had He been God alone, it had been right, 
„0 Apolinarius, to say. Why seek ye to kill Me, God, 
„ ATho have told you the truth ? This is He Who was en- 
„ circled with the Thorny Crown, this He Who said. Mi/ s. Matt 
„ God, My God, why forsool-est Thou Me ? this He Who en- '^^^- ^*^- 
„ dured the three days death, this do I worship with the 
J, Godhead as co-partner in ^ the Divine sway. „ ^ ffvuvyo- 

Yiew now I pray again how he snatches at and puts § 10 
around his own words the form^ of the truth (for,, not^^^'^'^" 
„ mere man, says he, is Christ, but Man alike and God, „) 
yet severs again and says that He is not One, and stupidly 
takes hold of something without foundation^ and constructs i^wiro- 
what pleases himself. For as though some one were saying ^^'^°'' 
that the Word had appeared to us upon earth bare and 

™ This passage again is from sermon 2 as translations of S. Cyril's citations 

in Mercator's selection: it occurs at p. 64 of Nestorius (p. 114 Bal.) and some 

Bal. In the sermon itself, after ;<7io/?ff?)e other words among the passages cited 

told you the truth, is added, but notv He before Council of Ephesiis where they 

sai/si why seek ye to kill Me that Man are said to be taken from the sixteenth 

who was a owned &c. Words here and quire, (ib. p. 207 & Cone. t. iii. 10G8 

tliere are quoted by the same Mercator, Col.) 

70 Go-worshiiJ malies of One Two. 

AG. NEST, without flesh, and had conversed with us, and wrought 
His Divine sio-ns, or that He was common man and that 
not the Word Himself has been made Man :— he says, 
,,Not mere man is Christ, but God also.,, But we, most 
excellent sir (will I say), even though we say that He 
is Man alike and God, do not speak thus as putting them 
apart, but rather knowing that the Same even before 
the Incarnation was Son and God and Word of the Father, 
and after it hath become man as we and been made flesh. 
But he asserting that He ought not to be conceived of 
as mere man but God and Man, allots the Thorny Crown 
and the rest of the Sufl^erings to man severally and apart, 
while he confesses that he worships this man with the 
Godhead ", and yet greater impiety, as not being (it is 
like) truly God and Son, but co-partner in the sway of 
the Word. For that he clearly severs, his confession that 
he ought to be worshipped along " with the Godhead will 
clearly shew. For that which is co-worshipped with other 
is altogether other than that with which it is co-wor- 

seechap- shipped. But WE are accustomed to worship Emmanuel 
with one worship, not severing from the Word the Body 
That was Personally united to Him. 

But it is meet to investigate what the being „ advocate 

2 or, CO- „of" the Divine Sway,, means. For did our Lord Jesus 
m^avv'i]- Christ Himself too like one of the holy Apostles and Evan- 
yopov gelists preach to the world another christ or son and lord, 

as having the Divine Sway or Authority over all, and Him- 
self too speak for ° the glory of another ? albeit the choir 

3 rwv Be- of God's heralds ^ proclaim to the world Jesus Christ Avho 

is forth of the seed of David according to the flesh, and the 
^ rponos plan * of our faith advances through our confession to Him- 

" SeeS.Cyrirseighthchapter(3Epis- co-operarium. S. Cyril takes it in its na- 

tles p. 68) in which he objects to avfx- tural meaning, one who speaks for, and 

irpocrKWiiffQai rw @eif A6yo}, as here to then suggests that Nestorius may be 

irpocTKvvelv (Tvv rrj 6e6TriTi, in that the using the word for one wlio has equal 

co-worshipping introduces the notion of freedom of speech, though S. Cyril adds 

Two, while God the Son Incarnate is that that is not the real meaning of the 

One. word. On the other hand, a little below 

° crwiqydpivffi, advocate or second, in at the beginning of § 11, S. Cyril uses 
reference to (n/j'?j7opoj' above. Nestorius the term crvvriyopov ijroi ffvuepyhu, the 
seems to have used <rvvijyopov in the latter word being equivalent to the co- 
sense oi partner. Mercator translates it operarius of Mercator. 

T)]<i 6ela<i (Tvv/^yopo'i avOevjia^. 71 

ward^ and we are justified, believing not on a mere man like 
us, but on Him Who is by Nature and truly God. And tlie 
Gentiles indeed were living in tlie world without God, when Eph. ii. 

. . 12 

they knew not Christ, as blessed Paul saith, but since they 
knew Him they have not remained in ignorance of Him 
Who is by Nature God. Let him therefore teach us Whose 
glory and sway it was that Christ spoke for, albeit of them 
that came to Him He demanded faith in Himself, and this see above 
faith in Him He attributed to the Father : and verily He 
said, Believe in Me and in God believe'^, and again, He that S. John 
believeth on Me helieveth not on Me hut on Him That sent Me, ib.'xii. 
and. he that seeth Me seeth Him That sent Me. ^'*' ^' 

But haply to speahfor ^ according to him may mean the ^ (ryv-nyo- 
same as to speak as^ : 1 concede, albeit the word has other « la-riyo- 
meaning. Then how may man speak as God (according to ''^"' 
thee) when enduring the contumelies of the Jews ? For 
come let us view the speech befitting each. It will be meet 
for Him Who is in truth God by Nature to say, I am in- 
visible, impalpable and superior to suffering, moreover In- 
corporeal, Life and Life-giving and above all as God : the 
other expoimding to us his own nature how it is, will rea- 
sonably say, I am visible and palpable, passible, subject 
to decay and subject to God. Will then he who says such - 
things speak as '' He That excels and is superior, as regards ' /0-1770- 
the count ^ of His own Nature ? how were this not an un- ^ xSylls 
learned thing to say ? for one surely will speak falsely, 
either that one or this. But in saying advocacy or speak- 
ing for, that it is nought else than to speak for^ another, ^a-wriyo. 
you^confess even against your will who tell us of connec- '' ' 
tion and of One Christ and Lord : and severing them into 
two you worship them, yea rather you co-worship, and 
think that you are freeing the Church from the charge of 
god-making ^, yourself engoddening ^ a man, and not say- ^eeowotias 
ing One Son even though He be not conceived of apart 
from His own flesh : for then would you worship Him un- 

P S. Cyril on S. John xiv. 1 (p. 761 e) says, " for He bade them believe, not 
takes each TrtffTevere as imperative : he only in God but also in Himself." 

72 Bootless to say One if the Persons are severed. 

AG. NEST, blamed, and will know wliere you were, as it is written "i, 

goin^ astray from the doctrines of tlie truth. 

S. Matt. ,, But yea (saith he) he hath said to the leper, I will, he 

^'"' ^' „ thou cleansed, and to the ruler of the synagogue's daughter, 

S. Luke „ Maid, arise, and to the sea. Peace, he still, and herein was 

S."Ma1-k „he a co-partner^, for he uttered the Divine words whereby 

T" ^^'' „it was possible to achieve all things easily. „ Two then are 

pos ti^ey that command, and let us grant that the words on all 

S. John matters belong to both. When then it says. Why seclc ye 

^"^' * to Mil me, a man which Jiave told you the truth, whose words 

(tell me) do you say that these be ? or dost thou allot those 

to the Word, these to a man born of a woman as other 

than He ? Where then wilt thou put the most holy Paul ; 

1 Cor. who says clearly. But to us One God the Father out of Whom 

^"^' ' all things and we unto Him, and One Lord Jesus Christ 

through Whom all things and we through Him. But he, 

over and over saying, „ One Son and not one and other, 

„ nor yet Christ and a second christ, „ contends against 

his own words, and to two persons and distinct hypostases 

^ Tuiv allots the expressions of the Divines^ and His own. 

^m p'»v Yg^ j2Q^ regardless of his own notions, he puts forth again, 

„ I ^ venerate him as image of Almighty Godhead ; for He 
Phil. 11. ^^ highly exalted Him and gave Him a Name which is ahove 
„ every name, that at the name of Jesus Christ every knee 
„ should how, of heavenly and earthly and heneath the earth 
,,and every tongue should confess Lord Jesus Christ.,, 
§ 11 And who again will be conceived of as he whom (as he 
supposes) he confesses he venerates and pretends to honour 
with likeness to God, save surely him whom he but now 
^ffvvr)yo- mentioned to us, calling him an advocate or co-worker^ of 
vvvipyhv the Divine sway ? whom he foolishly said ought to be co- wor- 
shipped with the Godhead, as son other and severally than 

1 yvwarjjKov ^crOa, Kara rt) yey pa/u.- omittefl but seem to have formed part 

lx€vov. This is cited as though from the of the sermon, since S.Cyril a little 

Bible, but I do not know to what the below says that Nestorius for some rea- 

allusion is. son or other had omitted to add, tu the 

' These words are also a portion of glon/ of God the Father. We do not 

serin. 2 (see p. 65 Baluz.). Theclos- know where Nestorius used the words 

ing words, and that every tongue should cited a little before. But yea He said to 

conjess Lord Jesus Christ, are there the leper, I ivill, S^c. 

Highly exaltedj i.e. to His pristine Natural Sitj^remacij. 73 

tlie Word of God : he says that he has also been exalted by bookIiMI. 
God the Father^ that he moreover received the Name ivhich. 
is above every name, that to him shonid both every knee how, 
of heavenly and earthly and neath the earth and every tongue 
confess Lord Jesus Christ. 

If therefore the Father hath placed Him, being God by 
Nature^ on high even before the here-mentioned exalta- 
tion : on investigating the mode of the intervening abase- 
mentj we shall find some wise Economy ^ in regard to which 
dishonoured meanwhile, He had become again in the exal- 
tation wherein He ever was, exaltation essentially inexist- 
ing and verily Proper to Him. If this be not so (as he 
deems and says) but He made some other than the Word of 
God, the man connected with Him, an object of worship by 
heaven and earth and those lower yet : — He hath engodded 
a man like us : no longer will He meetly blame us as 
though we desii-ed to engod him that is not God, whereas 
one must fasten on God the Father Himself the charge of 
the transgression hereto pertaining. He that is studious 
for learning sees therefore in what direction his words 
burst forth ^, and the inventions of his untempered mis- ^ SuKiral- 
counsel at what a word they terminate'''. For we say that iKaraipov- 
the Son being by Nature God, i.e., the Word out of God the Vuitoport 
Father, descended unto voluntary emptying, ascended again 
with the flesh too unto the God-befitting Dignity of His 
inherent Excellence : for He is worshipped with flesh too, 
as being an object of worship even before it, for He was 
even yet by Nature God, both before the emptying and when 
He is said to endure the emptiness, made as we. But this 
man disdaining so august and spotless doctrines connecteth 
a man with God by mere outward accident ^, and is not ^ (Tx^ffiv 
ashamed to co-worship him as in equality of dignity and as 
one with another, and maintains (he says) that he received 
as somewhat unwonted and strange and as a matter of 
favour that to him every knee should hoiv, and besides that 

^ i.e. ministration or ordering of God Incarnation, is called r) yuera aapKbs 
for the benefit of us His household, just olKovofx.ia, the Economy or ministra- 
as His most marvellous gift to us, the tion with flesh. 

74 TheSo^iuorshipjiedat bidding and to tlie glory of the Father. 

AG. NEST, every tongue sliould confess Lord Jesus Christ. And sliouldst 
thou say * that he was made God by Nature, he hath blas- 
phemed openly, saymg that the Nature of the Godhead is 
generate; and if not by Nature but he receive the dignity 

3 <p(jovfj of gift and from outside and by mere title ^, how is he not 
openly saying that we worship him who is not by Nature 

' vTj^is God ? And together with us (it is like) the gravity ^ of 
the spirits above too is in error. And the Father Himself 
is the beginning and plea to us of these things. How then 
will He yet find fault with them who have chosen to wor- 
ship the creature rather than Himself? and why does He 
indict and punish those that have erred, if the error have 
been by the will of Himself, in exhibiting to us as an ob- 
ject of worship him who is not by Nature God ? 

But since citiug here this word, I mean the one before 
us, that to Him shall how every hice and every tongue shall 
confess Lord Jcstis Christ, he (I know not how minded) 
pretermitted what remains and was of necessity added in 
order by the blessed Paul, come let us adding it say this, 
for every tongue confesses Lord Jesus Christ to the glory 
of God the Father. Hence if He be not by Nature God, 

2 (Txeri- but he says that on account of accidental ^ connection, I 
''^" mean with the Word out of God, he is worshipped both by 

3 evK\fias ourselves and by the holy angels : — some mode of honour ^ 

has been invented by the Father, so that the creature 
should be engodded along with Himself, and to no purpose 
has He displeasure against any for having done this : and 
if this thing were to His honour, how should He not deem 
worthy of recompense, praise and glory them who have 
chosen to do this ? 

But haply they will say this. How is it any honour to the 
Father that every Icnee should how to Emmanuel ? 

Because the Word being by Nature God and out of Him, 
that is, out of His Essence, has been made flesh, and is 
worshipped (as I said) as One and Alone and Truly Son 
with His proper Flesh. And the Father is glorified as God, 

t <^^s. The Roman editors conjectured <^7)(r\v, he says, to avoid the sudden 
change of person. 

AhsurdUy of severing a Kincj into two. 75 

Laviug Vei'y Son Him wlio was begotten from forth His BooKii.i2. 
"Essence, whom made flesh also He hath given for us, in 
order that He having suffered in the flesh might save all 
under Heaven, that everii one ivho believeth on Him should §.- ^^}^"^ 

^ '' 111. lo. 

not peiixh hut have everlasting life, that every one that seeth Ib.xiv.9. 
Him might see the Father. Now that this too is to us 
verily a life-giving thing, the Son Himself hath shewn : 
for He said, This is Life Eternal that they might hiow Thee Ib.xvii.3. 
tlie Only Very God and Jesus Christ irhom Thou sentest. 

And this and none other is the way to the right and 
most unerring line of thought, but he utterly confounding 
every thing says, 

„ Because of the wearer I reverence the worn, because 

of the hidden I worship him that is seen^'.,. 

View again (I pray) how he every where shuns the union § 12 
and fears the truth and refuses the Tightness of the Di- 
vine doctrines. Not other than the worn was He who 
weareth, but rather the same conceived of in concurrence ^ ^ gV avv6 
of Godhead and manhood, and One and Alone in truth * 
Son of God the Father, Worship therefore the Word out 
of God as One with His own Flesh. For tell me, if I do 
not seem to thee to think aright, thrusting aside as feeble 
thy slow speech^ herein. For suppose one should choose 5 jV^^o, 
to say of any man such as we are or of any one of the kings ^upraV^ 
of the earth. Because of the king's soul I reverence his P- ^^ 
body, because of the hidden I worship him that is seen, 
would not one straightway chide him and say, O sir what 
are you doiug ? one man surely is the Ruler, even though 
he be evidently compounded of two, soul I mean and body. 
^Yliy then are you idly blabbing^ to us, speaking of a wearer cparrapi. 
and a worn, a hidden and an apparent, and confessing that ^*'* 
you co-worship as one with another and dishonouring the 

^ These words are extant in Nestori- 114, 115) in a long piece extracted (all 

us' first sermon p. 55 Baluz, but some but these words) from senn. 2, and 

phrases are repeated in serm. 2 p. (35 again in page 20" in an extract from the 

just following S. Cyril's last citation. 16th quire in which this sermon was. 

The words, Because of the wearer I reve- The words here cited are likewise cited 

rence the won/, are not in this part of by S. Cyril in his Great Letter to Nes- 

the second sermon, yet are quoted (pp. torius. Three Epistles, p. G4. 

70 Christ does not sever Himself nor docs S.John sever Hun. 

AG. NEST, mode of union, whereas tlie Grod-inspired Scripture reveals 

to us One Christ and Lord, the Word out of God the Father 

with His own Body? Knowest thou not that He healed in 

Jerusalem the blind from his birth, afterward finding him 

in the temple, He engrafted into him a firm and stablished 

S. John faith in Himself ? for He came to him and asked, Bost thou 

'^" ^^' lelieve on the Son of God ? and when to this he cried out, 

lb. 36. Who is He, Lord, that I anight believe on Him ? He again 

lb. 37. said, Thou hast both seen Him and it is He that talJceth ivith 

thee ^. Thou seest how He hath shewn him not the wearer, 

not the hidden within, but rather Himself as One with the 

IS. John flesh? And verily the wise John says. That Which was 

^'^' from the beginning, which ive have heard, which we have seen 

ivlth our eyes, which we viewed and our hands handled, of 

the Word of Life. Albeit the Godhead is impalpable, yet 

the Word has been made palpable through His own flesh ; 

invisible by Nature, He was yet manifest through the Body; 

but THOU again completely severest and dealest subtilly with 

the truth, parting the natures, uniting (as you say) the 

worship. But if you part the natures, along with them 

will diverge the natural properties too of either, the count 

of their difierence will speed apart : hence two are they 


But tell me who ask, what is it that severs the natures 
one from another and what will be the mode of their dif- 
see above ference. You will (I suppose) surely answer that one thing 
by nature is man or the manhood, another God or the God- 
head : and the one exalted incomparably above the other, 
and it as much inferior as is man less than God. How 
then (tell me) dost thou deem right to honour with one 
worship things of so unlike nature and parted, as regards 
their mode of being, by incomparable differences ? For 
would you, if you put about a horse a man^s glory, be 
doing anything praiseworthy ? would you not rather be 
insulting the superior, dragging down the better nature 
into dishonour ? 

" S. Cyril loves to quote this loyal ado- of it; see it mentioned again below 
ration of our Master on the part of the Schol. § 36 and de recta fide to the Em- 
born-blind and our Master's acceptance peror Theodosius, 31 a. 

None ever supposed that the manhood hij Itself is God. 77 

But lie has invented something clever in his defence, for BooKii.13. 
he subjoins : 

^jNoty by itself God is that which was formed in the 
„ Avomb^ not by itself God that which was formed forth of 
„ the Spirit^ not by itself God that which was buried in the 
,, tomb; for so should we have been man -worshippers and 
, J very worshippers of the dead. But since God is in that 
„ which is assumed, from that which assumeth is the as- 
„ sumed co-named God, as connected with the assumer.,, 

Lo again is he who every where telleth us of connection, § 13 
and feareth the charge of man-worship, caught in the act 
of being a man-worshipper, and is holden in the meshes of 
his own mis-counsel and is detected falling into a repro- 
bate mind. , For (says he) that which is born from the 
, womb is not by itself God. , How I marvel at thy shrewd- 
ness and thy so subtle mind : for who ever is there who 
hath dared to say this ? or who that knows not that that s. John 
ivlticJi. is horn of the flesh is flesh? yet was it the own flesh "^ 
of the Word and He is conceived of as one with it, just as 
we said but now that the soul of man too is one with his 
own body. If therefore one should choose say of us too, 
The body by itself is not man, would not such an one rea- 
sonably be called superfluous in his words and a random 
talker ? for none will deny that the body by itself is not 
man, but it will be rather called the body of a man : nathe- 
less one will not severing them asunder and putting soul 
and body apart say that the body is co-named ^with the ^ '^■^'VXP'j- 
soul in order to signify a single man, for such a speech 
would not have been made orderly but would rather be 
replete with unlearning; but on bringing both together by 
physical union ^ unto the condition of one man, he will 

y This belongs to serm. 2. and follows the sense of true. The word physical 
the last quotation, a few words only in- or natural, perplexed Andrew of Sanio- 
tervening. A few words are also quoted sata, who in his objection to that chap- 
in the Great Letter to Nest, see note v. ter supposes natural to have been used 

2 See this expression plii/sical union in contrast with supernatural, 
or unity of Nature of the Union of the Theodoret, in his objection, replies 

Nature of God and the Nature of man that even man himself, though really 

in Christ in S. Cyril's third chapter, one, is allowed to be spoken of as two- 

S. Cyril says in his Explanation of his fold. S. Cyril does not object to this ; 

third cliapter that he used physical in he speaks in regard to our Lord, of di- 

78 Community of name real disunion and severance. 

AG. NEST, then style him a man, and will not^ in this way seem to 
aa6<pv\ov say what is paltry and uncomely. One must therefore if 
one would be in all wise and sensible say, A body which is 
from forth a woman, and confess that conjoined by per- 
sonal union to the Word, it has rendered the Same, God 
and Man, One Christ and Son and Lord. But now preter- 
mitting this, falhug quite away from the straight road he 

thinks '' the perverted way, and proclaims unto us 

two gods : one, as if by Nature and in truth, the Word forth 
of God the Father, and other than He, him who is co-named 
with Him. For just as no one of us would be said to live 
(for example) with himself alone, butjather he would live 
with another, and if any one were to say that any of the 
kings of the earth co-reigned with himself, such an one 
8 iSaTTa- would reasonably incur ridicule, and would be blabbing ^, 
'"^' putting and saying what belonged to one only, as though 

[he were speaking] of two : just so is it exceeding lack of 
understanding to suppose that to he co-named can have place 
in respect of one only. For they will surely be two ; and the 
one is God by Nature, the other having (it seems) the mere 
being co-named [as something] from without and accruing 
to him, is exhibited to us as a new god. Does therefore 
He That is by Nature and truly God of all lie in saying to 
Ps.lxxxi. us. If tJioa luilt hearhen unto Me, there shall he no new^ god 

8 9 • • . • ' 

^'irp'dffcpa- ^^ ^'^ thee, neither shall thou worship an alien god? Then 
how have we worshipped Christ and how to Him shcdl every 

viding the Natures in one's conception of the difference, we do not put the natures 
them. " Hence in regard of thought apart nor give them their force through- 
and of only seeing with the eyes of the out by severing, but we conceive of 
soul how the Only-Begotten became One; so that the two are no longer two, 
man, we say that the natures united are but through both is One living creature 
two, but that the Word of God Incar- made up. Hence though one speak of 
nate and made man, is One Christ and the nature of manhood and Godhead in 
Son and Lord." Ep. 1 to Successus, p. Emmanuel, yet has the manhood be- 
137 e. Again, " But they [i. e. they who come the Word's own, and He is con- 
thought one ought to speak of two na- ceived of as One Son with it." Ep. 2. 
tures as actually existent] did not know to Successus, p. 145 b c. 
that things which are severed otherwise « I have translated Kal /c&f as if it were 
than in mere conception of them, these Kal ovk Uv, following the conjecture of 
will full surely part off one from the the Roman editors, 
other wholly and separately into diverse- b something seems to have dropped 
ness. Take for example a man: we con- out here. The Roman Editors con- 
ceive of two natures in liim, one, of the jectured Urai hastens along for oUrai 
soul, the other, of the body. But sever- 'thinks : " he hastens along the perverted 
ing them in mere idea, and in subtil con- way, falling from the straight path." 
ception or fantasy of themind, admitting 


We have connection, tlie Incarnate Son worsliip. 79 

hnee how? how dost tlaou confess that thou veneratest^ 
Him ? albeit thou fearest (as thou saidst) to be called a ' '^«^«"' 
man- worshipper. 

But he has as he thinks some clever answer to this, „he 
„is co-named god as connected with the assumer:,, howwas 
he assumed (tell) or what the mode of the connection? If 
therefore by true union, I mean of Person, cease dividing 
what has been united ; for seasonably (I deem) by us too 
shall be said to thee who art severing the inseverable. What s. Matt. 
therefore God joined together let not manind asunder. But ^^^" ^" 
if thou say that the assumption or the connection is ex- 'JJ^^^^^ 
traneous and of accident ", how knowest thou not that in xon-es- 
US too is God and we are connected to Him"^ relatively^ and ^ ffx^n- 
have been made partakers of His Divine Nature ? yea the 2 S. Pet. 
Divine-uttering David singethj My soul is fast joined^ after p^ i^iji 
Thee. Shall we too therefore be co-named with God by 8. 
Nature gods according to him, to us too shall every knee 
bow? What God the Father hath enjoined to the spirits 
above let the Divine-uttering Paul come forward and 
teach; For when (saith he) He hringeth the First-hegotten iieh.i.Q. 
into the world He saJth, And let all the Angels of God ivorsliij) 
Him. Since therefore herein thy wise word has not been 
added, but He has enjoined rather that He should be wor- 
shipped as of a surety One and not one along with another : 
who is He who is worshipped by the Angels, albeit the 
Divine Scripture calls Him First-born? We say that the . 
Word out of God the Father has been called First-born 
albeit He is God by Nature and Only-Begotten Sou and 
not reckoned with the creature, as far as regards Godhead, j 
because He was made Man and First-horn among many Rom.viii. 
hrethren ^ ^^^ 

One thepefore is He Who is worshipped by the spirits 
above, the Word forth of God the Father with His own 
flesh: for then did He bear Him * and, as having the preemi- Col. i. 18. 
nence in all things, is He conceived of as First-born. Acd '^^'^"'^^ 

« See above p. 19 note k. See this same text cited in the Quod 

^ iKo\\r]9r] (from KoA-Aa, glue) but Unas Christus, at the end of this volume. 

used of the welding of metals, the fast- « See above p. 57 note y. 

cleavingof the cupping-glass to the body. 

80 Godhead and manliood diverse yet One Christ. 

AG. NEST, the God-inspired Scriptures wholly proclaim One Christ 
i7r6p(TTJ.j g^jj^j Son and Lord: but this too-curious^ man says Two 
and he is not ashamed to add a worshipped man to the 
Holy and Consubstantial Trinity : for he says again, 

„ But this kinsman after the flesh of Israel, man accord- 
„ ing to what is manifest, begotten according to PauFs 
„ voice of the seed of David, is by connection Almighty 
„ God „ and then adds, „^ Hear Paul proclaiming both, he 
„ confesses the man first and then deifies what is manifest 
,,by connection with God, that none may suspect the 
„ Christian of being a man- worshipper. Keep we ^ there- 
„ fore unconfused the connection of the natures, confess 
„ we One ^ God, reverence we the man who is co-worshipped 
„by a Divine connection along with the Almighty God.,, 
§ 14 If therefore on naming Man thou knowest that He is 
with this God by Nature, it is well and I will stop : but if 
severing the natures, not merely in respect of knowing 

see above which is the human, which affain the Divine, but rather 
p. /8 note _ . . 

z. parting them from their concurrence unto unity, confes- 

sedly thou art a man-worshipper, and it shall be said to 
^^•^ ... 2 thee by us, Tliou shalt eat the fruit of thy lahonrs ^ : and 
5 avovde. being hard and spurning admonition ^, go alone on the 
'^'^'^"^ perverted way. But we, tracking the pious and blameless 
path of the holy fathers, instructed full well in the writings"^ 
of the Apostles and Evangelists, will honour together with_ 
God the Father and the Holy Ghost, with one worship, the 
One Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom and with Whom 
to God the Father be glory with the Holy Ghost unto ages 
of ages. 

f These two pieces are both quoted in his letter to Acacius Mel. and the 

before the Council of Ephesus, see pp. Council of Ephesus in their extract 

204, 200 Bal. where they are called /;-o??« have iv avepwwcji, ,, confess we God in 

the fijteenth quire ; the Greek editions man.,, Mercat'or too translates in ho- 

add on dogma. S. Cyril cites also the last minem, p. 200 Bal. 
portion m his letter to Acacius of Meli- ^ tovs KapTrohs rwv Tr6v(t>v (Tov. So 

tene Epp. p. 115 a, see above p. 49 reads S. Cyril every where with the Al- 

note 11^^^ exandrine for tovs irdyovs tuv Kapwcoy 

B„One.„ For this word eVa, S, Cyril aov. 

Darkness God's secrecy. Faith needed. 


Ps. xviii. 1 1 hints at the depth of Christ's mystery. Gifts through Incar- 
nation. Is. xlv, 14, 15 the Incarnate Son. S. John i. 14. 2 Sam. vii. 
12 — 14 explained by S. Paul. 1 Sam. ii. 35. The Word Incarnate wor- 
shipped by Angels worships with us and is our High Priest, God the 
Word sent and how : so our High Priest. Sent and Higli Priest when 
Incarnate. , Possessor of Godhead , a misnomer. Heb. v. 1. He makes lis 
His brothers. 'Yesterday to-day and for ever.' S. John i. 30: ill. 13: 
Micah V. 2, Is. liii. 8. Gen. xxxii. 24 sqq. Higli Priestliood belongs to In- 
carnation. ' Sent ' of God is a human word and to be understood worthily 
of God. Tlie Sox Incarnate gives the Holy Ghost as God, receives as man. 
High priesthood. Growth " in wisdom and stature and favour." Union 
alone permits to attribute to One tlie properties of either manliood or God- 
head. The Paschal Lamb and the sacrifice for sin of a young bullock types 
of the sinlessness of our Sacrifice. 

Great confessedly is the mystery of godliness, and mar- 1 Tim. 
veiled at by the lioly Angels themselves also, and hereto 
the most wise Paul confirms us saying. To the intent that ^ i jjj 
now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places 10—12. 
tnight he hnoimi through the Church the manifold wisdom 
of God according to the eternal purpose which He purposed 
in our Lord Jesus Christ, in Whom ive hojve boldness and 
access with confidence through faith. For wisdom verily, 
and that not human (how could it ?) but Divine rather 
and deposited in certain inefiable depths and incompre- 
hensibilities, is the Mystery of Christ. And the blessed 
David singeth, And He made darkness His secret place, ps_ xviii. 
around Him His pavilion darh, ivater in clouds of the skies, ^^' 
calling darkness (I suppose) nought else save altogether 
the dim ^ conception of ideas, falling like mist upon the ' SvaH- 
eyes of the understanding. 

We say therefore that the mystery of Christ hath by 
no means needed subtil investigations and search beyond So 
the reach of mind, but faith rather that holds the tradi- ^^l^ ^^^^ 
tion- simple and guileless. Thus we ourselves also have ''°™'"^^- 

Cf trust. 

- irapa- 

82 Prophecies of Incarnate Son. New covenant. 

AG. NEST, been taught and believed that God the Father sent His 

own Son who is by Nature God, made Man and born of 

a woman after the flesh, that He might justify them that 

believe on Him and having freed from stumblings through 

3 yeifiaai ignorance, by His Good and most gentle authority ^, might 

present them clean and undefiled through Him to God the 

2 S. Pet. Father, and might make partakers of His own Divine Nature 

^'^' them who are under death and decay, yea and might 

S. Luke preach recovery of sight to the blind, and might bring over 

^^* ^^" the flocks which had strayed into the light of the true 

knowledge of God, and might teach at length who it is - 

Who is by Nature and truly God and the Creator of all. 

2 Cor. ii. YoY He became the savour of the knowledge of God the 

Father, and in Him we have beheld Him out of Whom He 

was begotten by Nature and know clearly the way that 

leadeth us unto everlasting life. That thus the Son should 

beam upon the crowd of the Gentiles too, hath the blessed 

l^a. xlv. Prophet Isaiah cried beforehand saying. Thus saith the Lord, 

LXX. Egypt toiled and the merchandise of the Ethiopians, and the 

Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over unto Thee and they 

shall he Thy servants, and they shall come after Thee hound 

in fetters: and they shall worship Thee, and in Thee shall 

they pray ; for in Thee is God, and there is no God save 

Thee, for Thou art God and we knew it not, the God of Israel 

the Saviour. And it is said somewhere to the Son, as from 

f^V'xx' ^^® Person again of God the Father, Lo, I have set Thee for 

* yevovs, a covenant of the race "^, for a light of the nations, that 

105. ' Thou may est he for salvation unto the end of the earth. For 

5 vfvoixo- He hath instituted ^ to them ^ of the blood and race of 


Heb. viii. Israel, the new covenant, the first having ivaxen old, and He 
beamed as far as the boundaries of that beneath the sky 
also, to the nations and people in every place and city. 
For they have worshipped Him yea and they follow Him 
spiritually, holden by the indissoluble chains of love, as in 
fetters and well-nigh say what is in the Prophet Jeremiah, 

Jer. iii. Behold WE will he Thine for Thou art the Lord our God. 

22. '' 

LXX. See (I pray) the vigilance of the Prophet's thoughts, 

» I have translated correcting toIs for ihv. 

Incarnate ^O'i^i i^rophesied to King David and to Eli. 83 

They shall worship Thee (he says) and in Thee shall they BooKiii. 

pray, for in Thee is God, and there is no God beside Thee. 

He knew then confessedly as being Spirit-clad the Word 

out of God the Father, Who should tabernacle in us, as S- John i. 


saith the blessed Evangelist John : therefore he saith that 
God is in Thee ; yet hath he not suffered Emmanuel to be 
severed into two gods, but even though the Only-Begotten 
was made man, he acknowledged Him even so as One 
and straightway added, There is no God save Thee. For 
consider accurately the Prophet's utterance. For having 
first declared'' (as I said) that God is in Thee, he hath not 
added, And there is no God save He that is in Thee, but 
gathering it into the Unity of the Economy *^, says There 
is no God beside Thee. 

But that the Only-Begotten Word of God made man, is 
declared to us by the (so to speak) whole Godrinspired 
Scripture, is easy to shew without toil by very many 
proofs : but I think it is enough for the presei;t to say this. 
God said somewhere to blessed David, And I will set np out 2 Sam. 
of thy seed after thee Him who shall proceed out of thy bowels {4* "'"' 
and I will prepare His Kingdom : Me shall build an house 
for My Name and I will stablish His Throne for ever, and I 
will be to Him a Father and He shall be to Me a Son, But 
some one (I suppose) will say that these things were said not 
of Emmanuel, but of Solomon rather: yet the most wise 
Paul will strenuously oppose those who would thus under- 
stand it, for he takes the words of Christ and says that it is 
He to Whom it has been said by God the Father, I will be Heb. i. 5, 
to Him, a Father and He shall be to Me a Son. But that 2 sTm. 
when made like unto us, i. e., Man, He should offer to God ^"- 1'** 
the Father, all beneath the sky saved through faith in Him, 
He made known saying elsewhere. And I will raise Me up 1 Sam. ii. 
a faithful Priest who shall do all which is in Mine heart ' 
and in My soid, and I will build Him a sure house and He 

^ Trpofft^yopevKus. I have corrected which belonged to our Lord's earthly . 

irpotiyopevKcijs. Economy or that plan of His, by which 

« eis kv6T7)ra oIkovojxik^v, the He deigned to save us by becoming 

Oneness of God the Son Incarnate, Man. 


84 We theQo^'sJiOUse. Worshipping, sent, offn-iwiheloiigtodhasement. 

AG. NEST, shall ivalh hefore Me ^ for ever. Observe (I pray) that liav- 

inf' elsewhere said, He shall hdld an house for My Name, 

the Father here promises to rear the house for the Son. 

And the Divine Paul understanding this, said that Moses 

Num. xii. was faithful in all My house having the measure pertain- 

h , ••• ing to a servant, but Christ as a' Son over His own house, 

6. " ' Whose house are we ; and the mode of the ministry, things 

6 Th. Kaff pertaining to us ^ not the blood of bulls and of calves, 
^'^"^ but the confession of the faith of us all. And blessed Paul 
lb. 1, 2. will again certify it, writing thus, WJierefore holy brethreti 

partalcers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and 
High Priest of our confession, Jesus, ivho was faithful to Him 
That appointed Him. We say therefore that the Word out 
of God the Father, when receiving servant's form He is 
said to have been emptied for our sake, then too did abase 
Himself in the measure of the human nature, whereto will 
pertain (and very reasonably) both the seeming to be sent 

7 7rpJ|e;'o»'and the accounting the ministry the token '^ of the very 

highest honour. For if when He became as we. He have 
worshipped with us as Man, albeit the Host above and 
Deut. the holy spirits worship Him, and Moses says of Him, Be- 
^■^^' joice O ye heavens ivith Him and let all the sons of God 
worship Him ; what is there strange or what inconvenient 
to the nature of the Economy if He have been called Higlb 
Priest as offering for us for an odour of a sweet smell Him- 
self and us through Himself and in Himself to God the 
2 Cor. ii. Father ? for ive are a sweet savour of Christ, as it is written. 
But this noble person again affirms that these things 
have been wrought in no fit order, and all but smiles at 
those who conceive that these things were so, and impi- 
ously finding fault with the Divine purposes, says thus : 

„ For they hearing the name o^ Apostle, deem that God 
,,the Word was Apostle; reading the name High Priest, they 
„ fancy that the Godhead ^ was High Priest, by a species 
„ of paradoxical craziness : for who learning of the ministry 

*• The LXX read with the Hebrew, sons in their edition of the LXX) which 

before Mine Anointed for ever; there is reads as S. Cyril does here, 

one MS. belonging to the Vatican, and ^ Mercator p. Ill Bal. reads 'God,' 

attributed to the ninth century (cod, not "Godhead," here and a little be- 

Vat. 334, quoted by Holmes and Par- low. 


Sentj said hij David, hy the Son, hy 88. Paul and John. 85 

,. of an Apostle, would not forth witli know that a man is BooKiii.i. 

„ indicated ? who on hearing the appellation of High Priest, 

„ would suppose that the Essence of Godhead were High 

„ Priest ? for if the Godhead ^ be High Priest, who is he 

,, who is served by the ministry of the High Priesthood ? 

„ if God be the Offerer, there is none to whom offering is 

„ made : for what is there worthy of Godhead that as less 

„ It should offer to the greater ?„ And hereto he adds, 

„ Whence then is God supposed by them to have been 

„ now called High Priest Who needeth not sacrifices for 

„ His own advancement like the high priests ? Is the pos- 

,, sessor of Godhead, taken from among men, ordained for cf. Heb. 

„ men in things God- ward ?„ 

Therefore dost thou say that the Word of God has not § 1^ 
been even sent into the world? The most wise Paul hath 
cozened ^ (it appears) those who were called through him, ^ ^^'\>^v6.. 
for he said, God sent forth His Son made of a woman, made Gal. iv, 
wider the law : the blessed David too will be found ac- 
cording to thee idly romancing ^ and seeking impossible ' ^h^v- 
things, for he said somewhere to God the Father in Hea- p. 8. 
ven, send out Thy Light and Thy Truth. And what (tell Ps. xliii. 
me) will not the Son Himself too speak falsely in saying, 
For God sent not His 8on into the ivorld to judge the world, S. John 
hut that the world through Him might he saved, and again, 
I came forth from the Father and am come. The wise John lb. xvi. 

28 cf 

too writes somewhere of Him, He that receiveth His testi- vii'i. 42. 
mony set to his seal that God is true, for He Whom God sent 33 "34* 
speaketh God's words. But we say that the Word of God 
hath been sent, having with the measures of the emptying 
the name and fact of being sent^ : but you why do you un- ' iiroffro- 
learnedly fear and blush to allot to Him the name and fact tola'te 
both of the apostolate and the High-priesthood? would it 
befit (do you suppose) as other than He, the man born of 
a woman having (according to you) a mere connection s 

f See last note. hood and Godhead, that manhood which 
s (Tvvdcpeiav, connection of two things God the Son made His own and united 
that remain distinct, opposed to eVwo-js, to Himself, while <Twd(peia expresses 
union. S. Cyril, in all his writing on what is His Union with us when He 
the mode of the Incarnation, uses eVw- deigns by His Spirit to indwell in us 
(71$ to express the Catholic faith in the who yet retain our own distinct persona- 
entire and absolute union of the Man- lity ; see above p. 19, note k. 

86 The Son not ashamed to endure what man shames to confess. 

AG. NEST, and that in equality of dignity only? how then is the 
. Ta Kad' -y^Qj,^ being God seen to profit any longer our condition ", 

if we have been even presented to God the Father through 
Eph. ii. another ? for no longer have we had the access through Him, 
^ ' but a man like us has become our mediator having the name 

of Godhead put on. 
3 rh ie-^ Yea (says he) the priest's office ^ is petty to the Word 
povpyuv |^ggQ^|.g^ Q^^ Qf QqjJ ^jjg Father. Petty confessedly, I 

'^ yvixv?] agree ^ with you enunciating the truth, but not in bare* 
Godhead did He dawn on those upon the earthj but rather 
made man as we, to whom the priesthood is some great 
and choice thing. But if He refused the priest's office 
as belonging to man, or indeed ought that appertains to 
the measure of bond-service, how were it not better far, 
before this to refuse too the Incarnation ? 

Yet He rejected not for our sakes the Birfch. But this 
man (as I said) is ashamed of the truth, shewing himself 

Rom. i. unwise and unskilled, albeit the blessed Paul saith. For I 

. ' am not ashamed of the Gospel, for it is the 'power of God 

unto salvation to every one that helieveth. And one may 
well marvel that the Word of God for the salvation and 
life of all endured to suffer so great abasement, which 
the inventor for us of idle teachings is (I know not how) 
ashamed merely to acknowledge, albeit he ought to wonder 

Hab. iii. hereat and to cry with the blessed Prophet, Lord, I have 
heard Thy report and ivas afraid, I considered Thy ivories 
and was amazed. But since the whole God-inspired Scrip- 
ture in a manner rises up against him, and arrays against 
him the truth, shewing that his discourse in favour of his 

5 &vKov own inventions, cold and without any real being ^ and des- 

titute of support from any quarter, lacks in no small de- 
gree the conceptions and ideas that tend unto rightness 
and truth ; hence what no one of those well reported of 
for rightness of doctrine, ever either thought or said, this 
he makes the occasion of his discourse, and fights with 

6 SiareiV- shadows and strains himself ^ to no purpose, no one op- 


'> I have translated a-vvepyw as if it were (rvvtpw following the emendation of 
the Roman Editors. 

God the Son High-Priest when Man. 87 

posing him or wishing to contend about these matters. BooKiii.i. 
And this (I deem) is to beat the air. For he said ,, Who i Cor. ix. 
„ on learning of the ministry of an apostle would not ' 
„ forthwith know that a man is indicated ? who on hearing 
„ the appellation of High Priest would suppose that the 
„ Essence of Godhead were High-Priest ? „ Since there- 
fore there is no one who says this, with whom (tell me) 
are you striving, and as though yourself alone were over- 
throwing what is condemned by the voice of all, are haply 
thinking that your opposition is worthy even of honours ? 
albeit how is it not true that since no one saith this, it is 
you who are bringing forward what it were better to be 
silent on and not to instil into the souls of the more sim- 
ple? For who is so crazed as to , suppose that the Essence 
, of Godhead were High Priest ?, Aaron was a man, albeit 
he obtained preeminence of the rest in Divine Priesthood. 
How then will any one suppose that the Essence of God- 
head is High Priest, or how will he not wholly and surely 
confess that mention is made of a man when the brother 
of Moses is named to us as High Priest ? Yet he putting 
forth some language that commonly belongs to and befits 
every High Priest of those among us, essays to undo the 
marvel of the Economy understood in Christ, and dares to 
shake from the very foundations our Divine Mystery, not 
considering that Christ hath founded the Church upon a s. Matt. 
roch, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against her. ^^^' * 
For he no wise condescends '^ to follow the common doc- 1 a^ior 
trine and that of all who are wont to think aright, but he 
alone innovates ^ without examination what he pleases. ^ Kaivoro- 
For WE (as I said before) say that the Word out of God 
the Father, made Man, offered to Himself and to the Father chapter lo 
the confession of our faith and wrought an Economy be- 
fitting and by no means out of harmony with the measures 
of the emptying ^ But not so does it seem to him, but he 

' S. Cyril in his Thesaurus, written nomy with flesh, does the Apostle say 

chiefly against the error of those who this. For when has He been made the 

tried to make it seem that the Son was High Priest of our confession ? when 

less than the Father, had said (cap. 21. Apostle ? vihenfaithful to Him who made 

pp. 213 d e2l4 a b), " Not setting forth Him'i was it not when for our sakes and ' 

the Nature of the Word, but the Eco- in our behalf He was made man and, as 

88 , The Son Incarnate High Priest. 

AG. NEST, taking separately and apart him tliat is from forth the holy 
chapter \[Ygm as though another Christ than the Word That is out 
of God the Father, says that he became the Apostle a.nd high 
priest of our confession and supposes that he is thinking 
what conduce unto piety when he says, ,, If God be the 
„ offerer, there is none to whom offering is made, for what 
„ is there worthy of Godhead that as though less It should 
„ make offering to the greater ? „ Now if there were any 
who were contending and saying that He That is truly 
Word out of God the Father had been appointed to office 
of priesthood even before the Incarnation and were in the 
measure of ministry and were for this reason to be called 
High Priest and Apostle, he would have given a wise re- 
buke ', and one would say that his argument hereon had 
been made in season. For not in lack of priests is the 
Nature That rules all, that Himself should minister therein. 
But since the Only-Begotten, being God by Nature and 
receiving from the hands of those who execute the Priest's 
office their ministrations) hath descended unto the measure 
of those appointed unto the priesthood, having become 
Man (as I said), nought strange will it be if He be called by 
us. High Priest too. Hath He not come down in servant's 
form, having taken that is the form of a servant, albeit Im- 
press and Brightness of the Father's Glory ? None will doubt 
it. When therefore He Who is in His own Nature Free 

John says, the Word was made flesh ? note y]) : and Moses likewise has heen 

then hecame He faithful to Hi?» who lUAde failhfulin all his house, Auron too 

made Him, as man fulfilling His work, has been made High Priest, outlining in 

as Himself said : then was He made himself too the Saviour. For as Aaron 

Apostle, sent in our behalf and for our was not born High Priest but became so 

sakes: then was He made High Priest many years after, when he put on the 

o/"o?(r cow/eMio?i, offering the Confession long garment and the ephod and the 

of our faith to the Father and presenting rest of the priestly raiment, which was 

His own Body as a spotless sacrifice in women's work : just so as to Christ also, 

order that He might cleanse all us For He was the Word in the beginning, 

through Him. If therefore it be said of but long time after He became High 

the Son that He hath been made/rt(7/(/M/, Priest for us, taking on Him as some 

hath been made an Apostle, hath been long robe the man out of woman, or the 

made an High Priest, let not the expres- Temple, in order that by His own Blood 

sion he referred to His Being but to the He might cleanse the people, offering 

quality of affairs. For Paul too being Himself to God as a spotless Lamb : for 

a man and existing already has been He did not sin nor was gtiile found in His 

made an Apostle (not then beginning to mouth." 

be when he was called to the apostolate J I have translated as if it were eVi. 

for existing previously, he was made an irKrii^iv instead of ctTroTrAT/lj)/ following 

Apostle [these few words are supplied the conjecture of the Roman Editors, 
from the Munich MS. cited above p. 57 

BeorrjTO'i KT7]ra)p an inexact exjJrcssion. 89 

as God, He Who is in tlie Form and Equality of the Father, BooKiii.i. 

has been called bond, economically not thrusting from Him 

the measure of those who are under the yoke of bondage, 

why dost thou fear to call Him High Priest too by reason 

of the Manhood ? for He dedicates ^ us for an odour of a 9 Kadiepoi 

sweet smell through faith, and Himself hath He offered for 

us as a most sweet-smelling oflFering to the Father. 

But he (saying I know not what) straightway subjoins 
to these things, „ Whence then were God supposed by 
„ them to have been now called High Priest Who need- 
„ eth not sacrifices for His own advancement ? is the pos- 
„ sessor of Godhead taken from among men appointed cf. Heb. 
„ for men in things God-ward ?„ Whence then Christ, ^' * 
i. e., the Word out of God made man, was, or why He was 
called. Apostle and High Priest, our discourse has already 
clearly shewn, but I think it right not to leave unexamined 
his unwonted and strange utterance. For doth he say that 
the Word out of God is Possessor of Godhead, even thoug-h 
any should wish to conceive of Him apart ^ and without ' «"" ^*- 
flesh ? doth he define His Godhead as other than He ? 
whereof I don't know how (as he saith) He hath become 
possessor, as though it accrued to Him and came to Him 
from without, although once not God by Nature, like what 
was said by that ancient woman, I mean Eve, when she 
bare Seth, I gat^ a man through God. But this I deem is Cain, 
wholly to be spurned by him and by all. Why then doth i.^"" '^' 
he speak with inexactness, and fling about Avords without 
understanding, in matters so cogent ? would not one earn 
laughter and accusal of insanity, if one chose to say that 
any among us were the possessor of human nature, or a 
horse of horse-nature ^ ? who then is the possessor of God- - «'^Tro- 
head, who taken from men is ordained in tilings to God- Ueh.v.l. 
ward ? Haply he will say severing into two the One Christ, 
Him that is forth of the Holy Virgin : for to this I sup- 
pose now too is his aim directed '. 

k (KTTtadfiTjv, acquired, became posses- were rerpairTat, following the emenda- 
gor of. tion of the Roman Editors. 

1 yeypa-TTTat. I have translated as if it 

90 Hin the Priesthood Whose the Manhood. 

AG. NEST. Hath the Godhead then (tell me) become the acquisition ^ 

3 KT9,<ns Qf ^ jj^g^jj^ g^nd hath it befallen any one of us, to become God 

by Nature and in truth and to be rich in the excellence 

of the Essence that is above all and Supreme ? Away with 

the ill-counsel, o man, for none of those accounted among 

things generate may acquire and have as his own the 

iiiature of Godhead : His own was the Body of the Word 

and as one therewith God and Christ and Son and Lord 

hath the creation worshipped, and the Heavens do pi-aise 

Hab. iii. and we with them. For as the Prophet saith, Sis Good- 

* aperi] ness "^ coveved the Heavens and of His Praise was the earth 

full, not as though a man gat Godhead (for how or whence 

could he ?) but that the Word out of God the Father had 

« fvirpoff- come into possession^ of flesh of man. But be it that he 

as an' who was talcen out of men was owner of Godhead (as seems 

accrumcnt ^qq^ ^q yourself), how IS he ordained in things to God- 

ivard, i. e., as High Priest ? will he therefore bare of the 

Godhead which he gat, minister in the Priest's office to 

God, or already having it as his own ? for this and nought 

else will the saying that he gat it signify. But if bare of 

it, he gat it not ; if having it as his own, GodJiead ™ will 

surely minister in the Priest's office to God. Why then do 

6 aKvets you waudor distractedly ^ and jumble all together and blush 

7 irapaa- uot. Stamping with false mark '^ the tradition of the Faith ? 
v!^a,vu,v rpj^g ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ (j^^ ^^^ Father hath cogent reason 

even though He be said to execute the Priest's Office be- 
fore the Father; for He has been styled Priest not apart 
from flesh, but made (as I said) as we, to whom the glory 
of the priesthood is accounted an honour. 

In another way too it is not hard to see that it is the 
absurdest possible thing and replete with much folly to 
say that he who was taken out of men and ordained unto 
God-ward, is possessor of Godhead ; for if he were taken 
by God, how possessed he the Nature Which took him ? 
for that which is taken will rather belong to him Avho took 
it, as a possession, not that which is taken be the posses- 

'" I have adopted the conjectural em- ' the possessor of Godhead,' appears 
endation of the Roman Editors, 6i6T7}s more probable, 
for fleoTT/TOS : but fleoTTjTos kttJtcdp, 

Possessed and Possessor not identical terms. 91 

sor. As for example, A man has become the possessor Booidii.i. 
of wealth, or again of skill unto anything : is it not plain 
to all that he will not himself be the possession of wealth 
or again of the skill that accrued to him, but rather the 
possessor of what he has gotten ? but this is I think in no 
way doubtful. 

Hence if on enquiring into the mode of the Incarnation 
of the Only-Begotten, we find that man became God as 
coming into possession ^ of Godhead, let him be called (after 
your phrase) possessor of Godhead, for his hath the God- ^ ^^ ^^, 
head become. But if the Word being God came into <j'ei 
^possession" of the seed of Abraham, and being in the form Heb. ii. 
of the Father^ hath become Man, receiving the servant's 
form, how would one not be distraught, if he chose to say JPhil- ii- 
that that which was taken possessed the Nature That ac- 
quired it and hath not rather become the very own of Him 
Who took it ? 

But that he carries round the force of his own words 
and inventions and moreover the very name of high Priest- 
hood in unlearned wise unto a mere man born from forth 
a woman, bearing it away from the Only-Begotten and 
Word That is out of the Father, he will make manifest by 
what follows too : for he has written again on thiswise : 

„ Not ° Angels doth He take hold of, hut Abraham's seed 
„He tal-eth hold of. Is the Godhead Abraham^s seed? Heb. ii. 
,, Hear the following utterance too : JVherefore it behoved ^^' 
„ IIim,h.e saith, I'ji all things to he madelike unto His brethren, ib, 17. 
„ Had God the Word any brothers like unto His Godhead ? 
„Mark what is straightway joined on to these, That He 
„ might be made a mercifid andfaithful High Priest in things lb. 
„to God-ward, for in that Be Himself hath suffered being 
„ temjpted, He is able to succour them that are tempted, ib. 18. 

n iireXd^eTO. The whole foregoing word fweSpd^aTO, took fast hold on, a 

argument shews that this is the sense hold never to be let go of. 

which S. Cyril gives to eTrtXafxfidvfrai ° This passage is given in full by 

in Heb.ii. 16. In his Treatise De Recta Mercator p. Ill Bal. immediately after 

/c;t',totheEmperorTheodosius,p.lOfin. the foregoing, which had been /row the 

which he again put forth in a more e?ff/(//« (////re; a few words are alsogiven 

popular form in the shape of a Dialogue before the council of Ephesus, from the 

to Hermias, p. 684, S. Cyril uses the sixth quire, p. 206 Bal. 

92 The Son Incarnate deigns to call us brothers : 

AG. NEST. „ Therefore He Who suffered is a merciful High Priest : 
„ passible is the Temple, not the quickening God of him 
,; that has suffered : the seed of Abraham is he which is 
Heb. xiii. „ yesterdaij and to-day, as Paul saith, not He That saith, 
I' John }>^'fo'''^ Abraham was I am. Like to his brethren in all 
viii. 58. thinsrs is he which assumed brother-hood of human soul 
lb. xiv. 9. }} s-nd flesh and not He which saith. He that hath seen Me 
,, hath seen the Father.,, 
K 2 The Word therefore being God tooh (as he too hath just 

now confessed) Abraham's seed; how then is he that is 
forth of the seed of Abraham any longer possessor of 
Godhead, if he were taken by God, did not himself take 
Godhead ? The seed of Abraham then will by no means be 
the Nature of Godhead, but rather hath become the Body 
of God the Word, according to the Scriptures, and His 
Own, and He Who in His own proper Nature is uncounted 
among the creation as God, when He became Man who is 
part of the creation, then, then and with reason deigns 
Ps. xxii. He to call us brothers saying, I will declare Thy Name 
unto My brethren. But that by reason of the measure of 
emptiness, the Word out of God the Father hath descended 
even to having to call those upon the earth His brothers, 
the most wise Paul will clearly shew, writing of Him and 
Heb. ii. US, For both He That sanctifieth and they who are being sanc- 
' "' tified, are all out of one, for which cause He is not ashamed 
to call them brethren saying, I will d.eclare Thy Name unto 
My brethren. For before the Incarnation, exceeding petty 
to the Word Which sprang of God was the name of bro- 
therhood with us : but when He had descended unto volun- 
tary emptiness, petty was it thus too, yet hath it come fitly 
in, for He hath partaken of blood and flesh and of those 
in flesh and blood has been styled Brother. For if He is 
see Schol. Sanctified in that He have become Man albeit God by Na- 
ture and Himself the Giver of the Spirit, how if He be 
called Brother too, will it not be so said in due order ? for 
for this cause He hath become as we that He might render 
S. John us brothers and free, for as many (it says) as received Him, 
'•^^' ^^- to them gave He authority to become children of God, to them 

our brother as Man, transforms us to he hrothers hij grace. 93 

that believe on His Name, which tuere begotten not out o/BooKiii.2. 
blood nor out of the ivill of the flesh nor out of the will of man 
but out of Qod. For the Word out of God the Father has 
been with us born after the flesh that we too might be 
enriched with the birth out of God through the Spirit^ no 
longer termed children of flesh but transelemented rather 
into what was above nature and termed sons of God by 
grace : for He has been made as one of us who is by Nature 
and truly Only-Begotten Son. 

And unerring is the word ; the Divine-uttering Paul will 
give us assurance thereto, saying on this wise. And because Gal. iv. 
ye are sons, Ood sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your 
hearts, crying Abba Father. Why then do you ofi"er vio- 
lence to the wisdom of the economy as though it appeared 
to have been wrought in no fitting order, in that you say, 
,,Is the God}xQ&di Abraham's seed? had He any brothers 
„like to the Godhead ? ,, Is not this clear madness ? for 
the absurdly enquiring into and bearing away unto blas- 
phemy, things so right and unblameable in respect of the 
Economy in Christ, what else is it than proof of the most 
utter distraction ? for confessedly in respect of the nature 
of the body or of human nature perfect as far as itself is 
concerned, has the Word out of God the Father been made 
nice unto us and in every thing like save sin alone. But 
I will ask him who says „ Had God the Word any brothers 
„like to the Godhead?,, what idea (I pray) had the 
most holy Paul in his mind when he wrote to certain. Little lb. 19. 
children of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be 
formed in you, and elsewhere too to those who through 
faith are perfected in spirit. But we all with unveiled face 2 Cor. iii. 
reflecting the glory of the Lord are changed into His image ' 
from glory to glory as by the Lord the Spirit ; now the Lord 
is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord, there liberty ? 
Doth he therefore say this to the Galatians as not having 
the impress ^ in regard to. bodily freedom, of that which is ^ "^ols tv. 
of the seed of David after the flesh, but is he travailing 
again with them that Christ after the flesh may somehow be 
engraven on them and formed in them ? albeit how will not 

94 The good, brothers like Him because holy : 

AG. NEST, every body (I suppose) unhesitatingly say, that all who are 
on the earth are conformed one to another and to Christ 
Himself, in so far as He is conceived of as man, Who is 
both Man and with us ? what formation then ante Christ 
was it that was sought for in them ? or how are we trans- 
formed from glory to glory, what form leaving, unto what 
are we transelemented ? Let therefore the Divipe initia- 

1 Upovp. Iqy come forward and teach us, the Priest ^ of the Divine 


1 Tim. ii. Mysteries, the teacher of the Oentiles in faith and verity ; 

fiom.viii./or whom (says he) He knew, and ^predestinated to be con- 
' ' formed to the image of His Son, them He also called. There- 
fore (as I said just now) in that He was made man and 
was of the seed of Abraham, we all are conformed to Him : 
all therefore who are on earth, the Father both fore-knew 
and fore-ordained ; and these having called He sanctified 
and glorified. But verily not all were fore-ordained, not 
all were sanctified or glorified : — the fact therefore of con- 
formation unto the Son will not be conceived of as exist- 
ing in the nature alone of the flesh or of manhood, but in 
another way also, and this the blessed Paul sets before us 

1 Cor. XV. saying. And as we bare the image of the earthy we shall 
bear the image too of the heavenly ; calling the image of the 
earthy, that of our forefather Adam, of the heavenly, that 
of Christ. What then first is the image of our forefather ? 
proneness to sin, becoming under death and decay. What 
again that of the heavenly ? being in no wise overcome of 
passions, not knowing to transgress, not being subject to 
death and decay, holiness, righteousness, and whatever are 
akin to and like these. But these (I suppose) will befit 
the Divine and Untaint Nature to possess : for superior 
to both sin and decay is Holiness and Righteousness. 
Herein does the Word out of God the Father restore us 

2S.Pet.i. too, rendering u& jpartakers of His own Divine Nature 
through the Spirit. 

He has therefore brothers like to Himself and bearing 
the image of His Divine Nature, in regard of holiness ; for 

Gai.iv. thus is Christ formed in us, the Holy Ghost as it were 
transelementing us from things human unto those that are 

7iot transformed into Oodhead hut hatlied in Its Beauty. 95 

His own. Therefore to us too said the blessed Paul, But BooKiii.2. 
YE are not in the flesh, hut in the spirit. Therefore the Sou ^o"»-'^"^- 
transfers not ought at all of things that have been made 
into the Nature of His own Godhead (for that were im- 
possible) : but there is impressed on those who have been 
made partakers of His Divine Nature through their par- 
taking of the Holy Ghost the spiritual Likeness with 
Him, and the Beauty of the Ineffable Godhead flashes upon 
the souls of the saints. Why then dost thou assigning 
the mere and alone likeness of the flesh, not blush, disre- 
garding the Divine and Spiritual forming, yea rather taking 
it utterly away ? Yet the Lord of all and Only-Begotten 
God lowered Himself unto emptiness for our sakes, that 
He might bestow on us the Dignity of brother-hood with 
Him and the Beauty worthy of all love, of His Innate 
Nobility : and this man, bereaving us of all that is most 
lovely, says that a mere man hath become our brother and 
shews that sure (as he supposes) is his account hereof, add- 
ing „ Mark too what is straightway joined on to these. That Heb. ii. 
J, He miglit be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things 
J, God-ward, for in that He Himself hath suffered heing 
„ tempted. He is ahle to succour them that are tempted. 
„ Therefore a merciful High Priest is He That suffered : 
„ passible is the Temple, not the quickening God of him 
„ which hath suffered. „ Therefore that by choosing thus 
to think and moreover daring to say it too, he severs again 
into distinct hypostases ^ and into two Persons, the Word ' ^"<^'r<^- 
from forth God the Father and him whom himself has just 
introduced to us as a God-bearing man, if so be that one 
and apart by himself is he that suffered, and another he 
that quickeneth, I suppose that no one whatever will 

But in another way also is he beside himself, having 
quaffed wine from, forth the vine of Sodom, and drunk with Deut. 
error and haply not even knowing what he saith : for ' 
where hath the Word out of God the Father been called 
(I shudder at saying it) the God of Christ ? for there is ^^^ ^^^' 
One Lord Jesus Christ, and one faith in Him, not as 

96 The Son, God and Man, 

AG. NEST, thougli in two distinct persons, but as tlirougli one Bap- 
tism into One Son and God and Lord, the Word out of 
God the Father even when He became Man. For not be- 
cause He became as we, will He lose the being God (how 
should He ?) nor yet because He is God by Nature, doth 
3 &7rapc£- He hold the likeness to us inadmissible ^ nor will He re- 
Se/cToj/ - f^ ^^^ being man ; but as He hath remained in human 
nature God, so being both in the Nature and Pre-eminence 
of the Godhead, none the less is He Man. Both therefore 
in the Same, and One God and Man is Emmanuel. 

But this good man rejecting the mode of the Economy 

■» rh. av- as uncomcly, removeth from God the Word the human ^, 

paiirii^a ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ clcarly seen to have in no way 

aided our condition. For he says that not He became an 
Hel). ii. High Priest both Merciful and Faithful, but allots this 
1^* i-ather to him that suffered as being other than He. Yet 

how should he not, if he had desired to be a wise initiator, 
5 mpoiffiv have made an exact muster ^ of the expressions and ideas 

that are in the God-inspired Scripture and considered that 

this is a thing which is both truly God-befitting and not 
^Kiviffei, apart from what befits and beseems the emptying^: and 
ptleT^' ^^^ "^6 "^^^^ ^^y ^^ briefly as we can. 
Himself, The God of all uttered the Law to them of old, Moses 

Phil. 11. _ ^ 

7. being mediator. But there was not in the Law the power 

Heb. vii, of achieving good without any blame, to those who wished 

lb. viii. it (for it hath ]) effected nothing). But neither was the first 

2 Cor.iii. Covenant ioxxudifaidtless, but the all-wise Paul called it the 

Rom iii '^^ii^i^^Ti'V of condemnation p. I hear him say. We hnow that 

19, 20. ivhat things soever the law saith, it saith to them ivho are 

under the law, that every mouth may he stoj)ped and all the 

world may hecome under sentence before God, because by the 

deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in His sight, 

Ib.iv.i5. (for the Law worheth unto wrath, and the Letter hilleth), and 

2 Cor. 111. g^g himself somewhere saith, He that despised Moses' law 

Heb. X. dieth without inercy under two or three witnesses. Seeing 

therefore that the Law condemneth them that sin and de- 

P The present text has KaTaKpina Se SiaKoyias, condemnation of ministry, I 
have translated KaraKpiuaTos Se StaKOfia, 

Merciful and Faithful. 97 

creeth sometimes the uttermost punishment to them that BooKiii.2. 
disregard it, and in no wise pitieth, how was not the mani- 
festation to them on the earth of a Compassionate and 
truly Merciful High Priest necessary ? of One Who should 
make the curse to cease, should stop the condemnation and . , 
free sinners with forgiving i grace and with the bending " o-tu, as- 
of clemency ? for I (He says) am He that blotteth out thy isa, xliiL 
transgressions and will not rememher. For we have been ' 
justified by faith and oiot out of the works of the Law, as it Gal. ii. 
is written. On Whom then believing are we justified? is ' 
it not on Him who suffered death for us after the flesh ? is 
it not on One Lord Jesus Christ ? have we not on declaring 
His Death and confessing ^ His Resurrection been re- » i. e., in 
deemed ? If therefore we have believed on a man like us ^^ ^'"" 
and not rather on God, the thing is man-worship, and con- 
fessedly nothing else : but jf we believe that He That 
suffered in the flesh is God, Who hath been made also ouv i s. Pet. 
High Priest, we have no ways erred, but acknowledge the '^" ^* 
Word out of God made Man : and thus is required of us 
faith God-ward, Who putteth out of condemnation and 

freeth from sin those that are taken thereby. For the S. Matt. 

, , , ix.6. 
Son of man hath authority on the earth also to forgive sins, 

as Himself too saith. Contrasting therefore with the sal- 
vation and grace that is through Christ the harshness (so 
to speak) of the law's severity, we say that Christ was 
made a Merciful High Priest. For He was and is God 
Good by Nature and Compassionate and Merciful always, 
and hath not become this in time but was so manifested 
to us. And He has been named Faithful ■", as abiding what 

1 a.fivr)<T LKaK(f , cf. in Micah vii. 18. faith, for it is true and is not otherwise. 

passetli by the transgression. Accordingly the words, who is faithful 

>■ " The sacred writers . . . acknow- to Him That made Him, implies no pa- 

ledged two senses of the woTdfaithfiil in rallel with others, nor means that by hav- 

Scripture, first believing, then trustwor- ing faith He became well-pleasing : but 

thy, of which the former belongs to man, that, being Son of the True God, He too 

the latter to God. Thus Abraham was is faithful and ought to be believed in 

faithful because he believed God's word; all He says and does, Himself re- 

and God faithful, for, as David says in maining unalterable and not changed 

the psalm. The Lord is faithful in all by His human economy and fleshly 

His words, or is trustworthy and cannot presence." S.Athanasius against the Ari- 

lie. Again, If any faithful wornan have ans ii. 6. p. 289 O.T. "Faithful be- 

widows, she is so called from her right cause Onely (ij.6viij.os) and lasting and 

faith; hnt. It is a faithful saying,\)ecaxi&e trusty unto the faith of His Promises." 

what He hath spoken has a claim on our S. Cyril de recta fide to the Empresses 


98 Faithful, passing not away ; High Priest, offering Himself. 

AG. NEST. He is always, according to what is said of the Father Him- 
1 Cor. X. self too, But God is faithful Who ivill not svffer you to he 
^^' tempted above that ye are ahle. 

A merciful and faithful High-Priest therefore has Emma- 
Heb. vii. nuel been made unto us; for (as Paul saith) the one were many 
2^"~2^* priests because they were by death hindered from remaining^ 
He, because He continueth for ever, hath a priest-hood that 
passeth not, wherefore He is able to save also unto the utter- 
most them that come unto God through Him, ever living to 
intercede for them. That the Word out of the Father hath 
remained God, albeit made priest, as it is written, on ac- 
count of the fashion and mode that befitteth the Economy 
with flesh, the word of the blessed Paul hath been sufficient 
Ib.viii. 1, unto our full assurance, for he said again, Now of the 
^' thinqs which have been said this is the sum, We have such 

an High Priest, Who sat at the Bight Hand of the Throne 
of the Majesty in the heavens, a Minister of the sanctuary 
and of the Very Tabernacle ivhich the Lord pitched and not 
man. View therefore view the Word Which sprang of 
God illustrious as God in supremest excellencies and in the 
Seat of Godhead, and the Same executing the Priest's 
Office as man and offering to the Father no sacrifice of 
earth but Divine rather and spiritual and how He has Hea- 
Ib.vii.i6. ven as His Holy Tabernacle. For not after the law of a 
carnal commandment has He been made High Priest, but 
after the poiver of cm indissoluble life, as it is written. Faith- 
9 f';^f'- ful therefore is He in this too, and sure ^ to them who come to 
77U0S Him, that He is able full easily to save them quite, for with 
lb. X.14. His own Blood and with One Offering liath He perfected for 
ever them that are sanctified. For this I deem doth the 
Ib.ii.i8. iioly Paul shew us saying, for in that He Himself hath 
suffered being tempted. He is able to succour them that are 
tempted. Why then unrecking of thoughts which pertain 
unto piety and straying from words of rightness and truth, 
does he say, „ He That suff'ered is a Merciful High Priest, 

Pulcheria and Eudocia, § 5, p. 135 d. through Him to God, and the Father 
"He is called faithful because He is too has been called faithful." lb. § 18, p. 
able to save always them who approach 1-18 fiia. 

Yesterday to day and for ever hetoJien God. 99 

„ Passible tlie Temple, not the Life-giving God of Him BooKiii.3. 
,, "Who suflFered? „ 

That the Word of God then hath of His own Will suffered 
in the flesh for our sakes, shall be shewn in its own time : book 5 
but that he is severing the Inseverable and setting forth 
two christs by the effect of his ideas, even though he clearly 
say One Christ, he shall be no less convicted through what 
has been forthwith subjoined, for he said again, 

„ Abraham's seed is He Who was yesterday and to-day, Heb. xiii. 
„ according to the voice of Paul, not He Who saith, Bpfore g j^^j^j^ 
„Ahraliam ivas, I am. Like to His hrethren in all things, vm. 58. 
„ He Who assumed brotherhood of human soul and body, 
„ not He Who saith. He that hath seen Me Jiatli seen the lb. xiv. 9. 
„ Father. He was sent Who is consubstantial with us and 
„ has been anointed to preach remission to the captives and s. Luke 
„ recovery of sight to the Hind, for tlie Spirit of the Lord is ^^' ' 
„ upon Me, wherefore He anointed Me. ,, 

Thou severest therefore into two again and that patently, § 3 

then how art thou not convicted of being sensual and hav- S. Jude 

. . . 19 

ing not the Spirit, as saith the disciple of the Saviour ? but 

the might of the Truth will array itself (o man) against thy 

words. For we affirm that the Word Himself out of God 

the Father took hold of Abraham's seed, and made His own 

body having a reasonable soul the body which was assumed 

of the holy Virgin. And verily by true union do we say that 

One and the Same is He Who was yesterday and to-day and Heb. xiii. 

for ever, and Who before Abraham Divinely, was made man 

after and underwent birth of a woman. Hence He will not lie 

in saying. Verily L say unto you, Before Abraham was I am. S. John 

But he does not the least understand what yesterday 

and to-day and for ever is. For that he may shew that 

the Word of God is Eternal and that by Nature and 

superior to change and turn, even though He have been 

made Man, he parted the whole of time into three periods, 

and puts yesterday of past time, to-day of the present, and 

for ever of the future. But this boorish man against reason 

[says] that yesterday and to-day are spoken by him of a 

H 2 

100 The Baptist ivitnesses to a Mau, yet Prior : 

AG. NEST, common man, not considering that it will full surely shew 
Him to have been older and pre-existent to His own Birth, if 
He were at all oi yesterday, which is indicative of time past. 
That not one is He that is yesterday and to-day, Jesus Christ, 
another He Who saith, before Abraham ivas I am, but One 
and the Same by a true Union^ the Word having been made 
Man as we and having preserved to His own Nature, even 
when He was made man, the being without beginning in 
time, one may see and that without trouble, in the God- 
inspired Scripture. For as the blessed Evangelist John 

S.Johni, saith of Christ the Saviour of us all, John heareth witness 
of Him and hath cried saying, He That cometh after me has 
been made ^ before me, for He was before me, 9,nd again, 

lb. 29,30. The next day he looheth at Jesus coming unto him and saith, 
Behold the Lamb of God Which talceth away the sin of 
the world. This is He of Whom I said. After me cometh a 
Man Which has been made before me, for He was before me. 
Thou seest then and that very clearly the Divine-uttering 
Baptist calling Jesus a Man and coming after, as being late- 
born and after him, yet preceding him and pre-existing^ 
for this, I deem, the words, for He was before me and has 
been made before me, mean. How then if He is a Man, is 

8 yeyoviv, has been made, or has he- that He is Word, the second place as 

come. S.Cyril in his commentaryappears to the flesh, even though out of His 

to understand the word in the sense of, fulnessha,ve all the saints partaken : for 

has surpassed my 7neasM-e and come to be alone full is the Godhead as It saith 

before me, though I was before Him. in through the voice of Isaiah [the allusion 

time; the latter words /or //e was before is to Isaiah i. 11, TrA-fipTjs et/j-i which S. 

jwe, i.e. as God, giving the reason of His Cyril read separately from the words 

surpassing John the Baptist's measure following, as his citations beginning with 

and calling. See S. Cyril on S. John i. the words following in Glaph. 19 a, 

15, pp. 98, 99 : pp. 113 sqq. O.T. on S. John 140 b shew] : to It Alone 

Elsewhere S.Cyril says, "we must will pertain rendering others partakers 

therefore attribute to Him even with flesh of Itself out of Its own fulness. This 

the seniority, as God by Nature united Christ hath done. There is therefore 

to flesh, and in the habit of communi- One Son and Lord, the Word out of God 

cating(«:oii/o7roi€7r)to His own Body the made flesh, the same God alike and 

goods of His proper Nature." de recta Man. The following will have the 

fide to the Emperor, p. 39 b, retained same meaning : This is He of whom I 

in de Incarnatione Unigeniti 711 b. said. After me cometh a man who has been 

" John says of Christ, ' He who cometh made before me for He ivas prior to me. 

after me, i. e. He who is manifested For lo calling Him a man and coming 

after me,' Whom he himself heralded, after, he says that He is first {irpwrov) 

* has been made before me,' i. e. pre- as God. For in the beginning was the 

ceding in glory ; for He was first in Word and the Word was God." de recta 

Being also as God. How then is he who fide to the Princesses Arcadia and 

is after Him before Him in time? be- Marina 113 b c d. See also below Quod 

cause the Word was God and has been iinus Christus. 
made flesh, having the precedence in 

Christ witnesses to Himself. 101 

He conceived of as pre-existing and is said to be before BooKiii.3. 
him who had the start of Him in time and had his birth in 
the flesh older than His ? For if this were said of a man 
like us^ every body would (I suppose) be at a loss to defend 
it, but in regard to Christ the Saviour of us all, there is no 
difficulty. For He Who is out of God makes His own the 
birth of His own flesh, yet is He not ignorant that He is 
Maker of the worlds and hath pre-existence as God, and 
is Co-eternal with His own Father. For we do not say 
that He hath His Being contemporaneous with the birth of 
His own body, but was (as I said) inefiably begotten of the 
Essence of God the Father. Therefore having His Being 
before Abraham as God even though He was made Man, 
He will not speak falsely in saying, as One in truth both 
Son and Lord, Before Abraham was I am. 

And marvel not if He hath apportioned to His own Na- 
ture the being before Abraham, but consider rather that 
albeit He had taken a body of the holy Virgin, He said to 
Nicodemus, If I have told you earthly things and ye believe s. John 
not, how shall ye believe if I tell you heavenly things? and^^^' ' ' 
no man hath ascended up into heaven but He That came down 
from Heaven, the 8on of Man, albeit He was called son of 
man too, born of a woman after the flesh. Will He then 
be false in saying that there hath come down from Heaven 
the son of man, i. e., Himself ? Not so, for He is Himself 
the Truth. How then will the son of man be rightly con- 
ceived of as from above ? because the Word being God and 
out of the Essence That is above all, is said to have come 
down and to have taken the servant^s form. Therefore 
He converseth with us, not as any longer bare ^ Word, but i yv/xuhs, 
man as we, and as already conceived of as One with the flesh! "^ 
Flesh united to Him. And as by reason of what beseemeth 
the emptiness. He maketh His own all that belongs to His 
own Flesh, albeit by Nature unembodied ; so Himself being 
from above and out of Heaven, He allotteth again the com- 
ing from above to Himself even when He hath been made 
Man, even though He hath been born according to the flesh 
with us of a woman. The properties therefore of the human 

102 Son Father's Image as God, as Man lihp. us. 

AG. NEST, nature have become the very own of the Word, those again 
of the Word Himself, the very own of the human nature : 
for thus is conceived of One Christ and Son and Lord. 

"-KaivoTd- gy|. sijice this innovator^ has added that ,, Z?'^e to His 


„ brethren in all things is He Who assumed brotherhood of 

^: «^"^" ,, human soul and flesh, not He Who saith. He that hath seen 
XIV. y. '' ' 

„ Me hath seen the Father, „ come now let us again consider 

as we can what it is which he here saith. For that the 

3 xapa- Son is the Image and Impress ^ of God the Father, he too 

''^'"' hath confessed : who again „ He is Who of human soul and 

„ body assumed brotherhood, „ i. e., with us, let him come 

forward and teach; for no one would say that a man like 

us, such as (for example) Barnabas or Paul or any other 

of those who are reckoned among men, would be said to 

take brotherhood of human soul and body, as though he 

were ought else than this, and so took it, but he is so 

see above rather in being what he is. Not one therefore who is man 

pp.16, o . 

33, 64 could be conceived as taking the being what he is, as 

though it were other than he : but it will beseem rather 

the Word which sprang forth of God, having no rank 

\oyovs among us in regard to the count * of His own Nature, to 

take „ brotherhood of human soul and body „ with us. 

And the word of the truth contends on our side and the 

tradition of the undefiled Faith. It holds then that God 

the Word in the Form of God the Father has been made our 

Brother in all things, taking „ brotherhood of human soul 

lb. „ and body, „ and will not speak falsely in saying, He that 

hath seen Me hath seen the Father. For if any among us 

had fallen into such unlearning in his ideas as to suppose 

that God the Father Himself Which is in Heaven must 

needs come down, even to the having likeness with us (I 

mean bodily) ; he might well have feared lest that when 

Christ says. He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father, he 

might be imagining that He too out of Whom He is, was in 

form as we, and in fashion of body. But since when He 

was made man, He preserved the being God, and holdeth 

■KoillZl', t^6 Beauty of His own Nature untarnished ^, I would no 

ZuiMn'' '^^^^^ shrink from saying that He possesseth likeness with 


Some of the Jews confessed two Generations, yet perplexed. 103 

us, in respect of His being man as we, AYlio is of soul and BooKiii.3. 
body, albeit God by Nature and Impress of tlie Persou of 
Him ^Yho hath begotten Him. One therefore and the 
Same is He, like to His brethren after the flesh, yet shew- 
ing in His own Nature Him too Who begat Him, in regard 
I say to His being God. 

But this man doth not understand this (whence should 
he ?) but adulterating (so to speak) the plan of the mystery 
which is right and unalloyed, he introduces to us one and 
another christ, and caught in Jewish accusals, perceives 
not where he is nor in what reach of ills he hath come. 
For they of the blood of Israel heard God crying aloud 
through one of the holy Prophets respecting Emmanuel, 
And THOU Bethlehem house of Ejjhratha, little art thou to he Mic. v. 2. 
among the thousands of Judah ; out of thee shall He come 
to Me to be ruler in Israel, and His goings forth from the he- 
ginning from the days of eternity: and again. His ^ewe- isa. liii.S, 
ration ivho shall tell ? hecause His life is raised from the 
earth. And they, no wise understanding the mystery nor ^gg on 
yet knowing that albeit God by Nature and having the ^.-/"^" 
origin of His Being Invisible and la comprehensible, Hepp-5i7, 
was called Bethlehemite as being there born after the flesh 
out of the root of Jesse and David, said one to another. Is g j^j^^ 
not this He Whom they seek to Mil ? lo, He speaheth boldly I^'* ^^~ 
and they say nothing unto Him ; do the rulers know that This 
Man is the Christ ? Yet we know this Man whence He is, 
but Christ when He cometli, no man hnoweth whence He is. 
For they heard (as I said) the Prophet saying plainly. His 
generation who shall tell ? and that He hath His goings forth 
or His Being before every age. View again (I pray) the e i^^pov. 
vastness of Jewish stupor ^ : for on saying The Christ ivhen 1^1^27. 
He cometh, no one hnoweth whence He is, they said again 
one to another. Of a truth this is the Prophet : others (it ib.40— 
says) said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? said not the 
Scripture thai out of the seed of David and from Bethlehem 
the village where was David, the Christ cometh ? Seest thou 
how they stagger, confessing both His being apart from 
beginning, Divinely, and His fleshly Generation in time ? 

104 Explanation of it. TJie Son sent consubstantial with us, 

AG. NEST. But tliey would not have been carried away into mis-coun- 
sel tlins extra vagantj if they had known truly that the Word 
being God, proceeded Man out of the root of Jesse and 
David and of the holy Virgin, and that the Lord of earth 
and Heaven and of all was called a Bethlehemite too, for 

2Cor.viii. jjg g^jared poverty with us heing Rich, as it is written. 

7 repdpfl- Why therefore plunging thee in the sleights "^ of the 
Jews dost thou both deem and say what it is neither law- 
ful to say nor yet harmless to conceive of ? confess with us 
One Christ, and do not severing into two again say this, 
„ He was sent that is consubstantial with us and has been 
„ anointed to preach remission to the captives and recovery of 
,, sight to the blind. „ Whither then will go the word of 

^Tuveeri- the divines^, who have been initiators of all under Heaven? 
for they have cried aloud that the very Word out of God 
the Father, was made Saviour and Eedeemer of all, not as 
though a man other than He were mediating, like as Moses, 
but rather as come down to us in bodily likeness and form, 
for thus * has He been anointed as High Priest and Apostle. 

s. John And indeed He rebuked the Jews saying, Is it not loritten 

^- ~ • {ii your Law, I said. Ye are gods ? if he called them gods to 
whom the word of God came and the scripture cannot he 
broken : Him Whom the Father sanctified and sent into the 
world, do YE say [to Him], thori hlasphemest, because I 
said, I am the Son of God ? why (I pray) shall we put Him 
Who abased Himself unto emptiness that He might save 
all under Heaven, forth of the most God-befitting and 
truly admirable achievements that have been wrought unto 
US-ward, by saying that there has been sent some other 
than He consubstantial with ourselves ? albeit how were it 
not better to say and thus to chuse to think, that He has 
been both sent and hath been made consubstantial with 
us, i. e., man : yet abiding Consubstantial with God the 
Father Himself too, as He is both conceived of and was 
and is God ? for He is. He is what He was, even when He 
assumed the humanity, and having sameness of Essence 
with God the Father Which is in Heaven, He grasped in 

' thus; I have amended ovtws for ovtos. 

yet also with the Fatlier, to give us His. 105 

wisdom the likeness witli us too ; as Mediator too has He BooKiii.3. 
been set forth, combining through Himself unto an union 
of relation ^ things completely dissevered one from another ^^^^'^'' 
as to the plan of their nature. For He being God by 
Nature has been made man in truth, that we too might be 
called offspring, no more of the first, that is, of the earthy, Acts xvii. 
to whom it was said by God, Earth thou art and unto earth Gen. iii. 
shalt thou return, who conducteth even unto death, but of 
the second, from above and out of Heaven, Christ I mean 
Who bringeth us again unto purest" life, and rendereth 
incorrupt that which is holden of death and freeth from 
sins that which was enfoldeu by the toils of sin. Thus saith 
somewhere the Father Himself to the Son, Behold I have isa. xlii. 
given Thee for a Covenant of the race'' for a Light of the ''' 
Gentiles, to ojjen the eyes of the blind, to bring forth of chains 
the bound and of the prison-house them that sat in darkness; 
andag-ain by the voice of Isaiah, The beasts of the field shall lb. xliii. 
honour Me, the Sirens and the daughters of the ostriches^, 
because I gave water in the wilderness and rivers in the thirsty 
land to give drink to Mine offspring, chosen, My people ivhom 
I IV on^ for Myself, to declare My Virtues. The which un- 'xepieiro;- 
derstanding very well of those of the Gentiles called through ^'^"■^^" 
faith unto true knowledge of God, the Divine-uttering 
Peter writeth and saith. But ye are a chosen race, a royal i s. Pet. 
priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people"^ , that ye should "• ' • 
tell out the Virtues of Him Who calleth you out of dark- 
ness into His wondrous light, of old not a people, but now 
a people. 

But if as seems good to thee to think and say, ,, he was 
„ sent who is consubstantial with us, „ no longer with the 
Father, in no wise have we been made partakers of the 

" oLKTipaToy, without spot or mixture the Incarnation, 

of ought that is not life. " cf. daughters of the owl in the mar- 

^ yivovs, the race, used of the Jews gin of the Lnglish Bible, 

in contrast with the Gentiles, as we too y \ahs els TrepnroiTjcrii', a people for ac ■ 

translate the people; and as S.Paul qiiis/tion,comTpa.Te \a6v fxovtvTTepieTroi- 

to Agrippa says that our Lord spake to 7icrdfj.r]i>, My people whom I won for My- 

\\m\{Kc\.s's.y.\\.\7) delivering thee from self, in the passage of Isaiah quoted 

the people [_ = the Jews'] and from the Gen- ahove ; and the alternative rendering, 

tiles. But S. Cyril here seems to take a purchased people, in our own English 

the word race as expressing the nearer margin here: compare also to declare 

relation in which God was bringing all Mt/ Urtues above, with the words here, 

(Jews and Gentiles) to Himself through to shew forth the praises of Him &c. 

106 Man wrestling ivith Jacob a type of Incarnation. 

AG. NEST. Divine Nature, but have abode as I said, and are yet oflf- 

2 or, race, spring ~ of the first, of him who conducteth unto curse and 
^^""^ death and under penalty of sin. We have therefore been 

deceived^ and are no less now too in that case wherein we 
2Cor.v. were of old and before the Advent. How then did old 
things 'pass awaij and lo they have become nev) ? and where 
is, If any be in Christ, he is a neiv creature ? 

But are you ashamed to confess the Word of God God 
made man as we ? do you therefore chide Him and say that 
He hath planned no wise matter when He emptied Him- 
self for our sakes ? Therefore thou shalt hear Him say, 
S. Matt. Get thee behind Me Satan, thou art an offence unto Me, for 
thou savourest not the things that be of God but those of 
men. Search with us the God-inspired Scripture ; He ap- 
peared of old to the Patriarch Jacob too when he was de- 
Gen, parting from Laban's hearth, and was at the very fords 
Ib.''24— " of Jabok, as it is written : for Jacob was left alone and there 
^^' was wrestling a man ivith him until morning, and he knows 

that he prevaileth not against him and he touched the flat of 
his thigh and the flat of Jacob's thigh stiffened in his wrestling 
with him ; and he said to him, Dismiss me for the dawn hath 
gone up, and he said, I will not dismiss Thee except Thou 
lb. 30, 31. bless me. And after other again, And Jacob called the name 
of that place. The Form of God, for I saw God Face to face 
and my life was preserved; and the sun rose tipon him when 
he passed by the Form of God. Understand therefore how 
not as incorporeal and impalpable Word did He deign to 
shew Himself then to the Patriarch, foreshewing to him 
the type of the mystery, but He Who wrestled and con- 
sumed the whole night thereupon was a man. But when 
the day was dawning and it was morning. He says. Dismiss 
Me, which was clearly the word of one who was bringing 
to an end the wrestling. 

3 \6yos And what is the plan ^ of the mystery, it is necessary 

to say. With them who abide as it were in night and dark- 

2 or, reduced to emptiness, ixefxarai- out : so we too if our Mediator were 

wvTai, of. Jer. ii. 5. ifiaraidOria-ai' luwe but man, should have been reduced to 

become vain, have walked after empty utter empthiess. 
gods and become themselves emptied 

Spiritual meaning. TJie Soj^ Gob made Man, 107 

ness, and have a spiritual mist o'er mind and heart and BooKiii.3. 
cannot yet understand the mystery Him-ward, He useth to see 
wrestle and fight and overcome ; but with them who are p, 170.' 
now in light and so to speak in spiritual morning and have 
good understanding of the Mystery, He thinketh not good 
any longer to wrestle, but dispenseth to them instead spiri- 
tual blessings. Hence if even at length and hardly you 
should enter in yourself too into the light and so to speak 
into the morning, He Who conquereth all would cease 
fighting with you. And see how whereas it was a man 
who wrestled, the Divine-uttering Jacob says that he had 
seen God Face to face : and the sacred Scripture added that 
the sun arose npon him luhen he 'passed Inj the Form of Ood. 
Why therefore (I pray) are you ashamed at the measures 
of the emptiness, albeit every one (I suppose) who both 
holds the right faith and examines accurately the aim of 
the God-inspired Scripture says that the Word out of God 
the Father was both Incarnate and made Man ? He there- 
fore Who is consubstantial with us, in that He has been 
made Man, and to the Father Himself, in that He hath re- 
mained God even in human nature, was sent preaching re- 
mission to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, and 
to heal the hrolcen in heart, and to call the acceptable year of 
the Lord : for His Alone and of none other are the deeds 
which have been wrought us, and one of the holy Prophets 
shall be our pledge, thus saying. No ambassador, no anael, Isa. ixiii. 
hut the Lord Himself saved us, who also most clearly saith 
to us, Therefore My people shall know My Name in tJiat lb. lii. 
day, I Who speak am p)resent. Albeit if he who has been 
sent were some mere man, how would Himself be conceived 
of as having spoken the Law which was long ago given to 
them of old ? for not at all proceeding as man, would He 
be said to have been made man, lest He should be seen 
to have an existence elder to His coming into being : but 
preexisting as God, He hath spoken indeed the Law, but 
says that He isjiresent in some strange and unwonted way lb. 
when He has been made Man. 

„ But yes (says he) the Word being God fulfils all things : see above 

108 Human ivo7'ds said of Gob : have also close relation to 

AG. NEST. „liow tlien was He also sent, for where was He not Who 
„ fulfils all things ? „ what (tell me) shall we admit that the 
Divine and Consubstantial Trinity has been contracted 
rather than that it is spread over all and fulfils all things ? 
Then how hath the great Moses, when some of them of old 

4 ohpavo- were building the Heaven-reaching * tower, introduced God 

e'en xi. Saying, Come let us go down and there confound their tongues ? 

"^' what descent needed the Nature That fills both Heaven 

Wisd.i. and earth ? it is written of the Holy Ghost too. The Spirit 
of the Lord hath filled the earth; the blessed David sings 
and says of them that lie in the earth to God Who is 

Ps. civ. mighty to quicken. Thou shalt send forth Thy Spirit and 
they shall be created and Thou shalt renew the face of the 
earth. How is That sent forth which fiUeth all things ? 
Do not therefore (putting forward as something clever and 
hard to be overturned % that He Who is mighty to fulfil 
all things, the Word out of God the Father, has His mission 
an impossibility) hasten to undo the truth and to over- 
turn the power of the Mystery ; but consider rather that 
He speaketh in human wise of the things that belong to 
God and they are conceived of by us in such sort as both 
Himself Alone may know, and as He is wont to act. 

But since as little and human and in boundless degree 
below the dignity of the Only Begotten He receives the 
unction'', come let us say what is reasonable upon this 
point too, undoing occasions of oSence. If therefore He 
have not been made Man, let Him shake off things human, let 
Him repudiate the Economy as putting Him in inferior 
position and setting *= Him behind the Supreme Glory and 
God-befitting Excellence ; for petty to the Word is what 
is ours. But since the Mystery is of a truth wise and the 
fact of the emptying not to be rejected by Him, why dost 

sjiif/oKir- thou foolhardily^ find fault with things that are riffht ? 

ovvws o o 

and turn away as uncomely what is crowned with His Ap- 
6 rats ah- proval " ? didst thou see Him anointed humanly ? behold 

"'* " ^vixava with lacuna of were XP'""'" following the conjecture of 

about 10 letters, probably Suo-amrpE- the Roman Editors. 

TTTov or the like. c Ut^av Edd, but probably iuaav is 

'' I have translated XP^O"'" as if it the true reading. 

Incarnation . Christ sanctified yet gives the Spirit. 109 

the same also anointing Divinely'': for it is written that John BooKiii.3. 
too hare record saying, I saw the Spirit descending like a dove •^■09^04 
and abiding upon Him and I hneio Him not, hut He That sent 
me to haptize ivith water, He said unto me, Upon Whom 
thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining on Him, 
This is He which haptizeth with the Holy Ghost, and I have 
seen and home record that This is the Son of God. For 
dost thou say that it is the work of the human nature to 
have power to baptize with the Holy Ghost them that be- 
lieve ? albeit how were it not folly to think that this were 
so ? for how would the less bestow the participation of 
that which is immeasurably superior ? And observe that 
this very person upon Whom the Spirit is said to soar 
down and to remain upon Him^ baptizeth with the Holy 
Ghostj anointing (it is plain) as God with His own Spirit 
them that believe. And verily He rose from the dead, 
and breathed on His disciples, saying, Receive ye the Holy ib. xx. 
Ghost. And they receiving, say. We received not the spirit "{"q^^ jj 
of the ivorld hut the Spirit Which is out of God, that ive 12- 
might hiow the things that were freely given to tis of God. 
The most wise Paul too writes. They that are in the flesh Rom.viii. 
cannot please God, hut ye are not in the flesh but in the spirit ' 
if so he that the Spirit of God diuell in you : if any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ, this man is not His. And 
elsewhere too. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, ib. 14. 
these are the sons of God. Therefore when thou seest Him 
anointed with His own Spirit, remember the economy with 
flesh and take count of the human nature : when thou seest 
Him give the Spirit, with this marvel at God in human 
nature too. 

But taking no account of these things this contentious'^ n^{)ffepis 
man says again thus : 

„ This ^ is he who was made a faithful High Priest to God, 

•1 SeeS. Ath.agst. Ar.i, §47. p. 248 sent to proclaim remission to the captives, 

O.T. and note b. as an Apostle he adds this too and says, 

e Most of this is cited before the Coun- This is he &c,, as Mercator, or, from the 

cil of Ephesus, from the sixth quire, sixth quire, speaking of Christ. „ That 

p. 208 Bal. and in the concilia. A few He was sent to preach remission to the 

words are added at the beginning, ,, Since captives. As the Apostle adds and says, 

he was saying of Christ that He had been This is he &c, ,, as the Greek Edd. 

110 'This/ not mere man hut 

AG. NEST. „ for he was made sOj he was not so from eternity, this, 
„ heretic, is he who by little and little advanced unto the 
„ dignity of the high priesthood. Hear a clearer voice 

Heb. V. „ calling out to thee, Who m the days (it says) of His Flesh, 
' „ when He offered vp 'prayers and supplications with mighty 
„ cry and tears unto Him That was able to save Him from 
„ death and was heard for His Piety, though He luere Son, 
„ He learned obedience by the things He suffered and, made 
„ perfect, became unto them that obey Him the Author of in- 
„ dissoluble salvation. That is perfected which advances by 
„ little and little, heretic. Respecting which John too cries 

S. Luke ,^ out in the Gospels, Jesus was advancing in stature and 
„ wisdom and grace, conformably to which things Paul too 

Heb. V. ^j speaking says. Made perfect He became unto all them that 
„ obey Him the Author of eternal salvation, called of God an 
„ High Priest after the order of Melchisedeh, this is he who 
„ is compared with Moses in regard to generalship ^, that 
„ is called seed of Abraham, that is like in all things to his 
„ brethren, that was made High Priest in time, that was 

ib. ii. 18. „ perfected through sufferings, that in that he suffered be- 
,,i'ng tempted is able to succour them that are tempted, that 
„ is called an High Priest after the order of Melchisedeh, 
„ Why then interpret contrary to Paul, commingling the 
„ Impassible God the Word with earthly body and making 
„ Him a passible High Priest ?,, 
§ 4 Most vigorous onslaught, my friend, and truly spirited 

hast thou made upon the doctrines of piety. And the Di- 
vine-uttering Baruch, pointing out the Word of God already 

Baruch Incarnate and seen in likeness to us, says, Titis is our God, 

37- there shall none other be accounted of in comparison of Him, 

He found out all the way of knowledge and gave it to Jacob 
His servant and to Israel His beloved : afterward did He 
shew Himself upon earth and conversed with men. But 
THOU calling out and that full often. This, yea all but putting 
forth thine hand ; — who is it that you manifest to believers 
and cause to be seen of them, yea, and say that he ad- 

' Kara rhv ttjs crrparriylas . . . rinroi', the reference apparently to Deut. xviii. 
18, 19, coupled with the words, like unto thee. 

God Incarnate. Ill 

vanced by little and little unto High Priesthood ? I sup- BooKiii.4. 
pose it is surely he of whom but now specifyina: ^ thou ** '^"P^Sei. 

. . ... yiJ-aTiQwv 

saidstj ^Therefore a Merciful High Priest is he that suffered, above p. 

„ not the quickening God of him that suffered : the seed of ^^' 

J, Abraham he who is yesterday and to-day, as Paul saith, 

„ not he who saith. Before Abraham was I am ; Wee to his S. John 

„ brethren in all things he that assumed brotherhood of 

„ human soul and flesh, not He Who saith, He that hath lb. xiv. 

„ seen Me, hath seen the Father.,, And that in affirming that 

the Life-giving Word of God is God of him who suffered, chapter 6 

involving yourself in the charge of inevitable blasphemy, 

you have done no slight wrong ^, sufficient reasoning made ^WiK-nKas 

clear to us. But I marvel that thyself oblivious of thine pLT^' 

own words, thou deemest right to say alike and think that 

He by little and little advanced unto the dignity of the 

High Priest, Whom thou sayest is even God Almighty. 

For the Epistle written to the Hebrews being before thee, 

thou art caught saying, „ Yet is This man Who after the 

„ flesh is akin to Israel, Who in that which is visible is Man, 

„ Who according to Paul's speech was made out of the seed Rom. i.3. 

„ of David, by connection God Almighty. „ How did He yet 

advance, according to that idle talk, to the dignity of High 

Priest albeit testified by thy voice too as Almighty God ? 

And though you utter the ill-famed ^ connection and in- ' d«A.ea 
vented I know not whence by yourself alone, I will pass it 
over for the present : but I will ask, bidding the argument 
advance straight on ^ its own befitting and proper course, 2 kuto. 
Does not that which advances unto Priesthood and glory ^°^^ 
make its advance or progress unto the better and more 
excellent ? and how will not every one whatever give his 
vote for the truth of this ? Greater therefore than the 
being Almighty God, is the High Priesthood. Then how 
does he whose lot is the Priesthood minister too and stand 
as a worshipper by God, and as a servant by his master, of- 
fering what is customable and bringing sacrifices, and He 
Who is crowned with the Supreme glory receives the sa- 
crifices and is honoured by the service ? 

But thou sayest (I suppose) this, Being God Almighty the 

112 Emptying, not of man, the empty, hut of God, the Full. 

AG. NEST. Same hath become High-Priest. He hath been emptied s 
therefore and hath abased Himself by descent into the in- 
ferior. How therefore did He yet advance unto dignity 
when made an High Priest ? Kemember again thine own 
above § words, for thus thou saidst a little above, „ If the Godhead 
' ^* ' „ be High Priest, who is He who is served by the ministry 
„ of the High Priesthood ? if He Who offereth be God, 
„ there is none to whom the offering is made, for what is 
,y there worthy of Godhead that as inferior It should make 
„ offering to a greater ? „ Stand now at least to your own 
Eph iv. words ; but this you cannot do, for you will be home ahout 
^"^- (so to say) hy every wind, and perceive not that you are 

being driven about, one while springing off from those into 
these, other while again from these into those, and in no 
Gal ii "^^^® ^^^ y°^ afraid of what Paul saith, For if what I de- 
1^- stroyed this I huild again, I make myself a transgressor. 

But you will perhaps say. Affirming that the Word out 
of God the Father is everywhere One Christ and Son and 
Lord, with His own Flesh, how sayest thou now that He 
has been set forth as an High Priest and Apostle ? dost 
thou not in so saying insult the Supreme Dignity of His 
Divine Glory ? 

Because, good Sir, (shall I say) the Only Begotten Word 
of God has been made man and in the measures of the hu- 
man nature, the fact of Priesthood will not unbefit Him, 
Heb.xii. ^^^ moreover the saying that He has been sent, for He des- 
^- joised the shame, as the Divine-uttering Paul writes, and 

e Sotoo against the Arians who affirm- and dwelling in high places, He is said to 

ed that the Son was exalted because be exalted, whither (I pray) after the 

man, S. Cyril, following S. Athanasius, Nature of God will that yet mount up 

says, "And what accession of honour has which is exalted ? how was He low which 

there been to Him Who is in the form of is in the Bosom of the Most High 

God, yet has put on the servant's form ? Father ? what accession chd God need ? if 

howwillHenotrather withreasonseemto He have therefore comedown in order 

have been minished Who left the greater to be exalted, what was the need of the 

and took up the less ? Being God He hath coming down? if He therefore abased 

been made man in order to find — what re- Himself in order to be exalted, what 

ward? or how was He glorified Who hath was the need of the abasement? how 

descended from glory to dishonour? how is not he unwise who seeks with toil 

hath He been made high Who disregard- what he could have without toil ? how re- 

ing the Dignity of Godhead came down ceived He the Name which is above 

even unto manhood? how hath He Who every name, Who was ever worshipped 

came down, been made above ? what ad- in it'? " Thes. cap. 20 init. pp. 194, 195, 

vance hath abasement ? what betterment see S. Ath. against Ar. i. § 40. p. 237 

He Who from what is better hath come O.T. 
into the inferior ? If, God Most High, 

'Emmanvel ahvays Fall hit Fidlness veiled. 113 

endured yet lower and worser things for our sakes : for BooKiii.4. 
He gave His bach to the scourges, His Face He turned not I^a. l. 6. 
away from the shame of sjJittings, and endurant^ He bore ^ jA.7j7ro- 
the contumelies of the Jews. But thou deemest not meet 
to call Him Priest, as being God ? admit the words per- 
taining to the Economy, consider the emptying, the de- 
scent unto the servant^s form. For we say not that the 
"Word of God advanced and hastened unto dignity, if He 
have been styled our High Priest, but rather that He de- 
scended herein too unto emptiness. Since how has He 
been emptied and is He said to have been abased, albeit He 
possesseth unchangeableness and is in Form and Equality 
in everything with His Father ? how too advanced He by 
little and little and this (as thyself sayest) unto the dignity 
of the High Priesthood? what sort of growth received He 
hereunto ? If then it were a bodily one, I will ask again, 
Doth bodily growth lead up to the glory of the Priesthood: 
be then this common [to all] and let this method of reason- 
ing of yours belong to every one who advanceth bodily. 
But of a truth the Priesthood beseemeth not all those who 
customably advance unto bodily growth; how therefore 
blushest thou not in putting forth unto us for demonstra- 
tion of those things which thou saidst, what was spoken 
by the Divine-uttering Luke, But Jesus was advancing in S. Luke 
stature and ivisdom and grace ? 

But thou sayest that the growth was unto wisdom, albeit 
how is not this without learning ? for we believe that out 
of the very belly and womb of the Virgin, Emmanuel be- 
ing God proceeded forth Man, full surely of the wisdom 
and grace that are inherent of Nature. What sort of 
growth then will He admit of, in Whom are all the trea- Col. ii. 3. 
sures of ivisdom, Who is with God the Father Co-giver of 
the grace from above ? how then is He said to advance ? it 
is, I deem, by God the Word co-measuring with the in- 
crease and stature of His own Body, the manifestation of 
the most God-befitting goods that are in Him. For let us 
consider that although He has been made Man as we. He 
was zealous to lie hid at the first, and administered by little 


114 Manifestation of Incarnate Son toolc place in silence : 

Isa. xlii. 

AG. NEST, and little as it were noiselessly and in silence the might of 
the Mystery ; and of this God the Father Himself will be 
our assurance saying, Jacob My Servant, I luill defend Him, 
Israel My cJiosen, My Soul received Him, I gave My Sjnrit 
upon Him, He shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles : 
He shall not cry nor lift up, nor shall His voice be heard with- 
out : a bruised reed He shall not break and smoking flax lie 
shall not quench. And He was somewhere rebuking the 
holy Apostles themselves that they shoidd not niahe Him 
Jcnown. Hence a thing unwonted and strange and worthy 
of looking into ^, would have been shewn, if being yet a 
babe, He had made a God-befitting demonstration of wis- 
dom : but He little and little and proportionably to bodily 
Karevpv- stature, extending ^ it and making it manifest to all, will 
be said to advance and that with reason ''. How therefore 

S. Matt 
xii. 16. 

* ireoi- 

*> In S. Cyril's very famous IGth 
Paschal homily written at the beginning 
of previous year, A.D. 430, and cited by 
Andrew of Samosata in his objection to 
S. Cyril's fourth chapter and more fully 
by S. Cyril in his reply to that objection 
p. 172 e, he says, " And though thou hear 
that Jesus was progrfss'mg in stature and 
wisdom and grace, deem not that the 
Word of God became wise by accession 
but rather remember the Divine Paul 
writing on this wise, Christ God's Power 
and God's JVisdom : nor dare idly to say 
that we shall allot to the man the progress 
in stature and wisdom and graceXfor this 
I ween is nought else tlian to sever into 
two the One Christ), but (as I said be- 
fore) the Son being Eternal, is in the 
last times of the world said to have been 
declared Son of God (Rom. i. 4), Eco- 
nomically making His own the birth of 
His proper flesh : so too being the 
Wisdom of Him Who begat Him, He is 
said to progress in wisdom albeit All- 
Perfect as God, reasonably receiving into 
Himself the properties of the human 
nature on account of the completeness of 
the union (5ia rr]v els &Kpov fvaicrii')." 
Pasch. Hom. p. 230 a b. Before this 
date S. Cyril had said, " And as for our 
sakes He abased Himself, so too for our 
sakes He admits progress, in order that 
WE again in Him might advaiice in wis- 
dom who of old were made beasts' by 
reason of sin, might advance in favour 
too, who of old have been hated because 
of the transgression in Adam. For all 
of ours for our sakes did Christ take 
into Himself that He might transform 

all things unto the better and might be- 
come the beginning of every good to the 
race of man." Thes. cap. 28 p. 251 a. 
In a treatise written at about the same 
date as the Books against Nestorius, S. 
Cyril says, " For the mode and plan of 
the economy with flesh knows that He 
is both as we and above us ; surpassing 
the measure of the creation as God, and 
(so to speak) inferior to Himself in that 
He is man. For where is the abasement 
which He volmitarily underwent, if He 
refuse what is human ? Yet not in these 
is the nature of the Word conceived to 
lie, but He rather makes them His own 
together with His own flesh, just as He 
does hunger and thii'st and the being said 
to be wearied with the journey. When 
then thou hearest, T'he little one waxed 
and tiias strengthened, filled with wisdom, 
admit in reply themystery of theeconomy 
with flesh. For that He was God in 
flesh, the blessed Evangelist will himself 
assm'e, saying, the grace of God was on it. 
For not as though He had grace from 
another God is He said to have the grace 
of God, butbecause the little one had grace 
which beseems God. For the Word was 
and is God even when He is seen in flesh, 
i.e. man like us. And if He be said to 
have grace or to advance in favour 
[grace) withhoi\\ God and men, itis not a 
whit incongruous, if even the Father 
Himself accepted the economy and the 
Son making His own what pertains to 
flesh because of what alike befits the ' 
mystery and is serviceable." de recta fide | 
to the Empresses § 10 p. 139 b c d. 

Himself All-Perfect. 115 

did He advance by little and little unto the Priesthood, BooKiii.4. 
tell me, by being perfected in virtue ? Then how or whence 
may one doubt that that which faileth of perfection in vir- 
tue, will be under blame, and not wholly an object of ad- 
miration, yea rathea." haply under charge of sin ? But it is 
indeed true that He hath done no sin neither was quile I ^- Pet. 

11. 22. 

found in His Mouth, as it is written. Full-perfect** there- ^iravre- 
fore is He being such unto every thing, and in no wise 
will He have the lack of being complete unto the achieve- 
ment of virtue. And when was He That was God in the 
womb too not Perfect unto good, of Whom the Prophet 
Isaiah too saith. Butter and honey shall He eat, before He Isa. vii. 
have Jcnowledge to prefer evil. He shall choose the good, he- 
cause before the Child shall hnow good or ill, He shall dis- 
obey vice to choose the good ? where then will you be able 
to demonstrate Christ^s yet imperfectness unto good ? or 
what advance will He need who is so Perfect as to disobey 
vice and to prefer to it, yea only choose, good ? 

Yet I know not how he who affirmeth and saith „ This 
„ is he who by little and little advanced to the dignity of 
„ the high priesthood, „ and who brought forward in proof 
of his words, Jesus advanced, in stature and wisdom and 
grace, all but marking out ^ the uucomeliness ^ of his own ^ naBopi- 
words and gliding into forgetfulness of the things of which s ^j) are- 
he assumed were right, affirms to us that the mode of per- '"^^^ 
fection was wrought in another way, saying, „This is he who 
„ in time has been made High Priest, who was perfected 
„ through suflFerings. „ Is not this manifest distraction? 
yea rather a proof of utter recklessness ^ ? for our Lord g^lj^^^f^, 
Jesus Christ has been made perfect through sufferings, ^^ovp-yias 
but this man albeit he was not ignorant of the mode of 
being made perfect, carries away the minds of the sim- 
pler unto certain strange perversions ^ of ideas and says ' -nepia- 

that He advanced unto being High Priest and has been per- 
fected unto this, Who is said to have been emptied because 
this took place. And as though he had full clearly shewn 
that neither was the Word of God made flesh, nor yet 
proceeded Man out of woman, he chides those who have 

I 2 

116 The Son made Man and died : our Faith is sure. 

AG. NEST, chosen thus to hold and says, „ Why therefore doth thou 
„ mis-interpret Paul, commingling with earthly body the 
„ Impassive God the Word and making Him a passible 
„ High Priest ? „ Hear therefore from us too, to whom 
rather the truth is dear. Why dost thou mis-interpret Paul, 
yea rather slanderest the whole God-inspired Scripture, 
withdrawing the Word of God from the economy with 
flesh, and settest over us as priest a man honoured with 
mere connection ? albeit thou hearest that the Same is at 
once High Priest and Co-Throned with God the Father, 

Heb. viii. as WO have already said. For Paul said. We have such an 
High Priest, Who sat on the Right Hand of the Throne of the 
Majesty m the heavens. For that the Word out of God the 
Father is Impassible, is I suppose clear to every one : 

1 S. Pet. that He hath suffered for us in the flesh, the voice of inspired 

2 KOToo-- men will seal up^ for a truth. But if thyself bear away 
tuueai t^e Word out of God from earthly body, the whole will 
up and so come to nothing. For if He have not been made Man, 

secure as , _ ° , , ' 

true neither did He die for us, and if He have not given unto 
Col. i. 18. death His own Body, how is He said to be the first he- 
gotten from the dead ? Hence Christ neither died nor re- 
vived. Let the Divine-uttering Paul therefore come for- 
1 Cor. XV. ward, let him cry aloud saying. If the dead are not raised, 
neither has heen Christ raised, if Christ have not been raised, 
vain is your faith, ye are yet in your sins : they also which 
fell asleep in Christ perished. But Christ has been raised 
from the dead, for the Only-Begotten Word of God has 
been made Man and, taking an earthly body and uniting 
Heb. ii. 9. it Personally to Him, by the grace of God, as it is written, 
1 Cor. XV. tasted death for every man. He has been n&med first fruits 
of them that slept, having been raised fi^om the dead. Sure 
Heb. vi. therefore and not vain is now our faith, which ive have as an 
anchor of the sotd both sure and stedfast, as it is written. 

And he, as though he had in no wise wronged the plan 
of the economy with flesh, through saying such things 
and pouring forth untempered and foulest vomit upon the 
doctrines of the truth, proceeds to another mis-counsel, 
yea rather manifest blasphemy and says. 

The Incarnate 8on One^ or our Faith is in a man. 117 

„ This man ' alone therefore being our High Priest, feel- BooKiii.5. 
„ ing and kin and sure, turn ye not away from the faith 
,, Him-wardj for He was sent, the blessing which was pro- 
„ mised us out of the seed of Abraham, as offering the sa- 
„ orifice of His Body for Himself alike and His race. „ 

Thou sayest that a High Priest both kin to us and feel- § 5 
ing and sure and moreover only, is he whom thy discourse 
but now clearly taught us of. For thou saidst, „ The seed ^^°^^ P- 
„ of Abraham is he who is yesterday and to-day, as Paul Heb. xiii. 
„ saith, not He Who saith, Before Abraham was I am ; s. John 
„ Like to His brethren in all things, he who assumed brother- jiei,_ {;'_ 
„ hood of human soul and flesh, not He Who said. He that g^j^j^j^ 
„ hath seen Me hath seen the Father ; sent was he who is xiv. 9. 
„ consubstantial with us and has been anointed to jpreach S. Luke 
„ remission unto the captives andi recovery of sight to the 
„ blind.,, This man therefore will be conceived of as of kin 
too to those on the earth, and not as thou sayest. He That 
saith, He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. For if 
gathering both into one according to true union thou with 
us confessest One Son, thou hast laboured in vain, in 
bearing away each separately and apart from other, sever- 
ing into hypostases and persons, completely, not in the 

mere knowledgre that the nature of flesh is other than the see above 
. . . 1 PP' 42, 77 

Divine Nature yet by concurrence unto true union hath be- note z. 

come Its own : if on the other hand desiring to shew thy- 
self irreconcileable in opinion with us and utterly repudi- 
ating the union, thou sayest that He is one and another, and 
that the One has been begotten out of God the Father, the 
other of kin and consubstantial with us ; how (tell me) dost 
thou say that we ought not now to turn aside from faith to 
Him-ward? and we shall believe him to be our kin, letting 
go Him Who saith, Before Abraham ivas I am; we shall take 
as our god him who assumed brotherhood with us of human 
soul and flesh, letting go Him Who saith, He that hath 
seen Me hath seen the Father, albeit Himself saith. For so ?.: i°J^^ 

m. 16. 

God loved the ivorld that He gave His Only-Begotten 8on 
that whosoever believeth in Him should not 'perish but have 

> cited before council of Ephesus, /ro»n seventh quire, p. 209, Bal. &c. 

118 Only-Begotten, hy human birth First-begotten : yet One. 

AG. NEST, everlasting life, and again, He that believeth on Him is not 

§: ''.'*" condemned, hit he that believeth not is condemned already, 
m. 18. ' ^ , 

because he hath not believed in the Name of the Only-Begotten 

Son of Ood. Is lie therefore wlio is forth of the seed of 
Abraham conceived of as Only-Begotten apart and by him- 
Ib. i. 18. self, albeit John hath clearly written, The Only-Begotten 
Son ivhich is in the Bosom of the Father, He declared Him, and 
Heb, i. 6. moreover another Holy Scripture, But when He bringeth in 
the First-begotten into the ivorld, He sdith. And let all Angels 
see p. 57 gj- Qq^i u^orship Him ? But First-born wholly and surely will 
Rom.viii. He be Who is among many brethren, not He Who is be- 
gotten Alone of the Alone God the Father : for thus far 
will we follow, sir, thy distinctions, keenly awaiting for the 
economy's sake, whither the words burst through upon 
us. Hence (for I will call back the argument to its com- 
mencement) „he that assumed brotherhood with us of 
„ human soul and flesh, „ yet was made out of the seed of 
Abraham, will be the Firstborn among many brethren, but 
S. John He that is in the Bosom of God the Father, the Only -Begot- 
ten Ood the Word. Then when the God-inspired Scripture 
says that our faith must be had in the Only-Begotten Son 
of God, why dost thou, putting forward one kin and con- 
substantial \yith us, say that we ought not to turn away 
from faith in him-ward ? It is therefore necessary to link 
3 ffvvdflv together® in One Lord and Christ, by personal coalescence"* 
'' '" that is, in order that the Same may be conceived of as Only- 
Begotten and First-Begotten in the Same, in that the Word 
out of God the Father being God by Nature has been made 
Man as we and out of the seed of Abraham. 

But now something clever has been found out as he 
thinks by him and thus again says he : 

„ Eemember by all means what I have full often said to 
„ you, refusing two-fold natures in our Lord Christ, two- 
„fold in nature, single in dignity: for the sway of the 
„ natures is for the connection's sake, one, the natures 
„ abiding ever in their own order, but the dignity connected 
„ as I said before unto a single sway.,. 

One Person of diverse. Holy Trinity three Persons, One Nature. 119 

Yea apt at leai'ning- wert tliou^ who hast chosen to follow BooKiii.6. 
the God-inspired Scripture, which says One Lord Jesus § ^ 
Christ and does not put apart Him Who is out of the seed 
of Abraham and the Word out of God the Father. And 
besides one must consider this too : for one thing indeed 
is Godhead, another, manhood like ours, according to the 
inherent nature of things ; but by coalescence unto true 
union. One Christ out of both, as we have full often said. 
But when the hypostases, as you say, have been severed'into 
two and are conceived of as existing separately and apart, 
how will there be a coalescence in one Person, except one 
be conceived of as the property ^ of the other : just as of a ^^^jo;/ 
man's soul his body will be conceived of as the property, 
albeit of other nature than it, for not the same things are 
soul and body ? 

But (one may perchance say) how is the Holy and Ador- 
able Trinity distinguished into Three Hypostases, yet issues 
in One Nature of Godhead ? Because (I would say) the 
identity of Essence following of necessity upon the differ- 
ence of .... "^, carries up the mind of believers unto One 
Nature of Godhead : but in respect to Emmanuel, since 
Godhead is something other than manhood, unless we say 
that the Body of the Word became His own by true Union, 
how will One Person be effected, when either hypostasis, 
apart by itself^, brings before us the property of both? And ^ f ^ «"" 
except the assumed have been made the own of the assumer, fJLfvjis 
connection by concurrence simply in dignity alone and sway 
will not suffice to effect One Only Christ, the Same God 
Alike and Man. For then, thsn, in very sooth, [it will be- 
hove not^] to turn aside from the faith unto Him ward, 
even though He be conceived of as out of the seed of Abra- 
ham after the flesh. But if you say that He is one and other 
and then afl&rm that our faith must be put in him that is 
out of the seed of Abraham, be well assured that you are 

k The text here gives (pvcreoov natures, 155 O.T. note f. 
in the MS. another hand has written ' I have supplied these words from 

oxer, vnoardfffwv. The Roman Editors the expression used by S. Cyril at the 

conjecture, irpocrwiroiv 77 inrocTTafffoov, beginning of this section. There seems 

Persous or Hi/poslnses : but see Dr. New- to be an ellipse in the MS. 
man's S. Athanasius against Arians p. 

120 Christ our sinless Sacrifice : 

AG. NEST, pouring down upon your own head tlie charge of man- 
worship, albeit you repudiate and rightly the repute of be- 
ing a man-worshipper. 

Yea and thinking it too little to deem aright, he slanders 
in another way too the great Mystery of godliness. For 
he subjoins forthwith, 

above p. ,, For he was sent to us, the blessing being promised 


„ out of the seed of Abraham, offering the sacrifice of his 
chapter ^^ boSy for himself alike and his race. „ 

Was Christ then Himself too made under sin ? He 
Ps. cvii. through whom sin's mouth against us is stopped, according 
to the Psalmist's voice ? did the darkness of accursed 
crime touch the Very Light Himself? needed then with 
us He through Whom is all redemption and hope of salva- 
tion a redeemer and Saviour ? it will befit him (it seems) 
with us to offer thanksgiving, when God in His Clemency 
Isa. xliii. says, I am He That blotteth out thy sins and I will not re- 
member them ; him too even as we will the father of sin 
accuse. And then how will he not speak falsely saying, 
S.John The prince of this world cometli, and in Me he shall find no- 
^'^* ■ thing ? The presidents of the synagogue of the Jews once 
blasphemed against Him, for when they were worn out by 
the darts of envy, at seeing the blind from his birth in un- 
Ib.'x. 24. wonted manner healed, they impiously said, Give glory to 
God, WE Jcnoiv that this man is a sinner, but our Lord Jesus 
Christ, convicting them of unbridled utterance said plainly, 
lb. viii. Which of you convicteth Me of sin ? and if I say the truth, 
^*^' why do YE not believe Me ? Hence, if He have offered sacri- 

fice,, both for us and moreover for Himself too. He surely 
hath needed it, even as we too who are under the yoke of 
sin : convict Him therefore of sin ; if He hath offered sa- 
crifice with us, shew Him co-sinner with us. Being the 
Good Shepherd, for whom hath He laid down His Life, 
for Himself rather or for the sheep ? I hear Him saying 
lb. xvii. of US, For their salces do I sanctify Myself, and as the Di- 
Heb.ii. 9. vine-speaking Paul saith. By the grace of God for every 
Rom iv. Tiian tasted He death, and again. He was delivered up because 
of our transgressions and was raised because of our justifica- 

the Last Ada,m, freeing us from ills of the First. 121 

tion, and as the Prophet Esaias saith, The chastisement o/BooKm.6. 
our peace was upon Kim, ivith His stripes were we healed, not ^^' ^^' 
Himself has been healed by the suffering of His own Flesh. 
He ivas delivered up because of our transgressions (not be- 
cause of His own, far from it, for confessedly has the na- 
ture of man been borne down by the transgression in Adam 
unto curse and death, it is moreover sick of proneness to 
sin in the flesh), in order that the righteousness of the Law Rom.viii, 
might he fulfilled in 2is who walk not after the flesh hut after 
the spirit. For therefore was He also named the last Adam, i Cor. xv. 


not enduring to be sick of the things of the first one, but 
rather ridding in Himself first the nature of man from the 
blame of that ancient transgression. For it was condemned 
in Adam, but in Christ was seen most approved and worthy 
of wonder. Earthy therefore is he, but Christ heavenly. 
And it was put to shame in the first, borne down to dis- 
obedience which is sin, but in Christ hath it preserved 
untransgression ''', and as in a second firstfruits of the ' j^ «Ho- 
race, was seen both unwounded by sins, and superior to 
curse and doom and death and decay. And the most wise 
Paul confirms us herein, thus writing, For as through one Rom, v. 
man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so too hy ^^' 
its obedience of one shall the many he made righteous. Every 
one who has become guilty of sin needs therefore sacrifice 
for his own transgressions : and Christ hath offered Him- 
self for His kin according to the flesh, i. e., for us ; but for 
Himself not a whit, being superior to sin, as God. For if 
He have been sacrificed for Himself, not we alone have been 
bought by His Blood according to the Scriptures but 
Himself too will have been co-bought with us, no longer 
according to Isaiah^s voice did the Lord give Him up for isaAm.6. 
our sins, but He has been given rather for His own. For ^^^* 
where is at all sacrifice and offering, there surely is also re- 
mission of sins. The Divine-uttering Paul therefore hath 
beguiled those throughout all under heaven by writing 
regarding Him, For such an High Priest became us, holy Heb. vii. 
harmless undefiled, separated from sinners and made higher 
than theheavens. Who needeth not daily as the high priests to 

122 Emmanuel outlined in Lamh that saved them of Israel, 

AG. NEST, offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins then for the loeople's, 
for this He did once ivhen He offered up Himself : for the Law 
maheth men high priests which have infirmity, hut the word 
of the oath which ivas since the Law, the Son Who hath been 
pierfected for evermore. How therefore is Christ an holy 

8 &KaKos, High Priest? or in what way harmless^ and undefiled ? And 
ing^^lli if He need with us sacrifice, having made His ofiering for 

remission of transgressions and for justification of them 
that have sinned, how has He been separated from sinners, 
if He be justified along with them, the sacrifice having been 

9 i.e. sin- ofiered for none else than these very persons ^ ? But I 

marvel that whereas Paul hath cried aloud and that full 
clearly that He is not like those who have been bidden 
to offer for their own transgressions, and then for the 
people's, thou wert not afraid to put forth the contrary 
to what he said, and durst say that after the likeness of 
them who were made priests according to the Law, He too 
offered up sacrifice for Himself. And if it be true that tJie 
Law maheth men High Priests which have infirmity, hut the 
word of the oath ivhich was since the Law, the Son Who hath 
heen perfected for evermore, why makest thou connumerate 
with those who are used to infirmity Him Who has been re- 
moved from their multitude^ and possesses the perfection 
which is above the Law, of His own and by Nature, if so 
be He be Son of a truth and therefore God ? 

But let us see from the legal and more ancient scripture 
too in what manner and for whom, Emmanuel hath offered 
Himself for an odour of a sweet smell unto God the Father. 
For a shadow confessedly was the Law, yet hath it the 

I WoTv- outline ^ of the mystery Christ-ward and travails with the 
form of the Truth. And indeed Christ said somewhere when 

S John conversing with the Jews, Had ye believed Moses ye would 
have believed Me, for of Me he ivrote. How therefore did 
they of the blood of Israel when about to depart out of 
the Land of the Egyptians sacrifice the Lamb ? for their 
own selves alone or for the Lamb's sake too ? whom did it 
redeem by its blood ? was it them who were under the 

in Bulloch that luas their Atonement. 123 

yoke of bondage^ and were endmnng the oppression liard BooKiii.6. 
to bear of the Egyptians^ or itself too ? whose destroyer 
did it scare away ? to whom said the God of all, And I tvill Exod.xii. 
see the blood and tvill shelter you ? was it to those who 
needed His shelter or to the Lamb itself too ? 

For God the Father was representing " the sacrifices ^^^"^' 
that were to be made for sins, in the Law as on a tablet, 
outlining ^ yet the mystery of Christ, and thus He said to -,!^1'^"^ 
the hierophant Moses, If the whole congregation of the cliil- Vo'^'-iY' 
dren of Israel sin umvillingly and the thing he hid from 
the eyes of the assembly and they have done one of all the 
commandments of the Lord which should not be done, and 
have transgressed and the sin be known to them which they 
have sinned therein, the congregation shall offer a young hul- 
locli without blemish from among the herd for the sin. And 
having fully gone through how the details of the sacrifice 
should be done, He adds and says. And the priest shall lb. 20. 
make an atonement for them and the sin shall be forgiven 
them. Observe then that the bullock was offered as a type 
of Christ the All-Pure and That hath no spot, and they 
who offer and not surely the bullock were set free from 
their guilt. For He has been sacrificed not rather for 
Himself, as thou sayest, but for the infirm, for whom the 
high priest according to the Law used to make supplication, 
that you may again understand Him That was made an 
Advocate for us, a High Priest undefiled and holy, separa- Heb. vii. 
ted from sinners. 

Since therefore our opponent is on all sides sick of un- 
comeliuess of speech, we say that the Word out of God the 
Father was made the High Priest and Apostle of our con- 
fession when He was made Man, abasing Himself unto 
emptiness and in our condition : in order that having offered 
Himself to the Father for an odour of sweet smell in be- 
tialf of all, He might win all under Heaven, might remove 
:he ancient guilt, might justify by grace through faith, 
blight render superior to death and decay, holy and hallowed 

124 Cheist our Bedeemer. 

AG. NEST, and full well versed in every kind of virtue, confessing Him 
their Saviour and Redeemer, through Whom and with 
Whom to God the Father be glory with the Holy Ghost for 
evermore. Amen^ 

Ty]^e of the brazen serjpent. 


Brazen serpent a type : how to be cured of the stings. In Holy ThinitY 
Each Person exists yet each work is the work of the Whole Trinity. 
Meaning of " Made flesh." Christ gives the Spirit as His own, and 
works as God through His own Spirit. Nicene Fathers spake through 
the Holy Ghost. „ Commended. „ The Holy Ghost Spirit of the 
Truth, i. e., of Christ. All Divine Work work of Wliole Trinity. Holy 
Ghost out of the Father and the Own of the Son. S. John xvii. 1. Flesh 
of Christ quickens in the Eucharist, because it is the flesh of the 
Word. Its type the Lamb, its mode a mystery. Nestorius confessed 
that Godheaffand manhood belong to the Same, and contradicts himself: 
yet the Eucharist does quicken us : and He is Man having remained God. 
No one taught confusion of Person in Christ. 

The Divine-uttering Paul, shewing that not ineffective 
for the profit of those who have elected to live piously, is 
the shadow in the Law and besides full well setting be- 
fore the minds of all, as a picture and representation of the 
truer, the things which long ago befell them of old, says. 
But these things happened unto them typically, hut were i Cor. x. 
written for our admonition unto whom the ends of the world 
are come. Come now therefore selecting out of the writings 
of the Law let us say, that they of Israel were camping in 
the desert of old time when they departed out of the land 
of the Egyptians and were speeding unto the Land of 
Promise : but when (wretched ones !) unmindful of the won- 
ders in Egypt and of their love to Godward, they began un- 
holily to murmur, they were destroyed of serpents, as it is ib. 9. 
written. Yet they escaped the bites of the venomous crea- 
tures, Moses having reared up for them the brazen Ser- 
pent, God the Saviour of all having commanded, Malte thee Num. 
a serpent and set it for a sign and it shall he, if a serpent ^^^•^* 
have hitten a man, that evei'y one that is hitten, seeing it 
shall live. The figure then was the mystery Christ-wardj see Schol. 
for the Only-Begotten Word of God being God, and Good 

126 We must looJc to Christ, God and Man. 

AG. NEST, by Nature out of a Good Father, partook of flesh and blood, 
i. e., was made man, and like unto us wicked ones, in regard 
I mean that He is man as we. And He has been set up on 
high too, that is, He endured the cross on the wood and 
death after the flesh, even though He rose again the third 
day having trampled on the might of death. 

When therefore of exceeding great lack of understand- 
ing murmuring against the economy with flesh and charg- 
insr it with uncomeliness, we are ashamed to think or 
say that the Word of God became Man as we and was 
united to flesh in verity, then will the dragon, the prince 
of evil, slay us, infusing into our minds error, as it were 
the venom of his own perverseness : yet shall we escape 
and repel the damage of his crookedness, if with the eyes 
of our heart we look on the serpent, that is, if we con- 
sider with accurate mind the mystery of Christ. For then, 
then, deeming right shall we confess unhesitatingly that 
the Word of God has been made flesh, and proceeded forth 
of a woman along with remaining God, and is the Same 
God alike and Man, neither shaming of the measures of the 

' virepo- human nature by reason of the Dignity of the Excellence \ 
nor yet reft of His God-befitting Authority and Supreme 
Glory on account of the human nature. And they who 
are used full well to discern such things, clearly and by 

2 e^TjTa- accurate scrutiny " understanding through both the one, 

Rom. xi. and the Mystery regarding Him, say, the deptJb of the 
' ' riches and wisdom and knowledge of God, how unsearchable 
His judgements and His tvays not to he tracked; for ivlio 
knew the mind of the Lord ? 

Yet doth somehow this man thrusting away these things 
as impossible and uncomely, dare to make no small accusal 
against the glory and excellence of our Saviour, and allot- 
ting to Him our measure and nought else, says that He 

chapter 9 has been glorified by the Holy Ghost, not using as His 
own Power, that through Him to work signs % but gaining 
from without and introduced, the power of achieving ought 

"The present text has /col TrX-qpovv to. rrjs 6eoiT7ifj.ias ; perhaps it should be Kal 
Trap'avTov \a^6vra rb tyepyui/ Svvaadai Kal irKrtpovv ra rrfs 0. (from chapter 9). 

Nature of Godhead One, Each Person Exists. 127 

miraculouSj that He may appear as we the recipient of a bookiv.i. 
gift haply of healing, and be bound to say with blessed cf. i Cor. 
Paul, By the Grace of God I am what I am. For to whom ib.'xv. 
being and being able to achieve ought is imported and * 
from without, these will with reason utter such word as 

For he desiring (as he thinks) to prove the Holy Trinity 
equal in operation unto all things, says again thus ; 

„ God the Word luas made Flesh and tahernacled in us. 
,, The Father co-seated with Himself the manhood which 
„ was assumed : for (it saith) The Lord said unto my Lord, Ps. ex. l. 
„ Sit Thou on My Right Hand ; the Spirit descending con- ^ffvueKpi- 
„ summated^ the glory of that which was assumed, for when s. John 
„ (He saith) the Sinrit of T?'uth is come. He shall glorify 14^' ' 
„ Me. Desirest thou also another operation of the Trinity in 
„ respect of these very things ? The Son indwelt in the 
„ body, the Father commended Him when baptized, the 
„ Spirit fashioned him in the Virgin. „ Then again he says 
of the holy Apostles, „ The Son chose them out, for I lb- xv. 
„ (He says) chose you forth ; the Father sanctified, for (He 
„ says) Father, sanctify them in Thy Truth, the Spirit ren- ib. xvii. 
„ dered them orators \ l%ropas 

That his whole discourse has been framed both unwisely ;. -1 
and unhappily, is full easy to shew. And in this too he 
wanders, and how, I will say. For One indeed is the Nature 
of the Godhead, but the Father exists in His Proper mode ^ 

^ "Thus is there One God, the Holy fining the Acts belonging to Each and 
Trinity by sameness of Nature speeding which seem to be attributed to Them se- 
ll unto one Godhead, even though in the verally, to be the Will and Operation of 
giving of Names and conceived of in the Whole Godhead. For the Divine 
Proper Existence only. It fitly admit and Unsevered Nature will work tlirough 
thenumber Three." Thes. cap. 32pp. 311 Itself, in no divided way, so far as per- 
fin. 312. ^^ He shall glorify Me, for He tains to the one count of Godhead, al- 
shall receive of Mine and shall tell it though Each hath Personal Existence: 
unto you; for bemg the Spirit of Truth for the Father is What He is, and the 
He will enlighten them in whom He is, Son likewise, and the Holy Ghost." 
and will lead them unto the apprehen- On S. John vi. 45 p. 402 O. T. add in 
sion of the Truth. And tliis we say, not S. Johannem p. 784 a. S. Cyril further 
as severing into diversity and making speaks of the Incarnation as the act of 
wholly separate, either the Father from the Whole Holy Trinity. "But He 
I the Son, or the Son from the Father, nor says that He was Incarnate by the Father, 
yet the Holy Ghost from the Father and although Solomon says. Wisdom huilded 
the Son, but (since One Godhead truly her an house : and the blessed Gabriel 
IS, and is thus preached as \dewed in the attributeth the creation of the Divine 
Holy and Consubstantial Trinity), de- Body to the Operation of the Spirit, 

128 Each worli work ofwliole Trinity. Made msxn=Incarnation. 

AG. NEST, and the Son too and likewise the Spirit : yet are all things 
wrought by the Father and through the Son in the Spirit^ 
and when the Father is (so to say) moved to ought, yet 
does the Son surely work in the Spirit ; and though the 
Son or the Spirit be said to fulfil ought, this is full surely 
5 iK of ^ the Father : and through the whole Holy and Consub- 
stantial Trinity runs the Operation alike and Will unto 

On this subject we say thus. But view again how clearly 
and evidently, although he says that the Word out of God 
« TrapacTTj- has been made Flesh, he mis-coins ^ the force of the ideas, 
^"pp.''l3, and bears it far away from rightness, representing the In- 
^^ carnation as an operation of His : for he adds forthwith, 

„ wilt thou another operation of the Trinity besides these?,, 
as though he had already shewn the first operation of God 
the Word, His being made Flesh according to the Scrip- 
tures, And what is the other after the first operation, he 
shews as he supposes. He says, „ The Son indwelt in the 
U(o^6pos ,^body :„ a God-clad '^ man therefore is Christ. Nest the 
Word of God the Father is shewn operating this alone for 
man : so that even though the blessed Evangelist say, 
S.John i. TJie Word ivas made Flesh and tabernacled in us'^, it indi- 
^'*' cates nothing else to us but just this alone, that the Word 

being God dwelt in a man just as in ourselves too. For 
2 Cor. vi. we are temj)les of the living Ood, and herein Jcnoiv ive that 
IS John -^^ **^ *^ '^*^ because He gave us of His Spirit. But thou 
iv. 13. .yyiit; jjQt (I supposc) Say this, shuddering at the blasphemy, 
but wilt confess with us, that the Word of God has been 
made Man (and this is the Incarnation) : and wilt agree 
that He hath remained God, and kept the Beauty of His 

■when he was speaking with the holy Vir- <^ The Word ivas made flesh and taher- 
gin (for The Holy Ghost, he says, shall nacled in (or among) us. The Easterns 
come upon thee, and the Power of the most in their great dread of Apollinarianism, 
Highest shall overshadow thee) that thou suspected S. Cyril of pressing S. John's 
mayest again understand, that the God- earlier words {aap^ tyevero) to mean, 
head being by Nature One, conceived was turned into flesh (seep. 44 note e) : 
of both in the Father and the Son and Nestorius on his side would seem to have 
in the Holy Ghost, not severally will rested his, ,the Divine Nature not en- 
Each in-work as to ought of things that , during change into flesh but inhabita- 
are, but whatever is said to be done by , tion in man , (pp. 28, 30) ui part on 
One, thisis wholly the work of the whole the words, tabernacled in us. S.Cyril 
Divine Nature." lb. on vi. 57 pp. 424, gives two most carefully-weighed expo- 
425 O. T. sitions of the verse at pp. 4, 5 and 35. 

Made Flesh, means Gob become M an : His His Snun. 129 

proper Nature^ even tliough He have the name, Son of BooKiv.i. 
Man, and have been made so of a truth. What then didst 
thou learn, and say that the Father co-seated with Himself 
the manhood that was assumed, and not rather that there 
sitteth on the Throne of His proper Godhead, in the 
Good-Pleasure of God the Father, the Word That sprang 
from Him, when made Man too : in order that His Hu- 
man Nature be not conceived and spoken of by us as 
something other than He, albeit the union that is of truth ^ ^T^sKarh 

, T XT • /-\ 11 Tx- Til 1 • T a.\)]deiav 

shews us that He is One and that His r lesh is not alien kvwtjfws 

from Him ? 

In this too thou wilt therefore be caught speaking falsely 

and in no slight degree erring from fit reasoning. And if 

to say that the Word has been made Flesh is nought else see pp. 8, 

. . 35 

than that He being in the Excellence of Godhead and 

abiding what He was, hath become Man, what glory from 

without will He be in need of. Himself the Lord of Glory? 

For confessedly was He being glorified, the Spirit working see On 

Divine signs; yet not as a God-clad man, gaining this pp_ ^3^4*^ 

thing from an alien and superior Nature, even as do we, ^1- 

but rather as using of His own Spirit : for He was God by 

Nature and not alien to Him is His Spirit. Hence we say 

that not from without nor by adoption has the operation 

of the Spirit been given to Him, even as unto us, or to 

the holy Apostles : for to them hath Christ given autliority S- Matt. 

over unclean spirits to cast them out, and commanded them 

to heal both every sichiess and every ailment in the people. 

From within ^ therefore and from ^ Himself is His Spirit. ] oiKoBev 

A.nd an evident demonstration of this will be His being 

,ble to supply It to others too and not of measure, as the S- John 

jlessed Evangelist saith. For the God of all measured to see above 

he saints the grace through the Spirit, and to one He ^' ^ 

rave the ivord of wisdom, to another the luord of hnoivledge, iCor. xii. 

o another, gifts of healing : and this I think is that those lb. 9. 

vho have the operation have power of measure : but our 

jord Jesus Christ, putting forth the Spirit out of His own 

ulness, even as doth the Father Himself, gives It oiot as 

f measure to those who are worthy to receive It. Why 

130 Saints ivorh in measure, Christ Almighty, the Holy Ghost 

AG. NEST, then, most excellent sir, dost thou make Him Who giveth 
the Spirit not of measure, connumerate with those who have 
- (TvyKe- n^ in measure, saying that His glory has been cemented^ 
KpoT-na- ai ^^ ^^^ Spirit and that He has been operated on, like one 
3 (rvyKp6- of ^s^ receiving as a grace support ^ from Him, rather than 
consol'ida- working Divine signs through His own Spirit. 
^'°" For the all-daring Jews, whetting against Him a bitter 

S. Matt, tongue, unholily said. This man casteth not out devils save 
^"* ^^' in Beelzebub the prince of the devils ; but our Lord Jesus 
Christ convicting them of no small folly yea rather of im- 
Ib 27. pi^ty, says, If I in Beelzebub, 'prince of devils, cast out devils, 
by luhom do your sons cast them out ? for the glorious and 
Actsiv. mighty choir of the holy Apostles, performing miracles in 
the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, is marvelled at : and 
S. Luke of a truth they returned rejoicing and saying. Lord even the 
devils are subject to us in Thy Name. But if it be possible 
that in the name of any one of those operated on, others 
too should avail to accomplish the like, let him come, let 
him tell us why no one is marvelled at for rebuking un- 
clean spirits or having accomplished ought else that passes 
reason, in the name of any saint. 

But they are operated upon by the Spirit and have a 
measured grace. He, as God in-worketh, and through His 
own Spirit achieveth without toil the things whereby He 
is marvelled at. And verily the woman who was sick of 
the issue of blood came one time secretly behind Him (thus 
lb. viii. is it written) and touched the border of His garment and im- 
mediately her issue of blood stanched, which Christ now 
lb. 45. understanding, says Who touched Me ? and when at this 
the Divine-speaking disciples said, Master, the multitude 
lb. 4G. are thronging Thee and pressing Thee, He said again, Some- 
body touched Me, for I hnow that might luent forth of Me. 
Understandest thou then that not as introduced from with- 
out, but from within and out of Himself hath He the power 
to inwork and to free from weaknesses ? 

And the blessed Evangelist Matthew too somewhere, 19. writeth. And the luhole multitude ivere seeJdng to touch Him, 

for there went might out of Him and healed all. His might 

nis own, Nicene Fathers say, tJw Word inade Man. 131 

tlien is His Spirit, and tlie Divine-uttering David will give BooKiv.2. 
us proof, saying. By the Word of the Lord ivere the Heavens Ps.xxxiii. 
stahlished and by the Spirit of His Mouth all their might. ' 
^^he Mouth of God the Father he says is the Word That is 
out of Him, by Whose Spirit the things made through Him, 
are stablished in being. I have now therefore said that 
he brings down to nothing the Mystery of Godliness, which 
^^as been marvelled at by the holy Angels themselves too, 
and recking nought of the dogmas that pertain unto truth, 
he makes light of them saying, „ Wilt thou another opera- 
„ tion of the Trinity besides these ? the Son dwelt in the 
„ body, the Father commended him when baptized, the 
„ Spirit fashioned him in the Virgin.,, And that the truth 
will follow surely upon the things which we have said, and 
that we have made no mere condemnation of his words, but 
rather a clear and true conviction of them, himself will shew 
saying elsewhere on this wise, 

„ And the proof of co-work is evident. The Son became 
„ man, the Father enthroned Him, the Spirit honoured Him 
„ by signs. 

Will any one doubt even after this that the aim of his § 2 
ideas looks to unlearning alike and unholiness, and is bold 
against the doctrines of piety ? for like as he unwisely casts 
forth the Word of God from being made Flesh and says 
that He wrought an indwelling in man, so too again does 
he take the being made man, albeit the holy Churches in 
every region under Heaven, and the venerable Fathei's 
themselves who put forth unto us the definition of the right 
and undefiled Faith, viz. (the Holy Ghost speaking in them) 
that the Word of God was made flesh and became Man, 
conceiving that this is nought else save only the being 
made man as we, and being born after the flesh of a woman, 
because He hath also been made with us under the Law, 
Who as God is above the Law. 

But since (as I have already full often said) his aim is 
to undo the Truth, therefore he alone (and that strenu- 
ously) lifts himself up, and opposes the opinions of all, 


132. Incarnation not Indwelling. The Son God and Man, 

AG. NEST, and brandishes arms against the Ineffable glory, and what 
he alone thinks, endeavours to bring in secretly as a kind 

4 ffvpcpi- Qf rubbish * upon the churches of God : for he maintains 
that the Incarnation is indwelling, and not rather that the 
Word out of God partook like us of blood and flesh, albeit 
the Word hath indwelt and indwells yet in all the saints, 
but has once been made as we, and has partaken Personally 
in a single flesh, wherein He is believed both to have died 
and to have risen for us : for of His own will He suffered 
in the flesh. 

But that to no purpose is he flinging about words, and 
recking little of the absurdity of his language, says that 
Christ was ennobled by signs through the Spirit, the words 
which have been just cited, sulEficiently (as I think) shewed: 
but let us examine, if you please, his other words. ,The 
> Father (he says) commended;, what then commended 
here is, I cannot understand : for the word is confessedly 
a word of the market and the mob, and replete with com- 
monplace trickery '^ ; but I suppose that he wanted to 
indicate, set forth., for example, or, hath witnessed to. How 
then (tell me) did the Father commend ? did He exhibit 
one counted worthy of Divine Indwelling? or was it not 
this at all, but rather His own Son made man, yet abiding- 
even in Flesh, what He was and is and shall be, i. e. God ? 

Heb. xiii. For Jesus Christ Who was yesterday and to-day is the Same 

8. J. 

even jor ever. 

Come then, let us examine what is spoken of Him. 

S. Jol)n What says the Evangelist ? And John hare record, saying, 

I have seen the Spirit descending from Heaven like a dove, 

.... ^ and abiding upon Him, This is He That haptizeth 

with the Holy Ghost : and I have seen and testified that This 

is tlie Son of God. For our Lord Jesus Christ was about 

to sanctify economically the Jordan, and deigned with us 

<! ayopala re Koi 6.yvpTdoST]s Kol rep- that the omission is a slip of some tran- 

6peias itiuiTiKris ava.fxf(TTo<i scriber. The omission seems to indicate 

«^ Thus the MS., omitting the inter- that as in other places so here too 
mediate part, ver. 32 and most of 33. S. Cyril read /row Heaven in verse 33 
Omissions of this sort are not un- also and so that the omission took 
common, even in good MSS., while the place through the eye of the scribe wan- 
frequent citation of these verses by dering from the words from heaven in 
S. Cyril, together with the sense, shew verse 32 to those same words in verse 33. 


and speaks as God even when man on earth. 133 

to be baptized, ordering tlie Mystery of the Economy BooKiv.2. 
with flesh through the ways that beseem it : for it was 
necessary that the Word out of God the Father should be 
known to have been made Man. Yet was He baptized as see below 
Man, He baptized Divinely in the Holy Ghost. And we do 36 ; above 
not say that He ministered the participation of the Holy 
Ghost to the baptized either as a servant or by means of 
any other, but hallowed them, Himself infusing into them 
Old of His own Fulness as God by Nature. How then dost 
thou, disregarding words alike and thoughts that belong 
to rightness, say that indwelling in man was wrought by 
God the Word ; albeit whereas very many saints have had 
the God of all indwelling in them, none of them baptized 
with his own spirit or has been said to indwell Divinely in 
any and has so indwelt ? and Christ Himself dwells in us 
through the Holy Ghost, Which is His own too, even as 
God the Father's. And this Himself ratifies to us saying. 
Bid ivhen the Comforter is come, Whoin I will send unto yon s.John 
from the Father, the 8pi7-it of the Truth, Which proceedeth ^^' ' 
from the Father, He shall testify of Me. 

See then how He says that the Spirit Which proceed- 
eth from God the Father is the own Spirit of the Truth 
also: and He Himself is of a surety the Truth. How then, 
if He be of a truth not rather God made man, but man 
having the Divine Indwelling as His Energy, doth He 
promise to send down, as His own, the Spirit of God the 
Father upon them who believe on Him ? Yea, as I said, 
he shakes to nothing the glory of the Mystery, distribu- 
ting the operation of the Holy Trinity in respect of the 
things done, and allotting to each of the Persons by Him- 
self what the other hath not wrought. 

Again he says on this wise, „ The Son chose forth, for 
„1, He says, chose you : the Father sanctified, the Spirit ib. 16. 
„made orators.,, distraction without measure! if all 
things have been done by the Father through the Son in 
the Spirit and nothing badone by God the Father, save in 
this very way ; — how is he not surely distraught, who 
distributes to the Persons severally the Operations unto 

134 Each Divine Ad that of Whole Trinity. 

AG. NEST, oup-bt of tlie Untaint and One Godhead, and doth not 
rather maintain that each thing that is done has been 
wrought by the Father through the Son in the Spirit ? 
For if the Son is both the Counsel and Wisdom and Might 
of the Father, full surely will the Father work all things 
through the Son, as through His Counsel and Wisdom 
and Might. Thus chose He for their excellence His dis- 
ciples, thus do we say that those who were chosen out 
were sanctified, thus that they were made orators, from 
out One Godhead, that is, by the Father through the Son 
S.John in the Spirit. For He says, Holy Father, sanctify them in 
XVU.17. jijjy rp,^.^^f]^^ The Truth therefore sanctifies, i. e. the Son; 
He infuses .... .Hoo and renders them wise and through 
5 0eo(pi- ^]^0 operation of the Holy Ghost, devoutly ^ eloquent. And 
verily He said in the book of Matthew to His own Disci- 
S. Matt, pies, WJien they deliver you up take no thought how or what 
^* "^' ye shall speaJc, for it shall he given you in that hour ivJiat 
ye shall si^eah., for not ye are the speakers, hut the Spirit of 
your Father which speaketh in you; and through that of 
S.Luke Luke, Settle it therefore in your hearts not to meditate hefore 
15. ' ' what ye sliall answer, for I will give you a nwuth and wisdom 
which all your adversaries shall not he ahle to gainsa.y or 
resist. Hearest thou how when the Holy Ghost speaketh 
in them. Himself gives the mouth ? For He is as Word 
Giver of word and Bestower of the Spirit, as having It 
as His own Naturally, even as the Father Himself too. 
The Holy Trinity has therefore the same Operation, and 
whatsoever things the Father doth and willeth to accom- 
plish, these things doth the Son too in equal manner, 
likewise the Spirit also. But the giving of the Operations 
severally to Each of the Persons individually is nought 
else than to set forth three gods severally and wholly dis- 
^\6yos tinct from one another. For the count ^ of Natural Unity 
7 «iVtjo-iv in regard to the Holy Trinity, shews I suppose one motion ^" 
unto every thing that is done. But if now we say that 
while One Person is moved, e. g., to work, the Two remain 
ineffective, how is not a gross severance privily introduced, 

f There appears to be an omission here: the Roman Editors conjecture that 
t6 ayiov nviv/Jia may be to be supplied. 

' In Holy Trinity one Nature, Individual Being to EachPerson. 135 

allotting as a certain position to each Person, the being book iv.3. 

conceived of external to and isolated from the rest, not in ^*^^ ^^o^^ 

P- 127, 
respect of His Individual Being (for that were true), but in note b. 

respect of utter diversity ^ which does not endure language ^ ^"^^pi^- 

that gathers them into Natural Union ? For One Nature 

of Godhead is conceived of in the Holy and Consubstan- 

tial Trinity s. 

But this good man dares to abridge^ God the Word ^KaTaa/j.i. 

Consubstantial with God the Father as though he knows 

not that He has been made Man, not casting away what He 

was, but assuming rather what He was not: for he is an 

■advocate for ^ (as has been said) the Holy Ghost and insults ^^"""T"- 

the Son, thus saying to some who have elected to think see above 

. p. 70 

with Arius, 

„ They'' (he says) contriving greater insult against Him, 
„ and severing from the Divine Nature the Spirit Which 
„ having formed His Human Nature (for that, it says, which S. Matt. 
„is conceived in Mary is of the Holy Ghost), reformed unto 
,, righteousness that Avhich was formed (for He was mani- l Tim. 
,,fested, it says, in flesh, ivas made 7'ighteous in Spirit), 
„Which made Him terrible to devils (for I, He says, in the s. Matt. 
„ Spirit of God cast out devils) ; Which made His Flesh a ^^' ^^* 
„ Temple (for I saw, it says, the Spirit descending from s.john 
„ Heaven like a dove and it abode upon Him) ; Which grant- *" ^^" 
,, ed Him to be taken up (for, it says, having given com- Acts i. 2, 
„mandment to the holy Apostles whom He chose forth. He 
„ was tahen np through the Holy Ghost) : This I say which 
„ bestowed on Christ so great glory they make Christ's 
„ bondman.,, 

The daring then to sever the Spirit from the Divine § 3 

e " Following the faith of the holy in work, Impress and Radiance and in 
I Fathers we say that the Son was in God- all Equal, in nought minished. For 
befitting and Ineffable way truly be- thus, the Holy Ghost being counted be- 
gotten out of the Essence of God the sides, the Holy and Consubstantial 
Father, and that He is conceived of in Trinity is imited in One Nature of God- 
11 is Proper Hypostasis, yet is united in head." Ep. 1 to Monks p. 6 b. 
Identity of Essence with Him Who be- h This is given by Mercator with the 
gat Him, and is in Him and hath again heading. Also from the second volume 
the Father in Himself. And we confess quire 2 as though against the Arians 
that He is Light out of Light, God out and Macedonians, p. 118 Bal. 
I if God by Nature, Equal in glory and 

136 The Son's the human nature, the Divine, the Holy Ghost. 

AG. NEST, and Untaint Nature, is (I assent) the part of a bad and 
sinful mind and one far removed from what is lit (for He 
is Consubstantial with God the Father, and moreover with 
the Son Himself and is believed to be God and out of 
God) : but I think that we should, letting this be for the 
present, examine the words before us and with all atten- 
tion see whither they look. For says he „ Doing a greater 
„ insult against Him (i, e., the Word out of God the Father) 
„ and severing from the Divine Nature the Spirit Which 
„ formed His Human Nature.,, Whose Human Nature, 
most excellent sir, sayest thou has been formed through the 
Spirit ? albeit thou hadst but now made discourse to us 
about the Only-Begotten Himself Who was begotten In- 
effably out of God the Father ; for thou wert calling Him 
„ Divine Nature, „ and His I suppose and none else's you 
say the Human Nature is. Therefore call to mind thine 
own words, for thou saidst it was the own Flesh of the 
Word, i. e., with a reasonable soul therein, for thus will the 
manhood be His. Then how, if the Word out of God the 
Father be One with His own Flesh, dost thou suppose that 
he lacks God-befitting Might and that the Holy Ghost 
made him terrible to devils, as though he could not do this 
of his own nature ? and again the being able to crush 

ulvw Satan, as by the gift of another and hardly borrowed ^ ? 

If then thou knowest that to sever the Spirit from His 
Divine Nature is (and justly) the most disgraceful of 

3 Trpoihv charges, His (it is manifest) is the Spirit, as proceeding ^ 
through His Ineffable Nature Itself and Consubstantial 
with Him, and He will not need the might that is from It 
as something external and adventitious, but will use Him 
rather as His own Spirit, and will render Himself terrible 
to the devils through Him. But if it seem good to thee to 
shew that they who sever are unimplicated in charges of 
impiety, how didst thou just now call them to us insolent ? 
and how dost thou not perceive that thou art numbering 
thyself with them, if thou sayest that the Word out of 
God the Father united to flesh, needed just Hke any of 
ours and a more man, the aid of the Spirit that He might 

He spealis in condescension : yet is God and tJic Spirit Ills. 137 

be terrible to tlie unclean spirits? For even tliougb He bookIv.s. 
say that He casts out devils in the Spirit of God^ how must 
one not see that the economy of the expression is worthy 
of marvel ? For the chiefs of the Jews, envious of the 
renown of our Saviour and opening against Him an un- 
barred* mouth, used to babble (miserable ones!) saying •* airu- 
that He cast out devils in Beelzebub prince of the devils : s. Luke 
but He with His innate clemency toward all, drawing unto " • " • 
what was better and true those who have erred or who 
were choosing to let loose their tongues upon Him, was 
attributing rather to God Who is by Nature, the glory of 
being able to crush Satan, saying that in the S2yirit of 
God He chased away the wicked spirits : and not as putting 
Himself outside of being God by Nature and of having 
the Holy Ghost as His own : but since it was meet and 
worthy of God-befitting skill to intercept the wrath ^ of ^ eure- 
tliose who wei"e desiring His death and to cut off occasions 
from those who were offended at Him, for they were attack- 
ing Him saying, For a good worh we stone Thee not but for S.John 
hlasphemij, because Thou, being a man, maJcest Thyself God: ^' 
therefore skilfully does He condescending to them who 
were yet weak say, the Spirit of God, : for He knows, as I 
said, that He is God by Nature together with Him Who 
begot Him, and has all things of His, save only the being 
Father. Wherefore did He also say to Him, All Mine are ih. xvii. 
Thine and Thine Mine and I have been glorified in them, and 
to ourselves making discourse concerning the Holy Ghost, 
He says, All things that the Father hath are Mine, therefore ib. xvi. 
J said unto you that of Mine shall He take and. declare it unto ^^' 
yon. For as the Holy Ghost proceedeth ^ out of the Father ^ TrpSeiaiu 
being His by Nature, in equal wise is He through the Son 
Himself too. His Naturally and Consubstantial with Him. 
Hence even though He be glorified through the Spirit, yet 
is He conceived of as glorifying Himself through His own 
Spirit, and not as though it came to Him from without 
even though He be seen as made Man like us. 

It is besides unsafe to say this also concerning the Spirit, 
„ Which hath made His Flesh a Temple. „ For it was the 


138 The Holy Ghost ever in Christ as His own. 

AG. NEST, own Flesli of tlie Word, and this thyself has just now ac- 
knowledged to us, for thou saidst that His is the human 
nature, and the Holy Body taken out of the holy Virgin is 
called His Temple : His own again is His Spirit, and never 
* will the Word out of God the Father be conceived of with- 
out His own Spirit. Better therefore were it and wiser to 
eay that the Body is the Temple of the Word and the flesh 
His own, and to believe that with the Word is ever His 
Spirit, just as also with the Father Himself too. 

Not without blame moreover would I say that is his say- 
ing that Assumption into Heaven has been given Him by the 
Spirit as to a mere man. For He chose His Disciples 

Acts i. 2. through the Holy Ghost, He was taken up as God, not receiv- 
ing this as a gift from Another ; but Himself rather as a 
first-fruit of the human nature renewed unto immortality 

Heb. X, presenting' Himself to God the Father and consecrating 

lh.y\.\2,for us a new and living way and that enter eth into the inner 
part of the veil, whither the forerunner is said to have entered 
in our behalf, after the order of Melchisedech made an High 
Priest for ever. But that when Christ ascended above, the 
Holy Ghost was in Him as His own, none will doubt. How 
then didst thou not fear (tell me) to say that „ This Which 
„ gave this -so great glory to Christ, they make Christ's 
„ bondman ? „ For they who make Him Christ's bondman 
are confessedly impious and dishonour the Very Word Who 
is Consubstantial with God Himself, arraying in slave- 
Tap' befitting measures the Spirit Which is of" Him and in 
Him by Nature and His own : but the saying that the 
glory was given Him by the Spirit, is a manifest proof of 
the uttermost infatuation. 

But you will be caught idly babbling herein, and not 
understanding the Mystery to Him-ward, yea rather both 
thinking and saying clean contrary to yourself. For if 
thou hast believed that the Word being God has been made 
Flesh (for thou saidst that His was the human nature) why 
dost thou say that the Lord of glory, as though He had not 

' in^aviffuv, with a reference to vvv ifx<f>avi<T6?]vai t(S Trpon-wirw rov 6eou virfp 
T)lj.wv in Heb. ix. 24. 

Son glorifies the Father, the Father tlie Son. 139 

glory of His own, needed it from the Spirit, and reckon- BooKiv.3. 

est Him in the measures of the creature to which all things 

are from without and sriven ? for what hast thou that thou l Cor. iv. 

receivedst not, will it befit the creature to hear. 

Yea but (he says) I find Emmanuel saying, Father, S.John 
glorift/ Thy Son : add therefore what remains ; this is, 
That Thy Son too may glorify Thee. If thou assert that 
the Son, as lacking glory, desires that of the Father, what 
dost thou say, when the Father too is glorified of the Son ? 
is it as not having glory or needing it of another ? away 
with the mis-counsel ! for verily is it trickery and unholy 
thought and nought else. For the Divine Nature and that 
passeth all natures dwelleth in the light unapproachable and l Tim. vi. 
hath authority over all things and to Him is ascribed the 
glory which most befits it alone : but Avlien the Only-Be- 
gotten Word of God was made man and was about hy the Heb.ii.9. 
grace of God through His own flesh to taste death for every 
man, and undo its might hard-to-withstand, quickening as 
God His own Temple, He devises the prayer as Man, and 
wills the Father to consent with Him Who was transform- 
ing the nature of man to what it was at the beginning and 
renewing it unto incorruption, and displaying it superior 
to the meshes of death : that ancient curse and the sen- 
tence upon the First-formed being undone. 

Hence since visible in flesh, He is preached Son of God 
by Nature and in truth, H« says, Farther glorify Thy Sony 
rendering Him as Man, superior to both death and decay, 
that He may be believed to be Thine, being as God Life 
by Nature, according to the count ^ of His own Nature : « kSjoi/ 
ifor then will the Son too glorify Thee. Glory truly is it 
to God the Father that it be believed by us, that He, Very 
God and Life and Life-giving, begat equal and like to see above 
JHimself in everything, ineffably and beyond understanding, 
the Son, Who was in no lesser state, even though ^ He 
have been made in flesh, but preserved wholly unimpaired 
the Supernatural and Choice Beauty of His inherent Na- 
tural Nobility ^, being Himself too Life as out of Life, and o ebyeyei. 


^ I have supplied el translating d Kcd. The edition gives /cal. 

140 The Son Lord of glory as God, receives it as Man. 

AG. NEST, all-availing and acliieving without toil and bestowing in- 
corruption on those subject to death and decay. 

Hence even though the Son be said to be glorified by 
the Father, consider the measure of the human nature, 
sever not into two [after the Union] the One Christ and 
Son and Lord, but confess One and the Same, God made 
Man ^, and the Same in like manner Lord of glory as God, 
and recipient of glory in His Human Nature. For consider 
that, albeit by Nature and in verity God and King of all 

Ps. ii. 6. and Lord, He is said to have been set King, when, made 
man as we. He hath humbled Himself and been made 
obedient to God the Father and with us under the Law. 
In no wise therefore will the things that jDcrtain to the 
measures of the emptiness trouble the wise and understan- 
dino- and settled in the faith : but from them alike and 
from the things that befit the Divine Nature, do they ac- 
knowledge the Son, the Same God and Man. 

But he comes not forward with sound words, but having 
swerved exceedingly to what is unruly, he busies himself"* 
without understanding, and deems fit to hold what please 
himself alone and what he thinks well to deem are under- 
stood aright. And he destroys others too, in addition to 
to what he has said severing into two the One Lord Jesus 
Christ, calumniating also our Div^ine Mystery itself from 
not enduring to confess with us, that not like one of the 
holy Prophets, or again Apostles and Evangelists, was 

chapters Christ a God-clad man, but God rather made Man, and 
hath partaken in verity of blood and flesh. He said in 
this wise again, putting forth his words as of the Person of 

S.Joliu „ Be"^ that eateth My flesh and drinheth My Blood ahid- 
yi. 56. y ^ ./ 

' I have construed this from a Syriac " Marius Mercator gives a Latin trans- 

extra6t in one of Severus' Epistles, which lation of this, citing it as "in another 

RUY)]ii\ies,thev.-ords. confess and the S(mie, treatise in the fifth quire of the hook, 

Got! made Man, and gives rightly as in- On the passage of Holy Scripture ivhere 

stead of the et of the present Greek text, it says. If thou shalt have reniemhered 

Severus' ms. omits the words just ahove that' thy brother hath ought against thee." 

fir/^«- Me jy^iw», and very likely rightly. Op. p. 115 Baluz. It occurs also in a 

'" ■nfpLavTi^iTai, see also below book fuller form among the passages cited be- 

.5 p. 156, Defence of chapter 2 against fore the Council of Ephesus, ib. pp 209, 

Theodoret p. 209 d, on S. John 616 d. 210. and by S. Cyrilin his Defence of 

Sent=GoD ihe Word Incarnate, 141 

, efli in Me and I in him. Remember that wliat is said is BooKiv.4. 

, about tlie flesh. As tJie Living Father sent Me, Me, the S.John 

, visible : but sometimes I misinterpret. Let us hear from 

,, what follows : As the living Father sent Me, he ^ says the ] e/ceTj/oy, 

, Godhead, I the Manhood : let us see who it is who is opponent, 

, mis-interpreting. The heretic says [he says °] here the ' ^" 

, Godhead, Sent Me God the Word. As the living Father 

, sent Me, according to him, and I live, God the Word, be- 

, cause of the Father. After this. And he that eateth Mehe lb. 

, too shall live. Whether do we eat, the Godhead or the 

, flesh ?„ 

Thou sayest therefore that the flesh alone has been sent, § "^ 
and affii'mest that it it is which is seen : it therefore suffices 
also alone by itself to quicken that which is tp'annized by 
death. Why then do the God-inspired Scriptures tell a 
tale - to no purpose and over and over assert that the -pa'Pv^od- 

^ ■*• ai seep. 8 

Word out of God the Father was made Flesh ? for what ref. 9 
need at all would there be of the Word, if the human nature 
sufiiceth for us, even though conceived of alone and by it- 
self, so as to be able to bring to nought death and to undo 
the might of decay ? and if it is as you suppose and choose 
to think, not God the Word Who has been sent through 
being made as we, but the flesh alone which is seen has 
been sent by the Father, how is it not clear to all, that we 
have been made participant of a human body and one in 
no wise whatever differing from our own p ? how there- 
fore do you elsewhere laugh at those who so think ? for 
thou saidst again, 

„ I will speak the words too of oSence. Of His own 
Flesh was the Lord Christ discoursing to "them ; Except '^'^■^^ ■ 
ye eat. He says, the Flesh of the Son of Man and drink 
„ His Blood, ye have no Life in you : the hearers endured 

lis 11th chapter against the Eastern Bi- only, to this same must refer the words 

hops, pp. 192 e 193 a b. which follow. He that eateth Me, he too 

o [he says]. I have supplied this to shall live, must refer to a mortal body 

kill up the sense from S. Cyril's fuller only, and one just like ours, so that our 

itations against the Eastern bishops. food should be no longer the Eucharist 

p S. Cyril means that if not God the but only that. 

ord have been serit but a mortal body 

142 Flesh quickens not, flesh of Word fall of the Life. 

AG. NEST. „ not tlie loftiness of what was said, they imagined of their 
„ unlearning that He was bringing in cannibalism.,, 
§ 5 And how is the thing not plain cannibalism, and in 

f^l^ncl what way is the Mystery yet lofty, unless we say that the 
pp. 566 Word out of God the Father has been sent, and confess 
that the mode of that sending was the Incarnation ? For 
then, then we shall see clearly, that the Flesh which was 
united to Him and not another^s flesh, avails to give 
chapterii Life, yet ' because it has been made the very own of Him 
who is mighty to quicken all things/ For if this visible fire 
infuses the force of its natural inherent power into those 
substances with which it comes in contact, and changes 
water itself though cold by nature into that which is con- 
trary to its nature and makes it hot ; what wonder or how 
pan one disbelieve that the Word out of God the Father 
being the Life by Nature rendered the Flesh which is uni- 
ted to Him, Life-giving ? for it is His very own and not 
that of another conceived of as apart from Him and of one 
of us. But if thou remove the Life-giving Word of God 
from the Mystical and true Union with His Body and 
sever them utterly, how canst thou shew that it is still 
S.John Life-giving? And Who was it who said. He that eateth 
VI. 56. ji^y Flesh and drinJceth My Blood, abideth in Me and I in 
him ? If then it be a man by himself and the Word of 
God have not rather been made as we, the deed were can- 
nibalism and wholly unprofitable the participation (for I 
lb. 63. hear Christ Himself say, The flesh iiroflieth nothing, it is the 
Spirit that quichenetJi, for as far as pertains to its own na- 
ture, the flesh is corruptible i, and will in no wise quicken 
others, sick itself of the decay that is its own) : but if thou 
say that it is the Own Body of the Word Himself, why dost 
^■Tfparevri thou speak porteutously and utter vain things ^, contending 
o/xvet7s that not the very Word out of God the Father has been 
sent, but some other than of Him, „ the visible,,, or 
His Flesh, albeit the God-inspired Scripture every where 
proclaimeth One Christ, full well affirming that the Word 

1 See the same explanation given in S. Cyril's commentary on S. John, ad 
loc.p. 435 0.T. 

Being ashamed at the Son's lowliness. Sent. 143 

was made Man as we and defining herein the tradition of book iv.5. 
the right Faith. 

But out of overmuch reverence*, he blushes (it appears) **"^«^^'" 
at the measures of emptiness and endures not to see the 
Son Co-Eternal with God the Father, Him who is in the 
Form and Equality in everything with Him Who begat 
Him, come down unto lowliness : he finds fault with the 
economy and haply leaves not unblamed the Divine Counsel 
and Plan. For he pretends to investigate the force of the 
things said by Christ, and as it were taking in ^ the depth 
of the ideas ; then bringing round (as he thinks) my ^ words 

■■ Kol OLOV avafj.a(r(rwfj.ei>os [perhaps 
dj/OjuaTTc^^uevos] rh rihv ivvoiwv fidOos. 
Compare the similar phrase aua/j-a^afxe- 
VOL Se CLKpL^ws rrju tov voi)fx.aros SvvU' 
fj.iv. S. Cyril on S. Jolm p. 10" b (p. 125 
O.T.). The word also occm-s in the com- 
mentaiy on S. John {aveixd.TrovTo 182 
\m.t.,a.vaixaTT6jxeda — dt'a/xaTT€Tai217cl, 
avafxaTTdfievoi 550 fin., avajxaTTo/xevos 
5G0 e, pp. 208, 217, 249, 641, 053 O.T.) 
of receiving in one's own self the im- 
press of a thing. 

s S.Cyril in his great Letter to the 
monks which Nestorius had seen (see 
above p. 20 note 1) and was apparently 
contradicting had said, " And the Di- 
vine-uttering Paul will assure us, say- 
ing. But when the fulness of time came 
God sent forth His Son made of a woman 
made under the law, in order to redeevi 
them that were under the law, in order 
that WE might recover the adoption. Who 
then is He who is sent, made (as he said) 
under the law and of a woman, save 
He Who is above laws as God ? but 
since He has been called man, made 
under the Law too, in order to he in all 
things likened to His brethren ?" Ep. 1 
to the monks, p. 13 b. And in his 16th 
Paschal homily, "For as the Divine- 
uttering Paul writes, God sent forth His 
Son made of a woman made under the 
law. For we do not say that the Word 
of God came down into a man born 
through woman, in just the same way as 
He was in the Prophets ; but rather we 
shall crown with right approval John's 
voice clearly and truly saying, And the 
Word was made flesh and tabernacled 
among us. And we shall conceive that 
the Word has been made flesh, partici- 
pating in flesh and blood; and this in 
like way with those who are in blood and 
flesh, ourselves." p. 227 d e. Nestorius' 
objection to the idea of Sent anyhow re- 
ferring to God the Word appears in his 
objections on pp. 48, 51, 52, 84 as well as 

in the present section. To it we owe S. 
Cyril's magnificent teaching here of the 
Blessings given us in and by the Holy 
Eucharist : for to the verse specially in 
controversy, S. John vi. 57, Nestorius 
adds the preceding ver. 56, with a view 
to the argument he draws from the word 
flesh, and S. Cyril in replying gives the 
full teaching of the Catholic Church on 
the subject both of the Eucharist, and of 
the sending. S. Cyril meets Nestorius' 
teaching not only here but (on the Holy 
Eucharist) in his great Letter (3 Epi- 
stles p. 65 and chapter 11, p. 69) and the 
Explanation of chapter 11, p. 156 c d. 
But in his defence of his chapter 11 
against the attack of the Eastern Bishops, 
S.Cyril cites in full tliis passage of 
Nestorius and (after alluding to the pre- 
sent treatise in the words that he has al- 
ready made a long treatise in answer to 
Nestorius) proceeds, " What it is he 
wants to understand, in saying that it is 
not God the Word Incarnate and made 
Man that has been sent, but putting se- 
verally and apart (as he says) ,, the .visi- 
ble, ,, I camiot say, yea rather his soph- 
ism is now evident, for he undoes the 
plan of the union in order that Christ's 
Body may be found to be a common 
body, no longer in truth the 'proper 
Body of Him who is mighty to quicken 
all things.' 

" For petty confessedly to God the 
Word are all human things, but since 
He deigned for our sakes to endm-e the 
emptiness that is the salvation of the 
world, even though He be said to have 
been sent to preach remission to captives 
and recovery of sight to the blind, He is 
glorified rather as enduring the abase- 
ment of the Economy with flesh, and 
no one of those who are wont to think 
aright will ( I suppose) find fault because 
He lowered Himself for our sakes in our 

" Does he not therefore by affirming 

144 The Son sent : His Body our Life. I Live 

S. John 
vi. 57. 

to a seeming absurdity and ignorance ; „ Let us see, he 
„ says^ who it is that mis-interprets. As the Living Father 

that ,,the visible,,, to whom alone he 
hath allotted the fact of being sent, is 
some other son and christ than the Word 
out of God, exhibit our mystery as can- 
nibalism, in unholy wise bringing round 
the mind of behevers to feeble notions 
and essaying to subject to human reason- 
ings what are apprehended by unques- 
tioning faith alone ? for not because the 
Nature of the Godhead is not eaten, will 

that are on earth among the living, God 
the Father quickening us, if it is true 
that in Him ice live mid move and are ? 
Since therefore we all of us live because 
of the Father, how (I pray) is the body 
of one man alone life-giving on this ac- 
count and those of the rest have not 
rather the same operation, seeing that 
we all (as I said) both are and live be- 
cause of the Father ? what then do we 

one therefore say that the holy Body of say to this ? The Word of God appear- 
Christ is common : but it is needful to ing in human form has been called Sent 
know (as we said before) that it is the (apostle) (for He was sent to preach re- 
Proper Body of the Word which quick- mission to captives and recovery of sight 
eneth all things, and since it is the Body to the blind), but He Hves because of the 
of Life it is also life-giving, for through Father for He was begotten out of the 

It does the Son infuse life into our 
mortal bodies and undoes the mastery 
of death: and the Holy Spirit of 
Christ quickeneth us in equal wise ; 
for it is tlie Spirit that qtcickeneth, ac- 
cording to the f^aviom-'s own voice." Def. 
cap. 11 adv. orient, p. 193 b c d e. So 
again in S. Cyi-il's Letter to the Em- 
peror de recta fide (which Nestoriu; 

Living Father : for it must needs, it 
must needs that the Son bom of God 
the Father Living and Life be full surely 
Life by Nature. But since He made 
His own the body which was taken out 
of the holy Virgin, He rendered it Life- 
giving and witli reason, for it is the Body 
of the Life which quickeneth all things. 
Hence we may not sever into two sons 

very likely to have seen tliough probably the One Son and Christ and Lord ; since 

not sent so soon as this) S.Cyril cite"s ^--^^-'^ ^ -^ .^ „i-.i,„ i7„.i,._ 

the text and says, "Yet how is it not 
true to say that the flesh hath come not 
out of heaven, but was out of the Virgin 
according to the Scriptures ? yet is not 
the Word eaten, but H e is seen in thou 

He is the Same, Life as out of the Father, 
Life and Living ; Lifegiving through 
His own Body too, as God made as we 
and Incarnate." de recta fide to the Em- 
presses § 40 p. 177 abed. In the 
Thesaurus S. Cyril speaks of sending in 

sand ways gathering both into One [uni- reference to either the Eternal Genera- 
ting] the properties of the natures by tion or the temporal Birth for our sakes 
an economic coming together {av/x^a- (compare S.Aug, on S.John hom. 21 
aii^)" p. 35 d e. When S.Cyril repub- fin. pp. 338 sq. O.T. with hoinm,36, 
lished this treatise in a revised form, he 40, pp. 507, 545 O.T.) " The Son says 
concluded this extract, " gathering both that He has been sent by the Father, 
into Oneandasitwereimmingling(di/a- either [either is supplied from MSS.] 
Kipvas) the properties of the natures." after the mode of obedience and Incar- 
p.708a. In his treatise to the Empresses nation (for He emptied Himself taking 
(Eudocia the Emperor's wife and his servant'' s form and became obedient unto 
sister Pulcheria who had been Empress death), or as out of the sun the light that 
in her Brother's minority), written at the is born and emitted from forth it, or out 
same time as the treatise to the Emperor, of the fire its heat, indivisibly and in- 
S. Cyril says, "As the Living Father separably permeating to its participa- 
sent Me both I live because of the Father tor." Thes. cap. 32 p. 325. In his coniin . 
and he that eateth Me he too shall live on S.John, S. Cyril takes «en? as belong. 

because of Me. I would gladly ask them 
who distinguish into two christs, the One, 
Who I pray is He Who has been sent by 
God the Father and Who both lives be- 
cause of Him and is on that account 
Life-giving ? If therefore it is the Word 
who is out of Him, bare and by Himself, 
how is He eaten by us in order that we 
may live because of Him (for unem- 
bodied is the Godhead by Nature) ? but 

ing to the Incarnation, p. 424 O.T. The 
very Rev. John Burgon B.D. Dean of 
Chichester, very kindly sent me from 
his laboriously constructed Indices of 
the New Testament citations of the 
Greek Fathers, a list of the citations in 
S. Cyril's extant writings of S. John vi. 
57. It is probable that Nestorius' allu- 
sion to S. Cyril's interpretation of sent, 
belongs not to any comment on this verse 

if they say that he that hath been sent but to the meaning as given in his great 

is man alone and by himself, how is he Letter to the Monks ; which lett^ Nes- 

life-giving because he lives because of torius elsewhere contradicts, 
the Father ? albeit how are not all we 

because of Father, His Very Son : Inj His flesh we live. 145 

„ se7it Me, for I live (according to him) God the Word, he- BooKiv.5. 
„ cause of the Father, and he that eateth Me he too shall live : 
„ which do we eat, the Godhead or the flesh ? „ Perceivest 
thou not therefore at length how thy mind is gone ? for 
the Word of God saying that. He is sent, says, he also that 
eateth Me, he too shall live. But we eat, not consuming the 
Godhead (away with the folly) but the A^ery Flesh of the 
Word Which has been made Life-giving, because it has 
been made His Who liveth because of the Father. And 
we do not say that by a participation from without and 
adventitious is the Word quickened by the Father, but 
rather we maintain that He is Life by Nature, for He has 
been begotten out of the Father who is Life. For as the 
sun^s brightness which is sent forth, though it be said (for see Thes. 
example) to be bright because of the sender, or of that out cfted'm 
of which it comes, yet not of participation hath it the being ^^^^ °°^® 
bright, but as of natural nobility^ it weareth the Excellence '" evy^vel. 
of him who sent it or flashed it forth : in the same way and 
manner, I deem, even though the Son say that He lives 
hecause of the Father, will He bear witness to Himself His 
own Noble Birth ^ from forth the Father, and not with the ^ iljivn- 
rest of the creation promiscuously, confess that He has Life 
imparted and from without. 

And as the Body of the Word Himself is Life-giving, 
He having made it His own by a true union passing under- 
standing and language; so we too who partake of His 
holy Flesh and Blood, are quickened in all respects and 
wholly, the Word dwelling in us Divinely through the 
Holy Ghost, humanly again through His Holy Flesh and 
Precious Blood. The most holy Paul will confirm the 
truth of what I said, writing thus to those in Corinth who 
believed in our Lord Jesus Christ, I spea,h as to ivise men, i Cor. x. 
ptdge YE what I say, the Ciqj of Blessing luhich we bless 
is it not the communion of the Blood of Christ ? the Bread 
which we breali is it not the communion of the Body of Christ ? 
for one bread one body are we luho are many, for ice all 
are partaJcers of One Bread. For having partaken of the 
Holy Ghost, we are made one both with Christ Himself 


146 Christ's Body maJces us one, mysteriously. 

AG. NEST, the Saviour of all and with one another: we are of the 
same body in this way, that we heing many are one bread one 
body, for we all are partakers of the One Bread, For the 
Body of Christ which is in us binds us together into unity 
and is in no way divided. But that through the Body of 
Christ we have been brought together into unity with Him 
and with one another, the blessed Paul will confirm, writing, 

Eph. iii, JPor this cause I Paul the Prisoner of Jesus Christ in behalf 
of you Gentiles, if ye heard of the economy of the grace of God 
which was given me to you-ward, how that by revelation He 
made hnown unto me the mystery, as I wrote afore in few 
words, whereby when ye read, ye may understand my hnow- 
ledge in the mystery of Christ which in other ages was not 
made known to the sons of men as now it is revealed unto 
His holy Apostles and prophets in the Spirit, that the Gentiles 
should be fellow -heirs and of the same body and co-participant 
ill the promise in Christ. 

But since some of those who at first believed, ignorant 
of the tradition and force of the Mystery were pleased to 
be borne aside from what was right, celebrating in the 
churches banquetings and public feastings, the blessed 
Paul found fault with those who used so to do, writing, 

1 Cor. xi. For have ye not houses to eat and to drink in ? or despise ye 
the Church of God and shame them that have not ? ivliat shall 
I say to you ? shall I praise you in this ? I praise you not ; 
for I received of the Bord what I also delivered to you, that 
the Bord Jesus Christ in the night in which He ivas delivered 
up, took bread and gave thanks and brake and said. This is 
My Body given for you, this do in 7'emembrance of Me. 
Bikewise the Cup too after supper saying, This Cup is the 
New Testament in My Blood, do this as oft as ye drink it in 
remembrance of Me : for as oft as ye eat this bread and drink 
this cup, ye are declaring the Bord's death, till He come. 

And that the Mystery is Divine and the participation 
Life-giving and the might of this unbloody Sacrifice far 
better than the worship under the Law, is easy to see even 
from his saying that the things ordained through Moses 
to them of old time were a shadow, but Christ and what 

Benefit from Lamb^ escape ; from Crrist's ficsh Life. 147 

is His tlie truth. The most wise Paul too will help us bookiv.s. 
herein, thus writing, One that despised Moses' Law died }\^^^ ^^ 
without mercy under two or three witnesses, of how much 
sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy icho 
trod under foot the Son of God and accounted common the 
Blood of the covenant wherein he was sanctified, and did 
despite unto the Spirit of grace ? For they that of old did 
sacrifice the lamb ate thereof, but the force of the eating 
amounted not simply to the satisfying of the belly, nor 
was it for this that the sacrifices were performed under the 
Law : but that when death fell on the rest, they might be 
superior to its suffering and might escape the destroyer. 
And verily in one night were the first-born of the Egyptians 
destroyed, but these fenced by the bare type, alone were 
saved by it, and having the shadow for their shield, pre- 
vailed gloriously over death itself too. The types then 
saved those before us ; in what condition are our matters, 
on whom at length beamed the Truth itself, that is, Christ, 
Who setteth before us His own Life-giving Flesh to par- 
take of ? is it not clear to all ? For very exceedingly better 
and in vast superiority are they. And the might of the 
Mystery our Lord Jesus Christ making manifest saith. 
Verily I say to you, he that believeth on Me hath everlasting S. John 
life, I am tlie Bread of Life : your fathers ate the manna in 51. 
the luilderness and died, this is the Bread ivhich cometh down 
from Heaven that a man may eat thereof and not die, I am 
the Living Bread Which came doivn from Heaven, if any 
man eat of this Bread he shall live for ever and the Bread 
Which I will give is My Flesh Winch is for the Life of the 
•world. For since they of the blood of Israel had marvelled 
at Moses for the largess of manna sent down to those of 
that time in the desert, which fills up a type of the Mystic 
Eucharist (for the Law is a shadow), therefore with ex- 
ceeding skill doth our Lord Jesus Christ minish the type, 
driving them ^ [from it] unto the truth. For not that (He YiJ'"^"' 
says) was the Bread of Life, but rather, I Who am out of 
Heaven and Who quicken all things and infuse Myself into 
them that eat Me, through My Flesh too that is united to 
1 L 2 

148 The Word God and Man we pmiahe in hody and spirit. 

AG. NEST. Me. Which indeed He made clearer saying, Verily I say 
vi. 53^ unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Mail and drink 
^'^' His Blood, ye have not Life in you : he that eateth My Flesh 

and drhiketh My Blood hath eternal Life and I will raise 
him up at the last day, for My Flesh is true meat and My 
Blood is true drink ; he that eateth My Flesh and drinheth 
My Blood abideth in Me and I in him. As the Living Father 
sent Me and I live because of the Father, he also that eateth 
Me, he too shall live. Consider then how He abideth in us 
and maketh us superior to corruption, infusing Himself 
into our bodies, as I said, through His own Flesh too, which 
is true meat, whereas the shadow in the Law and the wor- 
ship under it possess not the truth. 

And the plan of the Mystery is simple and true, not over- 
wrought with varied devices of imaginations unto unholi- 
ness but simple as I said. For we believe that to the body 
born through the holy Virgin, having a reasonable soul, 
the Word out of God the Father having united Himself 
(unspeakable is the union, and wholly a Mystery !) rendered 
it Life-giving, being as God Life by Nature, that making 
us partakers of Himself spiritually alike and bodily. He 
might both make us superior to decay and might through 
Himself bring to nought the law of sin which is in the 
Rom.viii. members of the flesh, might* condemn sin in the flesh, as it 
is written. But this no wise (I deem) pleases this dogma- 
SaTiiuaye- tist of uew invcntious, who like some straying^ calf runs 
saking^the ^^er Only what pleases himself and minishes ^ the force of 
^^^ the mystery saying, 

147 near " Hear the word Lord too, sometimes put of the human 

the end ,^ nature of Christ, sometimes of His Godhead, sometimes 

1 Cor. xi. >} o^ both. As oft as ye eat this Bread and drink this Cup, 

2^' „ ye declare the Lord's Death. Hear from the foregoing the 

J, unlearning of the gainsay ers, how they read the mighty 

„ profit of the mystery, and whose memorial it imparts to 

„ men, and hear not me saying these things, but the blessed > 

1 1 have construed KariKpive as if it were KaraKpiyri, The Roman Editors 
marked the place as obscure. 


Sis the Manhood, His the Godhead. 149 

„Paul, As oft as ye cat this bread, lie said not, As oft as ye BooKiv.6. 

„ eat this Godhead. As oft as ye eat this bread. See what 

„ is before us concerning the Lord's Body. As oft as ye 

„ eat this Bread, whereof the Body is the antitype. Let 

„ us see therefore whose is the Death. As oft as ye eat 

„ this bread and drink this Cup, ye declare the Lord's Death. 

„ Hear yet plainer in what follows. Till He come, who is it 

„ Who is coming ? They shall see the Son of Man coming in S. Matt. 

„ the clouds of heaven with great glory. And greater still, the 

„ Prophet before the Apostles did more clearly shew Him 

„ Who is coming and hath cried aloud proclaiming of the 

Jews, They shall look on Him Whom they inerced. Who Zech. xii. 
„ then is he that was pierced ? the Side : belongs the Side ' 
„ to the body, or the Godhead ? „ 

Again must we speak for the doctrines of the Truth, and § 6 
oppose, sir, thy words, and before all else must say this to 
those who will hear : Thy aim is and with all diligence to 
represent two christs, to whom severally may belong the 
title of lordship, but it shall be shewn by us, without any 
great toil, that you go to this in most unlearned wise. For 
come tell me who ask thee, what Christ you are defining, 
whose you say is both the manhood and likewise the God- 
head : if the Word out of God the Father, you have clearly 
confessed that the Same is man also, for you said that His 
is the human nature : but if him that is born of the Virgin 
according to thee, you will be caught no less pronouncing 
that He is God too : for you said that His is the Godhead 
also. On all sides therefore driven even against thy will 
to the Truth, confess with us One Christ and Lord : for 
thus will you cease from saying, „ Hear the word Lord too, 
„ one while put of the human nature of Christ, one while of 
„ His Godhead, other while, of both : „ for where there is 
One Son, what room is there to speak of both ? and why 
dost thou smile at those who honour our Divine Mystery, 
saying most unholily, „ As oft as ye eat this bread and drink i Cor. xi. 

the cuj), ye declare the Lord's death ? Hear from the fore- 
„ going the unlearning of the gainsayers, how they read 

150 Cheist our Life, our Robe. 

AG. NEST. „ the mighty profit of the mystery and Whose memorial is 
„ set before men.,, 

There is therefore nothing excellent in the unbloody sac- 
rifice, but it profits exceeding little, and he will put the 
force of the gain thereof in just merely declaring a man's 
death and making a memorial of one like us. Therefore 
He lies in saying that He is Life-giving Who knows not 
how to lie, Christ : we too have been cozened having a vain 
opinion of Him : and now late and with difficulty are we 
being guided unto the finding of the truth, by reading these 
thy words. But to you who choose to think thus, shall be 

Jer. xxii, gaid what is spoken through the Prophet's voice, Lo thine 
eyes are not, nor thine heart comely. For he by no means 
understandeth, that we setting forth the Death of Christ, 
confessing too His Resurrection, and gaining thereby per- 
fection in the faith, then becoming partakers of His Divine 
Nature and that through participating of unity with Him, 
are sanctified spiritually alike and bodily and are quickened. 

1 Cor. XV. For this corruptible must put on incorruption and this mortal 
put on immortality : and the robe that is out of Heaven and 
undecaying and productive of immortality hath Christ be- 
come to us. And our proof is the most holy Paul writing, 

Rom. xiii. one while. Put ye on our Lord Jesus Christ, at another again. 

Gal. iii. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ put on Christ, 

S Joim Who saith in God-befitting way and truly, I am the Resur- 

XI. 25. reetion and the Life. 

To those things does he fearing nought put forth yet 
fouler impiety, adding, „ Hear not me saying these things 
„ but the blessed Paul, As oft as ye do eat this bread, where- 
„ of the Body is the antitype. Let us see therefore here- 

^■^^l' )} from whose is the death. As oft as ye eat this bread, and 
„ drinli this Cup, ye declare the Lord's death. Hear yet 
„ plainer in what follows. Till He come : who then is he that 

S. Matt. is to come? They shall see the son of man cominq in the 

XXIV. 30. , ^ "^ *^ '' 

„ clouds of heaven ivith great glory. And greater yet, the 

„ Prophet before the Apostles did more clearly shew Him 

„ Who is coming and hath cried proclaiming concerning 

Zech. xii. ^, the Jews, They shall look on Him whom they pierced. Who 


The Body the Lord's^ because the Lord is God. 151 

,, then is He which was pierced? The Side, belongs the book iv.6. 
„ Side to the Body, or to the Godhead ? „ Petty therefore 
as I said, is the profit of the Unbloody Sacrifice, because 
perchance it hath not been feasible that the Nature of the 
Godhead too should be consumed along with the Flesh, be- see note s 
cause we are not in possession of impossibilities, having col! i 
the Incorporeal by Itself^ to eat. But you seem to me to > yvfxvhv 
forget that it is by no means the Nature of Godhead that 
lieth upon the holy Tables of the Churches, yet is it the 
own Body of the Word Begotten of God the Father : and 
God by Nature and in truth is the Word. Why therefore 
dost thou confound all things and jumble them without 
understanding, all but mocking at our Bread Which is out 
of Heaven and giveth Life to the world, because it is not 
called Godhead by the voice of the Divines, but rather the 
Body of Him Who hath become Man for us, that is, of the 
Word out of God the Father ? And why (tell me) dost thou 
call it the Lord^s Body at all, save because thou knowest it 
to be Divine and God's ? for all things serve their Maker. Ps. cxix. 

Yea the things in thy mind are not right, but thou be- 
lievest Emmanuel to be merely a God-clad man. And then 
utterly heedless of thoughts and words that belong to 
piety, thou supposest that the Priest ^ of the Truth, the gJ^A'^*''" 
ivise master-builder and teacher of the Gentiles, the truly i Cor. iii. 
holy and all-wise Paul will support thee in thy calumnia- j xim. ii. 
ting, bearing away from the straight and most approved 7. 
path the force of what are rightly and without adultera- 
tion ^ said by him. 3 d/ct/35- 

For „let us see (he says) herefrom whose is the death. "^ *"* 
„ Till He come. Who is He Who is coming ? thej/ shall 
„ looJc " on Him Whom theij pierced. „ He will come there- 
fore Who suffered death humanly, has been raised Di- 
vinely, Who ascended too into the Heavens, Who with 
all state * is on the Throne of the Ineffa.ble Godhead and 4 iva^pv- 
co-sitteth with the Father, the Seraphim standing around, ''^'^'" 

« Here the part between Thei/ shall word just below. For the sequel refers 

see and They shall look appears to have to these omitted words They shall see 

been omitted by a not nnfrequent care- the So7i of Man coming in the clouds and 

lessness of the Scribe in letting his eye indicates that their omission was acci- 

wander from the one word to the same dental, not intentional. 

152 God the Son Incarnate worshif])ed. 

AG. NEST, and the Highest Powers, not unknowing of the measure of 
their subjection to Him ; every Authority and Power and 

Phil. ii. Lordship worshipping Him : for to Him shall lend every 
' ' /niee and every tongue shall confess, Lord Jesus, to the 
glory of God the Father. He shall come (as I said) seen 
not in our Httleness, but rather in most God-befitting 
glory, Heaven and the Spirits above encompassing Him 
as their God and King and standing by the Lord of all. 
If therefore the Word of God the Father be not rather in 
flesh, or made Man, but a God-clad man with bodily side 
and who endured the piercing, how is He seen on the 
Throne of the Supreme Godhead, revealed to us as a new 
god fourth after the Holy Trinity ? hast thou not shud- 
dered at a mere man, devising worship for the creature ? 
are we then holden in the ancient snares ? have we then 
done insult to God and has the holy multitude of the 
spirits above gone astray with us ? if we have been set 
free from the ancient deceit, refusing as blasphemous to 
worship the creature, why dost thou casting us again into 
the old charges, exhibit us man-worshippers ? for we know 
and believe that the Word out of God the Father assumed 
flesh and blood : but since He hath remained the Same, 
i.e., God, He retained the Dignity of His inherent Excel- 
lence over all, albeit in flesh as we, yet being no less God, 
now too than of old, even though He have been made Man, 
He hath the Heaven His adorer and the earth worshipping 

Hab.iii. jjii^ . for it is Written, that the earth is full of Thy ijraise, 
Thy Virtue covered the Heavens, Lord. 

But THOU again, of thy over much infatuation, seest not 

that thus He is in Nature and Glory : for thou saidst, 

S. Matt. Who is he who cometh ? theu shall see the Son of man 

XXIV. 30. _ _ •' "^ 

„ coming in the clouds of heaven, „ as though thou fearedst 
lest any should disbelieve thee saying that He Which 
cometh is son of man. Thou confirmest the proof thereof 
with prophetic testimony also : for thou sayest that it is 
Zech. xii. Written, They sliall look on Him Whom they inerced. And 
yet mightier for proof as thou supposedst, most foolishly 
adding, „ Who then is it (he says) that is pierced ? the 

The Docetae. No one ieaclies mixture. 153 

„ Side : belongs the Side to body or to the Grodbead ? „ If bookIv.G. 
there were any who say that the Word of God have not 
been made as we, but came among those on earth in bare 
Grodhead, i.e., in semblance and as it were in shadow, as 
some of the unholy heretics thought good to think, you 
would have had some plea for such like framing of words, 
not passing the bound of what was meet : but since the 
preaching of the truth says clearly and manifestly that the 
Word of Grod was made Flesh and was called as we son of 
man too and suffered for us in the flesh and will 
come as He went up into Heaven, according to the Angel's 
voice too : whom (tell me) dost thou opposing, and whose 
opinion cutting: oS"^ as unleai-ned and of no account, dost ^ «"-raf- 
thou strive to shew us that He Who cometh is a man with 
bodily side which has been pierced through with the 
spear ? 

But thine aim (as I said) is to bring in privily to us 
Emmanuel as a Grod-clad man and not rather God made 
Man, for the Word of God has been made Man. And this 
faith goes along with the holy and Divine Scriptures and 
the aim of the Apostolic and Evangelic Tradition tends to 
this same thing. But thou again art talking big ^ in an- e Teparevri 
other way too : for thou pretendest to be finding fault 
with those who mingle into one essence, the nature of the 
flesh and of the Godhead (albeit there is no one as I deem 
who mingles them up or mixes them one with other), and 

„ Why'', as we were just now hearing, when both are 
„ according to thee mingled, does our Lord, delivering to 
„ the disciples the force of the Mystery, thus say. He took s. Luke . 
„ bread and gave thanks and gave to His disciples saying, s^ Matt'. 
„ Take, eat all of you for this is My Body. Why said He ^^^- ^^* 
„ not, This is My Godhead Which is being broken for 

s This passage occurs in Mercator, in ,, but connect tlie union : confess Christ 

the middle of a long piece which he „ Son of God, yet a two-fold son, man 

gives with the heading, j^lso in the ,,and God, in order that the suft'er- 

sirfh quire of the same on Judas, against ,, ing may be allotted to the human na- 

the heretics {ji. 116 Bal.). The portion „ tare, the undoing of the suiTering which 

preceding this is given below, p. 171. The ,, was wrought on the man who suffered, 

extract concludes, „ Sever the nature ,, may belong to the Godhead alone.,, 

154 Christ says, My Body, /or it still remains Body. 

AG. NEST. „ you ? and again giving the cup of the Mysteries, He said 

„ not, This is My Godhead Which is being poured forth 

S. Matt. for you, but This is My Blood luhich is being shed for you 

XXvi. 28. r ,1 • • ^ • 

„/o/ the remission ojsins.,, 
^ 7 That it is therefore an exceeding folly to want to op- 
pose oneself to those who are not at all, and to no purpose 
to march forth, taking for contradiction that which no one 
(I suppose) cared either to think or say, how is it not mani- 
fest to all ? for if one chose to contend that the ox is not by 
nature an horse, nor yet man an horse, whereas no one 
would even endure to think or say this ; — how would he 
1 Cor. ix. not be laughed at and besides a vain talker, heating the air 
and fighting against things uncertain and devising for him- 
see above self sweat and toil against what was not there? For I say 
^ that something confessed ought first to be laid down, in 

order that then in due order ours may be ranged against 

But let us come to this : for if there be any who should 
dare to say the Word out of God had been transformed 
into the nature of the body, one might very reasonably 
object to him, that He on giving His Body did not rather 
say, Take eat this is My Godhead which is being broken 
for you, and, this is not My Blood but rather My Godhead 
which is being poured forth for you. But since the Word 
being God made His own the Body born of a woman, 
without undergoing any alteration or turning, how must 
not He who saith no untruth say. Take eat this is My Body ? 
for being Life as God, He rendered it Life and Life-giving. 

Having therefore opened your eyes but a little to the 
Truth, you will I suppose charge, yourself against yourself, 
your superfluity of language, on all sides stuttering and 
unlearnedly arraying against the Doctrines of piety this 
thy counterfeit and joyless discourse. 

Jews ashamed of Gross, some Christians too. 

TOME V on chapter 


Jewish disbelief in Christ followed by some christian teachers. The Son God 
by Nature gave His own body to death to free us, albeit His Godhead 
might not suffer. " Glory before the world was," can be no mail's glory 
but that of God. Father most strictly God the Father though He per- 
mit such relations to us. ' Crucified out of weakness,' yet, Lord of glory. 
' Servant's form.' ' Not Mine own will.' The forsaking on the Cross. He 
raised His own Body. S. Thomas' confession. Nicene Fathers. Testi- 
mony of God and man to the Son. 

The Divine-uttering Paul glories in the Sufferings of 
Christ and says, one while, But to me he it not that I should Gal. vi. 
glory save in the Gross of Ghrist through Whom the world 
has been crucified to me and I to the world, another while 
again, For I am not ashamed of the Gospel, for it is the Rom. i. 
power of God unto salvation unto every one that believeth, to 
the Jew first and to the GreeJc. And thus did the Spirit-clad 
deem right both himself to think and besides to teach 
others, for he hath written not without purpose, but that he 
might persuade us to be zealous for the rightness of the 
faith that was in him, choosing to delight ^ us in the Suffer- * evaffpvv- 
ings of Christ. But some are ashamed of the Cross and im- 
piously rising up against them that have been made 
teachers of all below the sun, by reason that they choose 
to think contrarily, they (wretched ones !) all but smile at 
Christ's sufferings and and are ashamed of the Gospel, sick 
with the Jewish unlearning and in no way inferior to them 
in infatuation. For the Saviour's Cross hath become to 
them an offence : and verily they beholding the Prince of 
Life, the fulfilment of the Law, affixed to the wood, they 
were wagging at Him their impious heads, not believing 
that God is of a truth made Man and come down unto emp- 
tiness, but supposing rather that He was simply a man as 

we, and they said, putting forth as out of the evil treasure S. Matt. 

xii. 35. 

156 Christ died for man : some men ashamed at it. 

AG. NEST, of theiv heart evil things, Thou That destroy est the temj^le 

xx\^i^40 ^'^^^ hiiildest it in three days sa,ve Thyself; if Thou he the 

lb. 42. Son of God, come down from the Cross : and again, He saved 
others. Himself He cannot save, if He he the king of Israel, 
let Him now come down from the Cross and we will helieve 
On Him. For they thought not, as I said just now, that 
He was God by Nature, nor yet in truth Son of God the 

iCeffOaJ' Father but rather that He was bragging" and daring to al- 
lot to Himself the glory of the Godhead. Hence they used 

S.John to gay^ one while, For a good work we stone Thee not, hut for 
hlasphemy , hecause Thou heing a man makest Thyself Ood ; 
another while they brought Him to Pilate and besought 
that He should be crucified, and when he demanded that 

TVTos they should tell the reason of their awkwardness ^ towards 
Him, they straightway began to accuse Him saying that 

lb. xix. 7. He made Himself the Son of Ood. But lo now too, not at 
the hands of them of Israel nor yet from the multitude of 
the Phai^isees, but at their hands who seem to be Christians 
and are ranked among teachers and them whose lot is the 
Divine Priesthood, doth He manifestly suffer equal case. 
For He is disbelieved to be both God by Nature, and One 
and Alone and Verily Son of God the Father, and the plea 
of their ill-counsel as to this very thing, that He chose to 
suffer death in the flesh, albeit for this cause He descended 
unto emptiness economically, in order that suffering for 
us in the flesh. He might bring to nought the mastery of 
death, as being Himself by Nature Life and sprung of Life, 
God the Father. For the nature of man was sick of decay, 
in its firstfruits and original root, i. e., Adam. For since 
it offended through its disobedience its Law-giver and God 
and That brought it forth unto being, straightway it was 

Rom. V. accursed and liable to death, and death hath reigned from 
Adam nnto Moses, the doom for this extending over the 
whole seed and race that is from him. For as sprung from 
corruptible root, corruptible are we too, and abide (wretch- 
ed !) holden in the meshes of death. But when the Creator 
planned good things concerning us and willed to transele- 
ment the nature of man, decay being taken away, unto what 

Christ's Body dying and raised a ])ledge to us, 157 

it was at the begiuning, He adoi'ned " a new root (so to book v. 
speak) for us, whicli endured not to be overmastered by- 
death, the One Lord Jesus the Christ, that is, God the 
Word out of His Essence made man as we, made of «Gal. iv. 4. 
ivoman. For we do not say that just a man is God-bear- 
ing'*, but that the Word out of God has been of a truth ^eeocpdpo*' 
Its very Self united to flesh, in order, having laid down 
His Life for us, and given to death His own Body for our 
sakes economically, and then shewn it superior to corrup- 
tion through the Resurrection from the dead, to give pledge 
to all who believe on Him that He will raise up us too, and 
make us superior to the bonds of death, and little heedful 
of the nets of decay. 

Hence I deem it is that the Divine-uttei'ing Paul too, 
makes a matter of much speech and marvel, the love towards 
us of God the Father. For he said thus. What shall we say Roni.viii. 
therefore to these things ? if God he for us, who is against us ? ' 
He that spared not His own Son hut gave Him up for us all, 
how shall He not ivith Him too freely give us all things^? al- 
beit exceeding many are the sons by grace and of adoption 
(for we too have been called gods and all are sons of the Ps. 
Most High), but One and Alone is He Who is so by Nature *''''''"■ ^' 
and is His Own, that is, God the Word Who is out of Him 
even when He was made Flesh. For thus do we say that 
He has been given even for all, as Himself too somewhere 
saith. For God so loved the world that He gave His Only- S.John 
Begotten 8on that whosoever helieveth in Him should not "'' ' 
perish, hut have eternal life. Only-Begotten therefore is 
He Who was given, for He Alone sprung from the Essence 
of God the Father, the Word both out of Him and in Him : 

* €TTriver](Te, I have translated as if it given by God the Father for the salva- 

were iirrivdia-e. _ tion and life of all ? for He was delivered 

b S. Cyril in Ms first Letter to the because of our transgressions, and Him- 

Monks comments thus on this text : self hare the sins of many in His Body 

"Then(tellme)howisHewhoisforthof upon the Tree, according to Prophet's 

theholy virgin called God's oww -Son? for voice. It is evident then, that the fact 

astheownofamanandsoof eachanimal of the Union, of necessity brought for- 

besides, is that which is born thereof by ward, shews that He who is forth of the 

nature : thus God's own will be conceived holy Virgin is God's own Son." Epp. p. 

and said to be that which is out of His 15 a b, see also de recta fide to the Prin- 

Essence. How then has Christ been cesses Arcadia and Marina p. 104 a. 
called God*s own Son, who has also been 

158 Life cannot die, yet died in the flesh, 

AG. NEST. ]3ut; since He hath been made Man, therefore do we make 

1 Cor. xi. our faith in Him declaring His death after the Flesh and 
confessing His Resurrection, knowing that the Same is both 
Son before the ages and Man economically in the last times 

1 S. Peter and that He suffered in the flesh for our sakes and hath 

'^" ^' risen from the dead. 

But (I know not how) the advocate of the Jews' unlearn- 
ing is indignant at our words, for he said again, 

„ That therefore the divine Scripture puts. Son, of the 

„ birth from the Virgin, Mother of Christ, we have shewn. 

„ Hear of His death also, whether God is any where put, so 

Rom. V. }} as we might bring in a passible God : Being enemies, it 

comp '' ^^l^i we were reconciled to God through the death of His 

^^"^Z-^ , „ Son, it said not. Through the death of God the Word. ,, 

B. 66Bal. . . . . . 

Eccles. True is it, according as it is written. There is a righteous 

VII. 15. man that ^^erisheth in his righteousness : for that whose na- 
ture is to hurt, putting on sometimes the shew of being 
helpful, turns aside from what is right, even the well sta- 
blished mind. For he thinks he is pious in no slight de- 
gree, essaying to confirm what is confessed by all, there- 
fore saying. In His own Nature the Word out of God the 
Father is as God beyond sufferings and superior to death ; 
for how should Life die ? Yet he not a whit the less too 
offends against the doctrines of the Church, wholly unreck- 
ing of the economy with flesh of the Only-Begotten, and in 
no wise considering the depth of the mystery. 

If it were under examination by us, what were the Na- 
ture of the Word, or we had to declare it to them who 
asked and were desirous of learning it ; it would I sup- 
pose be of a surety meet and necessary, hastening to go 
through every wise and true thought, to shew that It is 
unapproachable by death and utterly removed from suffer- 
ings. But since the mode of the Incarnation gives Him, 
so far as pertains to the plan of the Economy, even though 
He choose to die in the flesh, to suffer nought in His 
own Nature, why bereavest thou us of our fairest boasts ? 
S.John for thou heard'st Him say. The Good Shepherd layeth 

that life might he ours. The Death. His. 159 

down His Life for His sheep. Hence even though He be bookv.1. 

said to suffer, we know tliat He is Impassible as God, 

we say that He hath suffered death economically in His 

own Flesh, in order that treading it and risen in that He 

is Life and Life-giving, He might transelement unto in- 

corruption that which is tyrannized over by death, i. e., 

the body : and so unto us too spreadeth the might of the 

achievement, extending unto the whole race. And verily 

the Divine-uttering Paul saith, I through the Law died to Gal.ii. 19 

the law that I might live unto God, I am crucified with Christ, 

I live, no longer I, but Christ livethin me, and luherein I now 

live, I live in faith, in the flesh " of the Son of God Who 

loved me and gave Himself for me. I do not frustrate the 

grace of God. For no longer do we live our own life but 

rather that in Christ, and true is it that One died for all 2 Cor. 

. V. 14 15. 

that they who live should no more live unto themselves but to ' ' ' 

Him ivhich died for them and rose. For before that the 
I Only-Begotten Word of God beamed on us, mastered by 
unlearning and darkness and having the yoke of sin and 
impiously ascribing worship to the creature rather than our 
Creator and Maker and practising unblamed every kind of 
baseness, we wretched abode in severance [from Him], in 
mind hostile to Him, but we have been reconciled through Rom. v. 
the death of His Son, as it is written. 

But THOU again hast made but slight account of the truth, 
and putting forth unto us thy speech unbridled unto va- 
pidness ^, sayest that the world has been reconciled to God, ^ e^tTTjxi- 
not through the Only-Begotten, i. e. the "Word That sprang 
of the Father ; and hearing, the death of His Son, and in- 
vestigating subtilly as thou supposest, the words of the 
I Divine, thou fearedst not to say, „ He said not, Through 
the death of God the Word.,, Then how (tell me) were such 
a word wise, yea rather, how were it not replete with utter 
distraction ? for how were it meet (tell me) to set forth the 
[Life as subject to death ; and to the Nature Which quick- 

« This transposition is probably a 403 b, de Ad. 408 a, de Recta fide 68 b, 
nanuscript-error, there is no trace of in xii Prophetas 853 d, 
'■ in the same citation in Glaph. 227 e, 

160 ' I = GoD the Son. 

AG. NEST, eneth all things to lay a charge of decaj; how were it not 
wholly distraught and would it not be, and that with rea- 
son, a charge ^ of blasphemy reaching unto the very ex- 
treme? By no means therefore does the mind of the saints 
go along with thy subtilties herein, or rather thy idle 
words : for it knows, it knows that the Word of God suf- 
fered in the flesh for our sakes, and through the death of 
His own Body hath called the world unto reconciliation 
with the Father Which is in Heaven. And verily when mak^ 
ing His discourse with one of the holy disciples He some- 
S, John where said, I am the Way and the Truth and the Life and 
^^^* ^* no man cometh unto the Father hut by Me : but Truth and 
Life and Way, who else may be, save the Word which 
sprang of God, even though He have been made as we, 
by taking servant's form ? 
2 s. Pet. And that through Him we have been manifested p«r- 
Epii. ii. tahers of tlte Divine Nature and, we who once loere far, have 
^ffYiriKws been made nigh, united participatively ^ through Him to the 
Father and besides to one another in one faith and unity 
of soul by reason of being made participant of One Spirit ; 
Himself will give assurance saying unto God the Father in 
S. John Heaven, Not for these alone do I ask hut for them also 
xvu. 20— ^]^Iq]i helieve on Me through their word, that they all may he 
one, as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also 
may he one in us, that the luorld may helieve that Thou sent- 
estMe, and I, the glory ivhich Thou hast given Me, have given 
thetn, that they may he one even as we are one, hoth I in them, 
and Thou in Me that they may he perfected into one. Under- 
stand therefore how Himself is of Nature in His own Father 
but is set forth a Mediator and Reconciler through being 
made as we : He is in us, both through His own Flesh 
Which quickeneth us in spirit and through partaking 
of His holiness, I mean again through the Holy Ghost. 
And He asketh as glory from the Father to make His 
own Nature manifest unto us, that It is both Life-giving 

^ iirifi\T}ixa, patchwork : I have trans- or rather, what is more S. Cyril's word, 
lated, following the conjecture of the fyKXri/xa. 
Roman Editors, as if it were eiri'/cA.7j(Ua 

SoN^s Human nature shares Son's Eternal glory. IGl 

and superior to corruption as God. And verily He said book v. i. 
again, I glorified Thee on the earth by jperfeoting the work S.John 
ivhich Thou hast given Me to do, and now do Thou glorify ' ' 
Me, Father, luith Thyself with the glory which I had hefore 
the tvorld tvas, lolth Thee. And a perfected work are we, 
in Him first overcoming decay and treading on the might 
of deathj for He lived anew from the dead, having all in 

But haply bearing off to other ideas what has been said, 
thou sayest ^ that not of God the Word ought these things 
to be understood, but removing fx-om Him and putting 
apart by himself him that is born of the holy Virgin as 
another son, thou affirmest that him it is whom such things 
befit and art zealous to teach others also to think and say 
with thee : and wilt (I suppose) surely say that the Only- 
Begotten Word of God being Lord of glory, would not as 

I though lacking glory, have sought it from the Father. 

j Hear therefore from us too. If thou sayest that the Only- 
Begotten Son Who is out of God by Nature is not He Who 
here asketh glory from the Father ; who was it who said. 
Glorify Me ivith the glory ivhich I had hefore the world was, 
with Thee ? How then (tell me) was he that is of the holy 
Virgin, conceived of according to thee as man separately, 
hefore the ivorld ? will it not pertain to the Creator of the 
ages, to have a being elder than the world and Co-eternal 
with the Father ? no one will doubt it of those who are 

1 accustomed to think aright. When therefore He emptied 
Himself receiving servant's form, then, then, desirous to 
mount up unto the glory inherent in Him by Nature and 
along with the Flesh which was united to Hina, in fit sea- 
son does He say, Bo Tetou Father glorify Me with Tliy- ib. 5. 
self ivith the glory that I had hefore the ivorld was luith 
Thee; that the world tnay believe that Thou sentest Me, and ib. 21— 
r, the glory which Thou hast given Me, have given them, that 
they may he one as we ai'e One, I in them, and Thou in Me 
that they may be perfected into one. Through Him there- 

« (pafxiv. The Roman Editors conjecture <p7}s ^ilv, and something of this sort 
^eems necessary. 


162 Son's the perfected work. Names imparted still strictly theirs 

AG. NEST, fore have we had the reconciliation, for thus hath He per- 

fi°™' ^' fected the work which the Father hath given Him for con- 
summation. And the supporter of my words will I make 
again the most holy Paul who thus wrote to those who 

Eph. ii. ijg^yg ]jQQ^ called out of the Gentiles, But now in Christ 
Jesus "SB who sometime were far off were made nigh in the 
Blood of Christ : for He is our Peace, Who made both one 
and undid the middle wall of partition, having abolished in 
Eis Flesh the enmity, the laiv of commandments in ordinances, 
for to make in Himself of twain one new, maUng peace; 
and that He might reconcile both unto God in one body through 
the cross, having slain the enmity therein, and came and 
preached peace to you which ivere afar of and to them that 

Rom. v.l. were m(//i, and again elsewhere too. Justified therefore by 
faith, we have "peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Therefore we have been reconciled to God the Father 
through the death of His Son, who brought to nought or 
slew the enmity in His Flesh, according to the faith of the 
sacred scriptures. 

But thyself art undoing the words of the economy and 
deignest not to confess that the Word of God hath suffered 
in the flesh for our sakes, making use of certain unskilful 

7 fvpeiTi- loquacity ^ : for thou sayest that Son is a name common to 
the Word Which sprang of God and to ourselves. Then 
having made God the Word, through Whom we have been 
''*^'^'' saved, no worker^ of the good things that have been 
wrought to US-ward, thou wilt be evidently caught allotting 
the things wherein He is glorified to one as we, conceived 
of as other than He and apart, and thou supposest that 
community of name will suffice full well for demonstration 
of what thou saidst and unrightly thoughtest ; not consider- 
ing that even though with things which obtain by nature 
the being ought, certain other of things that be, be said to 
be co-named, one must not therefore thrust away the things 
that are by nature, ever putting their properties about 
those which are by adoption or imitation. But we must 
(I deem) ever test the natures of things done and allot them 
to whomsoever they rightly pertain. As for example, the 

wJio impart. The Son suffers not, sufferings of His Flesh Ilis. 163 

Father is named and is in trutli God, and from Him is every book v. i. 
^father-hood ^ hoth in heaven and upon earth named, as it is j^^ * "'* 
written, yet are there with us other fathers too both fleshly 
and spiritual. If therefore oug-ht of things most God- 
befitting be said of God the Father, will it belong to those 
too who by adoption obtain the same title with Him, 
and will the identity of narne thrust Him away from the 
things which in the highest degree befit Him alone ? yet 
jhow is it not evident to all that it is both absurd and dis- 
Icordant that any of ours should be minded thus to think 
and say ? Why then dost thou ever talking to us of com- 
munity of name, dishonour the by Nature and truly Son, 
putting Him forth and rendering Him alien from kindly 
deeds to usward ? albeit thou oughtest to gather into union 
jwhat thou blushest not utterly to sever, and [oughtest] to 
deem one with His own Flesh the Word that is out of God 
jthe Father : for thus wilt thou free thyself from much toil, 
and deeming aright wilt at length be praised. And thou 
wilt in no wise say that the Godhead of the Only-Begotten 
s passible, but wilt with us confess that He is Life and Life- 
iving by Nature and moreover beyond all suffering ; next 
hat the flesh suSering which was united to Him, He hy the Heb. ii. 9. 
race of God, as it is written, tasted death for every man, that 
laving shewn His own Temple superior to him who had con- 
quered all that are on the earth. He might be called the i Cor. 
irstfruits of them, that slept an^ the firstborn from the dead : Col.i. 18. 
ransmitting to us too the grace, that being One and Only 
3on, both before the Incarnation and after it He might yet be 
sailed Saviour and Redeemer of all : and freeing (as I said) 

rom sin all who believe on Him, might become peace to Isa. Ivii. 

. . .19. 

hem that are afar and to the near, reconciling through Him- 

lelf to God the Father them who of old worshipped the 

iraTpia. The use of this word is the word ; compare too S. Athanasius 

family, clan, see Bishop Ellicott ad loc. : against Arians, i. § 23. " For God does 

mt I have translated thus, following S. not make man His Pattern ; biU rather 

ilyril's use of the word, see also on S. we men, for that God is properly and 

ohn i. 1 p. 24 c, p. 27 O.T. t6 ttjs irar- alone truly Father of His Son, are also 

MS ¥iToi irarpSTTiTos ovofia. Bp. El- called fathers of our own children, for 

cott also cites the Peschito and Vulgate of Him is every fatherhood in heaven and 

ersions for the same understanding of earth named." p. 215 O.T. 

M 2 

164 TJie Son not yet Incarnate, Incarnate, Criicrfied, 


2 Cor. 
xiii. 4. 

creature and througli sin were at enmity with the All-good 

But severing again into a pair of sons the One Lord Jesus 
Christy he says after this wise : 

„ Hear their other testimony also ; for had they hioivn, 
„ they tvould not h.ave crucified the Lord of glory. Lo he says 
^,the Lord of glory, he calls not so the manhood but the 
„ Godhead. But this belongs to those who pluck asunder 
„ the accurate connection, for when thou sayest, This is not 
„ Lord, but the other is, thou makest Christ a mere 
„ man. What then dost thou say, o heretic in clerical 
„ form § ? is the man too Lord or not ? if then he be Lord, 
;,jthe things said agree ^; if he be not Lord, do not thou 
„ making Christ a mere man, fasten the reproach of it on me.,, 
Then he says, „ Hear we the blessed Paul openly crying out 
„ who He is who is crucified. Hear then most plainly the 
^, voice, For (says he) He was crucified out of iveahiess, yet 
„ He livefh out of the Power of God. If He were crucified out 

is Lord of glory, how is He not God by 
Nature? how a creature or made, Who 
is even hymned by the Seraphin ? for 
they say that/«ZZ is the heaven and the 
earth oj His Glory, and call Him Lord 
of Sabaoth : for it is clear that of Him 
are they saying this if He is Lord of glory, 
as Paul saith." Thes. cap. 32 p- 272 a. 
Commenting on the whole passage (1 
Cor. ii. 6 — 8) in reference to Nestorian 
errors, S. Cyril says, "If the mystery 
of Christ be God's wisdom, and it is 
preached to the world and if He is not 
truly God according to what somehow 
pleases some to imagine, and our faith 
IS to Himward ; how is the mystery wise 
if it bear away them on the earth from 
the true knowledge of God and render 
the world worshipper of a man ? But 
it is not so, the mystery is wise for it 
brings to God them that have strayed. 
Christ therefore is God, He that has been 
crucified is rightly called Lord of glory." 
de recta fide to the princesses, p. 62 a. 
"Therefore the blessed Paul himself 
somewhere says of the rulers of this 
world. For hud they knoum, they wo7ild 
not have crucified the Lord of glory. He 
knows then that the Crucified is Lord 
of glory." de recta fide to the Empresses, 
§ 31 p'. 168 b c. 

^ K0ii'ct>veiTa,\ey6ijL€va: below p. 167 
S. Cyril has (rvvc^Sft ra Keydjxfva, 

S iv 4KK\7)(naffTiK<f Trpoffuireiaj alpe- 
TiKe. see exactly the same expression at 
the close of serm. 2 in Mercator, ,, Si 
haereticus tibi ex persona ecclesiastica 
mortuum Deum tuum exprobaverit, ,, 
p. 69 fin. Bal. It is not clear whom Nes- 
torius is addressing as ,, heretic ,, and as 
havingcalled the Godhead Lord of glory. 
The learned but uncritical Jesuit, John 
Gamier (see Tillemont'sremarks in notes 
71, 73, 74, 91 on S. Cyril of Alexandria, 
t. xiv. 780, 781, 792 sq. ed. 2) supposes 
this to be a reply (Marii Merc. opp. ii. 
pp. 29, 30. Par. 1673) to S. Proclus' fa- 
mous homily on the Incarnation (Migne, 
Patrol. Ixv. 679 sqq.), but I do not 
see any special mention of this point 
in S. Proclus' Homily. One would 
naturally expect S. Cyril to be the per- 
son referred to, but besides that S. 
Cyril immediately after disclaims the 
expression, a List of references to S. 
Cyril's extant citations of 1 Cor. ii. 8 
(generously furnished me by the Dean of 
Chichester) do not supply any passage 
likely to be referred to by Nestorius. 
S. Cyril in his work against the Arians 
cites the text in proof that the Son is not 
less than the Father. " Making dis- 
course of the princes of this world and 
the folly that is in them, he says. For 
had they known they woidd not have cru- 
cified the Lord of glory. Hence if the 
«Son Who endured the cross for our sakes 

Lord of Gloiy : He sacrificed Himself for our life. 165 

„ ofwealiness, who was it who was weak, heretic ? God the book v. 2. 

He is carried away unto absurd thoughts and unto a § 2 
reprobate mind, in no wise understanding the force of the 
mystery, as seems to me, but rather every way following 
his own devices and haply afraid, lest he should be caught 
either thinking or saying ought that pertains to rightness 
or truth. For he arrays against himself, as he supposes, 
the words of the orthodox, but is caught again putting those 
things which no one of those who are wont to walk aright 
as to the Faith, would even so much as endure another 
saying. For we say that He which was crucified is Lord 
of glory, and He is so of a truth : yet acknowledging that 
the Word of God is inseverable and one with the flesh united 
to Him having a reasonable soul, we say that He it is Who 
offered Himself, as it were the Immaculate Offering and 
most sweet-smelling Sacrifice of His Own Body, to God the 
Father, and nailed to the wood the handivriting that ivas Col. ii. 14. 
against us. And one may hear Him say by the mouth of 
David, Sacrifice and offering Thou wouldest not hut a Body Ueh. x. 
preparedst Thou Me, ivhole burnt sacrifices and for sin Thou ^^^^^ p^ 
toohest no pleasure in : then said I, Lo I come {in the volume ^1- ^-^^ 
of the booh it has been loritten of Me) to do Thy Will, o God. 
The commandment according to the Law now availing 
nought ^, and perfecting nothing, and God the Father ^ avr^a- 
holding the sacrifices through blood unacceptable ; — He 
says that a Body has been prepared for Himself, in order 
that giving it' a E-ansom for the salvation and life of all. 
He might redeem all, from both death and decay and yet 
more from sins. 

We say then that the very Word out of God the Father 
chose even to suffer for us in the fiesh, according to the i s. Pet. 
Scriptures : thus hath the most holy Paul instructed us, ^^* 
Wlw being in the Form of Ood held not the being Equal Phil. ii. 
loith God a thing to seized, but emptied Himself taking ser- 

i avTu. I have corrected aiirbwith- Liddell and Scott. I have used the trans- 
out any'scruple, the one being in some lationof the former Editor of S.Chrysos- 
Mss. very much put for the other. torn ad loc. in the Library of the Fathers, 

J apn ay fxof, a mailer for robbery, p. 63 O.T., where see note. S. Cyril 

166 GoDthe Son, theFidl, emipiiedlLimself, and suffered/or us 

AG. NEST, vanfs form, made in likeness of man and found in fashion as 
a man, He humUed Himself and became obedient unto death, 
the death of the cross, wherefore God also highly exalted 
Him. View now tow He That is in tlie Form of God the 
Father as God, the Impress of His Person and in no wise 
faUing short, being and being conceived of in Equality in 
everything, hath emptied Himself and brought Himself 
down of His own will unto lowliness. 

What then (tell me) will be the mode of the emptying, 
how again has He been abased receiving servant's form 
and made obedient unto death, the death of the Cross ? is 
it not clear to all that the High is abased, not that which 
from itself and of its own nature is in abasement and 
brought low; that (I suppose) is emptied which is full 
and in need of nought ; receives the servant's form which 
before it was free by nature, He is found to be man too 
Who was not so, before He was so found when He was 
not? Who then is He That was High by Nature and 
abased Himself unto lowliness ? who the full, that He may 
be conceived of as emptied ? who He That is beyond the 
measures of bondage, that so He may be said to take the 
bondman's form ? who that not being aforetime man as we 
is said to have been so found ? For I suppose that to dare 
to allot this to one of those as we and to a common man, 
would be folly and verily replete with the uttermost of all 
unwit, but it will pertain with all reason to the Supreme 

But the Word of God, of His exceeding Clemency and 
Kindness towards us, hath offered for us His own Body and 
having taken the serva.nt's form, hath become obedient to 
God the Father unto death : and the choice to suffer in the 
Flesh, He made not a thing to be spurned, albeit by Na- 
ture Impassible as God. Yet does this man foolishly blush 
at His most God-befitting schemes for us, and thinking he 
honours Him, wrongs Him : for he bears Him away from 
the suffering, though no one else says that He suffers in 

takes it exactly in the same way, "For in His Power to have it." Dial. 3 p. 
He accounted not the being Equal 487 a. 
with God a thing to seize, though it was 

ill Sis flesh. Immanuel God the Son Incarnate. 167 

His own Nature; and does not perceive that he forbids book v. 2. 
Him to be confessed Saviour and Redeemer of all, if so be 
that he is son and lord other than He, separately and apart, 
through whom we have been saved and redeemed through 
the precious Cross. And if so be he be simply man, and 
not rather the Word out of God the Father appearing in 
human form, let him come, let him shew that he is both 
in the Form of the Father and in Equality with Him (for 
He tlionglit not the being equal luith God a thing to seize) 
and moreover that he took the form of the servant as at one 
time not possessing it, and came to be in emptiness, as 
possessing fulness in his own nature : for the Divine-utter- 
ing Paul says that He Who is in the Form and Equality 
with God the Father, was made obedient unto Him even 
to death, the death of the Cross. 

Is not then the absurdity of their notions manifest ? 
when blessed Paul calls Him that was crucified Lord of 
glory, no one will say, , He is not speaking of the human 
, nature but the Godhead., For we confess One Christ 
and Son and Lord of Glory, the Word out of God the Father 
made man for our sakes and suffering for us in the flesh, 
according to the Scriptures. 

But he in no small measure blaming, as wishing to pluck 
asunder the accurate connection (as himself says), those 
who allot to God the Word the name of Lordship and bear 
it away from the human nature : — he falling into forget- 
fulness of what he said, is caught plucking asunder into 
two the One, and little recking of accurate (according to 
him) connection. For he unlearnedly enquires, „ Is the 
„ man too lord or not ? if then he be lord, the things said 
„ harmonize.,. Hence if according to thy witless enquiry, 
the Word is Lord by Himself and the man lord, two surely 
are the lords and sons. The force then of accurate con- 
nection will in no wise profit them who have believed that 
one ouo-ht to conceive of One Christ and Son and Lord 
with the Flesh united to Him. For the Person of Im- 
manuel being put and brought forward, though one should 
say man, we conceive of the Word out of God the Father 

168 No iveahness in the Son, yet His the weakness, poverty, 

AG. NEST, having taken the servant's form and say that He is shewn 
by the measures of emptiness : and if [we say] Only- 
Begotten God, we believe the Same now Incarnate and 
made Flesh. But he (as I said) allotting to a man, indivi- 
dual and alone and considered apart from the Word Which 
is out of the Father, the achievements of the Economy with 
flesh, says that he too endured the cross for us and af- 
firms that he is the Lord of glory, putting about a mere 
creature the glories of the Supreme Nature, for he says, 
„ Let us hear the blessed Paul openly exclaiming who he 
2 Cor. „ is that is crucified ; for verily He was crucified out of 
^'"' * J, weakness hut He liveth out of the Power of God : who is 
„ weak o heretic, is it God the Word ?„ 

Utterly imparticipate therefore of all weakness is the 
Word out of God the Father by us believed to be : for He 
is the Lord of Hosts. But tell me this, art thou afraid 
to admit the appellation of weakness in respect to Him ? 
why ? albeit the Economy with flesh puts Him apart from 
all blame, even though He be said to suffer ought of what 
lb. viii. is beside His own Nature and glory : for if being Rich 
He hecame poor and was made as we receiving servant's 
form, even though He should be said to be weak by rea- 
son of the human nature, there is nought repugnant, that 
you should sfee the Rich poor, the High in low estate, the 
Lord of Hosts in weakness as we. Marvellous on this ac- 
count also is the mystery respecting Him. For how is He 
S. John said also to hunger, albeit Himself the Bread of Life and 
lb. 33. Who came down from Heaven and giveth Life to the world ? 
lb. iv. 6. how was He wearied with the journey , Who stablisheth the 
Heavens with His own Spirit ^ ? 

But thou wilt not endure (it seems) if one say these 
things of the Only-Begotten Himself, albeit investigating 
thine own words I find them clearly saying, as of the Per- 
son of the Only-Begotten, 

„ The form of God, I am clad in servant's form : being 

k Ps. xxxiii. 6. ol ovpavol earfpfwd- the Heavens stablishedandall their might 
V^av^ Kcd rqi iri/^v/xaTi rov (TT6/j.aTos by the Spirit of His Mouth. 
avTov iraaa r) Suvajxis avTuiv .... were 

ivearlness, hunger, Suffering for our sakes. 169 

„ God the Word, am seen in flesh : Lord of all, am clad book v. 3. 

„ for your sakes in person of a poor man : hungering 

„ visibly ^, I supply food to the hungry.,, ' 6poTd>$ 

How then, say, didst thou fearing the appellation of § 3 
weakness and bearing it away from Him, albeit the plan 
of the economy will it not, say that He hungers visibly, 
i. e., humanly, yet Divinely supplies food to the hungry ? 
dost thou not say that it is a form of weakness to be in 
need of food and to be said to hunger as we ? but against 
them who desire to be fault-finders, full strong will the mode 
of the economy array itself. We must therefore, either 
bearing Him away from all things that are said humanly 
and in mean wise ~, put such passions about a mere man, " a-f^iKpo- 
or considering that He being God has been made as we, 
confess that He is impassible in respect of the Nature of seep, lo 

^ . note b. 

the Godhead, but say besides that He endured the weak- 
ness in our behalf, according to the human nature and after 
the flesh, I mean. Since, tell me who ask thee again. 
The Divine-uttering Paul says that He has been crucified 
out of lueahiess ; but dost thou bear away ^ this thing from 
God the Word, saying (I suppose) that it is small and ig- 
noble and not worthy of Him ? Other therefore than He 
is he that was crucified. Whom also our Divine instructor 
calls Lord of glory, saying. For had they known, they would ^ ^°^- "• 
not have crucified the Lord of glory. Hath He then yet re- 
mained Lord of Glory Who put it aside and endured this 
iffnoble and mean ^ suSerine' ? If therefore He hath re- ^ <^t^^>^p°- 
mained so, neither hath He any loss through being weak. 
How then fearedst thou to say that the Word of God came 
to be in this case economically ? But if He truly fell from 
being any longer Lord of glory, and any one afiirm that it 
is so, he will incur the charge of the most utter blasphemy 

and that with reason : for to Him boweth everii knee and Phil. ii. 

10 11. 
every tongue shall confess Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of 

God the Father. For over all that is under Heaven extend- 

eth the glory of Christ Who suffered for us in the flesh, as i S. Pet. 

1 I have translated airo<pfpei as if it were ano(pfpeis, the sense appearing to 
call for this emendation. 

170 The Son suffered and o'ercame death, willed the Passion 

AG. NEST, we have fall often said. When therefore thou hearest the 
2 Cor. Spirit-clad saying, He ivas crucified out of weakness hut He 
liveth of the Poiver of God, understand it piously : for he 
says that He hath suffered humanly, albeit He hath a na- 
ture utterly beyond passion. And so having, He bare with 
the weak flesh and having suffered death humanly, He 
lived again Divinely, Himself quickening His own Temple, 
as the Might of the Father. 

And verily when the time was now at hand in which He 

xxvf ^42' ^u^^ endure the Cross for us, He ivent away and ])ra]jed 

lb. 39. saying, Father if it he "possible, let this cup pass from Me, 

lb. but added hereto at the close of His Prayer, Nevertheless 

not as I tvill hut as Thou. But since He albeit Word and 

God all-Powerful, has once been held to be in weakness 

like we. He giving the cause of this most economically, 

lb. 41. says, The spirit indeed is loilling, the flesh ivealc. Consider 

therefore how He though Himself letting go nought, nor yet 

suffering weakness in His own Nature, permitted His Flesh 

to go after its own laws, and this thing is said to be His, 

because His Body is His own. Hence the being weak 

according to the Flesh proved to us that He was Man, the 

not enduring death and scaring away decay from His own 

Body that He is God Who knows not to be weak : for He is 

the Life and Might of the Father. For that the weakness 

herein unwonted and unwilled by Him ™, He made voluntary 

in the good-pleasure of God the Father, to save all under 

s. John Heaven, Himself will teach saying, For I have come down 

from Heaven, not to do Mine oivn Will hut the Will of Him 

lb. 39. That sent Me, that of all ivhich He hath given Me I shotdd 

lose nothing hut should raise it up at the last day. 

Yet how, if the will of the Father be good, does the 
Son say that He has His oicn Will, a good one surely, and 
other than this ? For if it be not good, how is He any 
longer believed to be His Image and Impress ? how will 
lb X. 30. He be true, saying, I and the Father are One, and, He that 
lb. XIV. 9. j^^^j^ ggg^j^ j^g liath seen the Father ? for not in the not good 
would one behold the Good by Nature. But verily the 

"> See also S. Cyril's commentarv on these verses of S. Jolm, book 4 bee i)n 
383 sqq. O.T. ■ ^ ' ^' 

and nilled if : the Lord of glory and for us scorned. 1 71 

Son being Good liatli sprung from a Good Father and is book v. 3. 
His exact Image in everything. What Will therefore, 
which He says is His own, does He letting go, say that He 
hath done that of the Father ? He was about by the death 
of His own Flesh to set free from death those who had be- 
come subject thereto, i. e., us. But to die in the Flesh 
was ignoble, and unwonted (as I said) and repugnant to 
Him : yet hath He endured this too for our sakes in the 
Good-pleasure of the Father. For He knew. He knew and 
that well that a little dishonoured by reason of the suffer- 
ings of the Flesh He should save all, transforming them 
unto what was incomparably better. For if any he in 2 Cor. v. 
Christ, a new creature, old things are gone by, behold all ' 
things have become new, as it is written. 

The God-inspired Scriptures therefore proclaim to the 
world One Christ and Son and Lord and say that He is 
the Lord of Glory and that He of His own Will bare for 
our sakes the contumelies of the Jews, and economically 
endured Death upon the wood, not in order with us to re- 
main dead, but that having undpne the might of death 
which none might withstand, He might bring again to im- 
mortality the nature of man : for He was God in Flesh. 

But this man again essaying to gather to himself from 
all quarters occasions of severing into two the One, arrays 
himself to no purpose against those who exist not at all, and 
makes accusal of certain as though they spake against the 
truth and desired to adulterate the plan of the mystery, 
and says, - 

„ Here ^ I would gladly enquire of the heretics who mix see close 
„ up into one essence the Nature of the Godhead and of at p. no. 
„ the Manhood, who he is here who is by the traitor be- 
„ trayed to the Jews : for if there have been a mixture of 
„ both, both were together holden of the Jews, both God 
„ the Word and the nature of the manhood : which is it 
,, that endured the slaughter ? I am obliged to use meaner * * Karwre- 

" pots 

"This is given also by Mercator, the heretics, p. 116 Ba,]. Mercatofs ex- 

among his collection of extracts made tract is much ampler, comprising as 

by S. Cyril, with the title, Jlso in the well the heading of§ 7 of book 4 (above 

sixth quire of the same, on Judas, against p. 153) and a little more. 

1 72 The One Son betrayed to the Jeivs, and coidd not 

AG. NEST. „ words that wliat I say may be plain to all. To whom 
„ (tell me) befell this deed ? for if the Nature of the God- 
y, head, how darest thou commingle both ? God ° hath both 
„ remained unholden of the Jews and hath not shared 
„ with the flesh in its slaughter : whence (tell me) dost 
„ thou get in the mixture ? 
§ 4 If then there be who say that there has been a com- 
mingling of the natures one with another and that they 
undergo an impossible fusion, and who maintain that the 
Nature of the Word could suffer change into flesh, or the 
Flesh united to Him ever pass into Godhead ; they have 
erred from the truth and, out of their right mind, yea ra- 
ther sick with the veriest distraction, they shall hear from 
S.Matth. us. Ye do err not knowing the Scriptures nor the Poiver of 
xxu. 29. Q^^ . ^QY steadfast is the Nature of God the Word, nor 
S. James knows it to Suffer a shadow of turning, but participate in 
Heb.'ii. flesh and blood and taking j^ari with us in the same, as it 
is written, He abode the Same. But if every one who is 
educated in the Holy Scriptures holds it repugnant to so 
much as hear that any change was wrought in the Only- 
Begotten, why dost thou admitting as true and really 
spoken things so disgraceful and condemned by one voice 
by all and utterly rejected, essay to sever the Indivisible 
and that after the Union ? For if thou wouldest indeed 
of a truth learn who it is who is by the traitor given up to 
the Jews, and endured slaughter, thou wilt clearly hear. 
The One and Only Christ and Son and Lord, that is the 
Word out of God Who took the servant's form, made man 
and Incarnate : for He was sold by the traitor to the rulers 
of the Jews, and was holden humanly, because He was Man 
too along with abiding God, but Divinely He was convict- 
ing the weakness of them who hold Him. And this the 
Divine-uttering Evangelist John makes manifest to us, 
S. Jolm thus writing, Judas therefore having received the band and 
xviu. 3-6. officers from the chief priests and Pharisees cometh thither 

o The one Greek M S now extant has God, Who has 710 participation in the 

Ka\ /j.^fxefriKei' 6 dehs, the Roman Edi- slaughter of His flesh, capable of being 

tors conjecture el fj.f/xevrjKe, but Merca- apprehended and led to slaughter by the 

tor translates, /i therefore the Word of Jews? 

he tahen except He willed. Oneness, no miMnre. 173 

witli torches and lanterns and weapons ; Jesus Jmowing all book v. 4. 
things that were coming vpon Him, went forth and said 
unto them, Whom seek ye ? they answered Him, Jesns of 
Nazareth. Jesus saith iinto them, I am. And Judas ivhich 
betrayed Him was standing with them. When therefore He 
said unto them, I am, they went hacJcward and fell to the 
ground. Hearest thou that He does not let them who have 
been gathered together by the traitor behave themselves 
proudly against His Glory ? for He offered Himself saying, 
I am, but they unstrung by the voice alone, went backward. 

And that it was no work of their own strength to hold 
Him, but that in his season and in need He made death 
for us welcome, He hath proved saying, As a robber came s. Matth. 
ye forth with swords and staves to take Me ? daily did I sit ^q"^' °"^' 
in the Tem,ple teaching, and ye laid no hold on Me, but all 
this has been done that the Scriptures of the Prophets might 
be fulfilled. For what He hath of old foretold through the 
holy Prophets, this hath He fulfilled, abasing Himself unto 
emptiness Who is above all the creation, and found in 
fashion as a man Who is in the Form and Equality with 
the Father. 

Why then dost thou, essaying to bring in privily the 
name of mixture, wrong in the ears of the more simple 
the marvel of the economy with flesh ? for it does not be- 
fit thee bitterly and harshly to come forward saying, „ Was 
„ God the Word holden ? did the nature of the Godhead 
„ undergo slaughter ?„ That of no accurate . . . . p thou 
art saying such things, thou wilt know hence and that 
easily. We say that the holy Martyrs have been perfected, 
choosing to suffer all things in order that having striven 2 Tim. iv. 
the good strife, finished their course, kept the faith, they 
might bind on them the crown of true relationship ^ to 5 yvn<n6. 
Christ. If then any were to come forward and ask, When '^^'^"^ 
the bodies of the saints were torn by the steel or wasted 
by fire or again when they first became prisoners, were 

V oTi ovKe^aKpi^ovs a/xa9ias. So reads either a/xadias is an error, or that some 

the MS. The Roman Editors annotate words have dropped out; e.g. Urt ovk 

Videtur tollenda negatio; but I should e'l aKpifiovs ffvvecreus aAX" afxaQias. 
rather have inclined to suppose that 

1 74 Our own death called ours though of the hodij. 

AG. NEST, their souls liolden along with their bodies? did they too 
become the work of fire and sword ? albeit we say that 
they [the souls] were apart from their bodies, enduring 
nought of such contumelies in their own nature. Will 
they therefore (tell me) be for this reason imparticipate of 
the crowns, because they have not suffered the things of 
the body ? But verily the word of truth does not put them 
apart from suffering, for they suffered the things of their 
own, not those of others' bodies. 

Unlearned then is it to want to ask whether the nature 
of the Godhead have been betrayed along with the flesh, 
or whether It were holden in the meshes of the Jews or 
endured the slaughter also : but it is pious to conceive 
rather that the Word will surely and entirely make His 
own the sufferings that have befallen His own Flesh, but 

fi (i.u abode Impassible as God yet not external ^ to His suffer- 
ing Body 1. But he involving in charges of absurdity the 
things so economically wrought, and again and again say- 
ing that the Nature of the Godhead ought not to be said 
by any to have undergone slaughter, unholily arrays the 

7 l^iKws force of the Mystery about a man by himself^, and says 
that he it is who was crucified and endured death for the 
life of the world. For I hear him saying in another ex- 
position of his, 

serm. 2 p. 

Ci. Bal. 

sfe above This is he who was encircled in the thorny Crown, this 

p. 09. ^ ' 

S. Matt. „ he who saith. My God, Mij God ivhy forsookest Thou Me ? 

' „ this he who endured a three days' death. „ 

§ 5 Such things then doth he say, following his own aim, 

but WE will shew him a wiser and truer Emmanuel, the 

S.^John whole world's Saviour and Eedeemer. For the Word, as 

we have full often said, ivas made flesh, and making His 

own, a Body which knew to suffer contumelies and death, 

" q How therefore is Life said to die ? hesitate as to this. Yet is what happens 

by suffering death in Its own flesh, in called the death of man. Thus you 

order that It may be shewn to be life will conceive of as to Emmanuel too. 

by quickening it again. For come if in For the Word was in him that is of a 

regard even to our own selves the mode woman as in His own Body, and He 

of death be searched into, no one who gave it to death in due time, Himself 

deems aright would say that souls perish suflTering nought in H is proper Nature." 

along with the bodies that are of earth. Letter 1 to the Monks, Epp. p. 17 d e. 
I suppose that no living person would 

i. 14 

The Son tells in prophecy the shame of the Passion. 175 

He hath given it for us and, as the Divine-uttering Paul book v. 5. 
saith, endured the cross, despising the shame. For was it Heb. xii. 
not shame and a sort of abashment ^ to Him that hath a SeWpoTTTj 
Nature All-Strong and Quickening and above suffering, 
to seem to be crucified out of human weakness and to 
come to death after the flesh ? And verily the Same saith 
through the voice of Isaiah, My Bach I have given to isa. l. G. 
scourges, My Cheeks to Mows, My Face turned I not away 
from the shame of spittings, and again, Therefore was I not ib,7, 8. 
confounded, hut I set My Face as a firm roch and I hiow 
that I shall not be ashamed, for He is near thatjustifieth Me. 
For as far as regards the impious multitudes of the Greeks 
and also of the Jews, the Mystery of Christ is reputed a i Cor. i. 
stumhling hloch alike and foolishness, for they deride (miser- " 
able ones !) the Precious Cross; but the end of the weak- 
ness (as it seemed to them) resulted in might of glory most 
truly God-befitting. For through the Resurrection from 
the dead it has been testified that He is God and Son of 
God in truth, as superior to death and decay, and is wor- 
shipped by all together with Him Who begat Him. 

And hear the sacred Scinptures proclaiming to us this 
very thing : Thus saith the Lord, 8anctify Him That Jioldeth Isa. xlix. 
llght^ His 8oul, Him that is ahhorredhy the nations, the ser- <)^av\iCo- 
vants, the rulers : Mngs shall see Him and princes shall rise "■^" 
up and worship Him. Confess (it said) that He is Holy by 
Nature as God, Who held cheaply His own Soul, i. e., des- 
pised His own life (for He hath laid it down for His sheep, S. John 
as Good Shepherd) : Him Whom the nations vilely es- " * 
teemed, servants and officers insulted with blows, while the s. Mark 
multitudes of the Pharisees impiously outraged Him, Him ^^^' ^^" 
shall kings see and rise up. Him shall princes worship, as 
God, that is, who descended into emptiness, in order that 
sufiering in the flesh, He might save all under Heaven. 
This is He Who for us was encircled with the Thorny 
Crown, this, not another. He Who as Man is crucified 
and says. My God My God why forsookest Thou Me ? yet s. Matt, 
who restrains as God the Light of the sun, and makes it ^^"" * 
night in mid-day that we should not confess Him Man, 

17G The Son ivronght mighty signs at His Passion : 

AG. NEST, simply honoured with mere connection (according to thee) 
with the Word I mean That is out of God^ but should be- 
lieve rather that He is God^ in likeness as we, and in ser- 
vant's form, remembering Him Who saith by a Saint's 

Isa. 1. 3. voice, A7id I will clothe the Heavens with darhness, and I 

Ib.iii. 6. luill make their coverina as sachcloth. For He Who speak- 
LXX . . 

eth is at hand, and what He of old hath as God foresignified 

would be. He in due season was fulfilling, crucified as Man. 
For the Heaven put on darkness, all but a mourning dress, 
the sun no longer giving the brightness of its rays to them 
who had durst outrage the Lord and God of all, hath fore- 
signified the darkness which they should have in mind and 
heart. For the blessed David too sings somewhere of 
Ps.lxix. them. Let their eyes he darkened that they see not and how 
' down their hack alway. And the veil too of the Temple 

was rent, revealing now to those who believe on Him the 
Heb. ix. toly of holics and shewing the most inward parts, the first 
^' tahernacle no longer standing, but the way into the holy 

now made manifest, that is into the holy of holies. For 
holy confessedly was the Law too, in that it was the furni- 

1 irpina- shcr ^ of rightcousness, our guide too unto Christ : yet 

incomparably holier is the life in Christ esteemed, and 
more excellent and in better case the worship in spirit and 
in truth than that in shadows and types. Will not such 
achievements then be God-befitting and above the nature 

2 o-rpe^- of man ? hath not the saving Passion shamed the waving ^ 
Gen. iii. sword, brought man again into Paradise ? for Christ said 

to the robber who hung with Him, Today shall thou he 
xxiii. 43. with Me in Paradise : beamed He not on the^n that were in 
9^ ' ^ ' darkness, uttering with authority, SJiew yourselves ? For 

He has emptied Hell as God, and loosed from their bonds 

those who were in it : and He it was Who of old crieth out 
Job to the most enduring Job, Gamest tlwu into the springs of the 
16,17." sea? ivalkedst thou in the tracks of the depth? are the gates 

of death open to thee in fear [of thee'] ? did the doorkeepers 

of hell seeing thee tremhle ? 

Wherefore then blushest thou not allotting things that 

are yet God-befitting to one as we and to a mere man ? 

the Lifef made His own His Body's death, 177 

For that tlie Word of God Himself, taking servant's form, book v. 5. 
participate in flesli and blood, endured to give His own 
Body to death for our sakes and, being Impassible by Na- 
ture, suffered in the Flesh of His own will, the aU-wise 
Paul will give us proof, writing, Giving thanlcs unto the Col. i. 
Father Which made us meet to be jpartalcers of the lot of the ^^~^^' 
saints in light, Who delivered us from the authority of dark^ 
ness and translated us into the kingdom of the Son of His 
Love, in Whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins, 
Who is the Image of the Invisible God, the firstborn of every 
creature ; for in Him were created all things in Heaven and ■ 
upon earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or lordships 
or principalities or authorities, all things ivere created through 
Him and unto Him, and He is before all things and in Him 
all things consist, and He is the Head of the body, the Church, 
Who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in 
all things He might have the preeminence. See now the 
Priest of His Mysteries said and that very clearly that the 
Very God the Word, through Whom are all things and in 
Whom are all things. Who is the Image of the Invisible God ; 
He through Whom were brought into being both the things 
which are in Heaven and those on earth, the visible and 
invisible; He Who is before all things, in Wliom all things 
consist; has been given as Head to the Church, and is 
^\ms,e\i the firstborn from the dead. 

But (you will perhaps say) the Word out of God the Fa- 
ther is by Nature Life ; how then or in what way might see above 
Life die? well: necessary and useful is your question, note q. 
Therefore unto the force of the mystery is serviceably 
taken, that we conceive and say that the ever-living and 
Life-giving Word of God was made Flesh, i. e., made His 
own a Body recipient of death, that Himself might be con- 
ceived to suffer, because His Very own Body suffered. 
For thus do we say that He became the firstfrtiits of them iCor. xv. 
that slept, and the firstborn from the dead : for He is said 
to have been laid with us in a tomb through His own flesh. 
Who raiseth the dead, that we too might be co-raised with 
Him : for this ivay did He inaugurate for us and for this Heb, x. 


178 TJie Im]jassible suffered in His own Body. 

AG. NEST, hath He humbled Himself, abasing Himself unto empti^ 
ness and unto manhood with us ; albeit the Only-Begotten 
is God by Nature and beamed from God the Father. 

But he thinks (it seems) that they who suppose that these 
things are so, and who deem aright, have advanced to the 
goal of the uttermost distraction ; and everywhere alleg- 
ing that we ought to confess the Word out of God the Fa- 
ther to be Impassible, he removes from Him and that ut- 
terly the mode of His Economy : and thinks it not meet 
either to think or say that He suSered for us, albeit the 

1 S. Pet. God-inspired Scripture says that He suffered in the Flesh, 
He both Impassible and Unembodied, because the Body 
suffered that is His own and united to Him. He says 
again thus, 

„ Therefore concerning our first-fruits, blessed Peter tell- 
„ ing, and relating the exaltation by the Godhead of the 
Acts ii. „ nature that is seen, says, Hiis Jesus God raised up. God 
„did not die, He raised up. Hear, o Apolinarius, the 
„ words of Peter, hear with Apolinarius, thou too Arius. 
„ This Jesus, he says, God raised up, the visible, him who 
„ was seen with the eyes, affixed to the wood, handled by 
s. Luke „ the hands of Thomas, who cried to him. Handle Me, for 
XXIV. 39. ^^ ^ spirit hath not flesh and hones as ye see Me have. And 
„ by these words the disciple persuaded, and by the hand- 
„ ling of the crucified body persuaded of the resurrection, 
„ began to glorify the wonder-working God, Glory to 
„ Thee ', my Lord and my God : not addressing as God 
„that which was handled, for not by handling is the God- 
p. 59 Bal. J, bead discerned. „ And after other, „ Of this that was 
Acts ii. „ handled was Peter too exclaiming, Tliis Jesus God raised 
' ' „ up, being therefore by the Bight Hand of God exalted. God, 
„ the Word had no need of an aiding right hand, o Arius.,, 
§ 6 The Son raiseth up the dead and we say that He is su- 

perior to death, for we remember Him Who hath openly 

S.John said, I a7n the Resurrection and the Life : vet when the Di- 
xi. 25. "^ '' 

' The words Glory to Thee, seem to be Baluz., nor does S. Cyril cite them in 
a gloss, they are not in the Latin trans- his comment a little below, when citing 
lation of Nestorius' Homily 2. p. 58 ed. this portion of Nestorius' words. 

Jesus = if/ie Word madeMan. HolijTRmiTYhasOneicorli. 179 

vine-uttering Peter announces to us saying, This Jesus God dook v. g. 
raised up, we believe that the Word made man is Jesus 
Himself. How then will one say that He has been raised 
by the Father and exalted by His Right Hand ? for I think 
that this should be clearly set forth to those who cannot 
understand, in order that cutting off occasion of stumblino-, 
we may set forth the way of truth straight and most un- 

He gave therefore His own Body to death for a little 
while : for by the grace of God, as Paul saith, He tasted death Heb. ii. 9. 
for every man. Then being Himself the Life-giving Right 
Hand and Power of God the Father, He rendered it supe- 
rior to decay and death : and of this He gives us assurance 
saying to the Jews, Destroy this Temple and in three days s.Johnii. 
I ivill raise it up. Understand therefore that Himself pro- ^^' 
mises to rear His own Temple, albeit God the Father is said 
to raise it : for the Son is, as I said, the Life-giving Right 
Hand and Power of the Father. So that even though the 
Father be said to work the quickening of the Divine Tem- 
ple, He hath wrought it through the Son, and though the 
Son again be seen to work it, yet not without the Father in 
the Spirit. For One is the Nature of Godhead, conceived see above, 
of in three several Persons, and having Its motion and an^^fj^g 
Operation, spiritual I mean and God-befitting, in regard ^-i^^»"'! 
to all things that are done. 

The body therefore yielded to the laws of its own nature, 
and admitted the taste of death, the Word united thereto 
permitting it for profit's sake to suffer this : but was quick- 
ened by the Divine power of the Word Personally united to 
it. We conceive then of Whole Emmanuel, ivhich is inter- S. Mattb. 

-.-.-.■ • . • i 23 

prated. With us is God, when we hear the Divineruttering 
Peter say. This Jesus God raised tip ; and though thou 
speak of the visible and affixed to the wood, of „ him who 
„ was handled by the hands of Thomas, „ no less do we con- 
ceive of the Word out of God the Father Incarnate, and 
confess One and the Same Son. For being Invisible by 
Nature He hath become visible, because His too was the vi- 
sible Body. And verily the Divine David sings to us, God ps. 1. 2, 

N 2 ^- 

180 The Palpable and Visible, Almighty God. 

AG. NEST, sliall come manifestly, our Ood and shall not keep silence, 
Hab. iii. ^ntl moreover the blessed Habaccuc, God shall come from 
^- Teman and the Holy One from the deep-shaded mountain. 

He being also Impalpable is said to have become palpable 
by reason of the Body united to Him. And Luke v?^rites, 
S. Lukei. Since many essayed to set forth in order an account of 
^' ^* those things which have been most surely believed among us, 
even as they handed them to us ivhich from the beginning 
ivere eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word, and to this 
IS, John the wise John saith. That ivhich was from the beginning, 
' ' ivhich we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, 
which we looJced on and our hands handled, of the Word 
of Life, and the Life was manifested and we have seen and 
bear witness and declare to you the eternal life which was 
with the Father and was manifested to us. Yet had He 
not become palpable and visible, as having for His own 
a Body which is subject to touch and sight, how had the 
all-wise disciples been made eye-witnesses of the Word ? 
how had they both seen, and say that they handled the 
Word of Life, Which was with the Father and was mani- 
fested to us ? This very Same therefore Which was both 
palpable and visible, Which was affixed to the wood, 
Thomas recognized and did rightly confess to be God and 
S, John Lord : for he said immediately, My Lord and my God. 
lb* 29.* Then said to him our Lord Jesus Christ, Because thou hast 
seen Me, thou hast believed, blessed they which have not seen 
and believed. Believed what, tell me ? is it not that being 
God by Nature, He raised from the dead His own Tem- 
ple ? yet how could there be any doubt of this ? 

Bat this good man, all but foolishly ashamed of the 
words of the disciple, says not, * He confessed Him that 
'He is both Lord and God, the Firstborn from the dead :' 
but rather he perverts to his own pleasure the force of 
the word and says that he „ began to glorify the wonder- 
„ working God, saying. My Lord and my Groc?, „and sub- 
joins, „Not addressing as God that which was handled, 
„for not by the touch is the Godhead discerned.,, 

Blamest thou therefore (tell me) the disciple calling 

Holy Scripture says so. Fathers of Nicea. 181 

Christ Lord and God ? though our argument has but just book v. 6. 
now shewn that the Only Begotten being by Nature God, 
Impalpable and Invisible, became palpable and visible. 
But when thou sayest, „ for not by the touch is the God- 
„ head discerned, „ we a^ain will say. Why dost thou, 
thrusting aside the Economy discourse of Godhead as 
though bare 2? and rushing full speed to forgetfulness that ^ yv/xviis, 
the Impalpable and Unembodied was both Incarnate andjgsij'^*" 
made Man, endurest not the God-inspired Scripture nam- 
ing Him God, because that He had been both handled in 
flesh and likewise seen of the holy Apostles ? But we, 
my friend, together with blessed Thomas, crowning with 
the praises befitting Him, Him That was affixed to the 
wood. Him That was handled by hands and seen of human 
eyes, say. My Lord and my God. 

But that though a man should say that the Word of 
God suffered in His own Flesh, he would not be without 
share in being praise-worthy nor in having chosen to think 
the truth (for even thus hath He abode Impassible) : I 
will essay to shew again from what thyself hast written or 
saidst in Church. For thou deemest worthy of praise our 
holy Fathers, those (I mean) who were in their season 
gathered together at Nicea, as having formed full well for 
us an accurate and finished * confession of faith : yet thou ■» Ttrop- 
thinkest not what they do (whence should^st thou ?) nor *'^"'**'"''' 
yet fixing thy mind on the doctrines of the truth, dost thou 
long to go straight, but haltest on both tJdghs, as it is l Kings 
written : foolishly blaming the lovers of right doctrine, yet 
holding for truth what liketh thyself, yea rather not even 
caring to abide in what thyself saidst, for I find thee say- 
ing of the holy fathers, 

„ For since if they had said. We believe in One God the 
„Word, death would have been imputed to the Divine 
„ Nature, they admit a common term, Christ Jesus, that 
„ they may indicate both Him That died, and him that did 
„ not die. „ And he adds, „ So that if a man should say, 
„ Such an one is dead, though the soul is immortal, yet 

1 82 3fan dies, Word too makes His own His Body\^ death. 

AG. NEST. „ since he said tlie word which indicates the two natures, 
„ both the mortal body and the immortal soul, the expres- 
„ sion is free from risk : for both are called man, both the 
„ body and the soul : thus it is therefore that that great 

5 xophs „ band ^ spake of Christ. „ 

§ 7 That in naming Christ Jesus, 'they did not indicate two 

several sons, having a common name, Christ Jesus, but ra- 
ther the Word out of God made Man^ I think no one that 
deems aright will gainsay, and I think it superfluous for us 
to yet array many words on this matter besides what have 
been already said. Yet if thou be not persuaded by our 
words to think that though we say that the Word of God 
hath suffered in the Flesh for our sakes, we hold Him even 
thus Impassible as God, at least allow to thine own words 
that they appear to have been rightly framed. For just as 
he who said 7nan, indicated the soul together with the 

see above body although it be of other nature than it ; and even 

iiotVq. though such an one's body were said to be dead, the 

K o\os whole ^ person would reasonably be held to have suffered 
this, albeit he possess a soul which is not recipient of 
death : so of Christ too the Saviour of us all. For since 
the Word out of God the Father (as we have repeatedly 
said) hath partaken of blood and flesh in like manner as 
we, and made His own the Body that is of the holy Virgin 
and has thus been called Son of man too ; for this reason 

7A070S when His Flesh died, the plan'^ of true union attributes 
the sufiering to Him, yet knows that He hath remained 
apart from suffering because He is both God by Nature and 
Life. And verily the Divine-uttering Peter setting before 
us this teaching says of Him somewhere to them that be- 

] S.Peter lieve ou Him, Whom having not seen ye love, on Whom, 
though now ye see Him not, yet believing, ye exult ivith joy 
unutterahle and glorified, receiving the fulfilment of your faith, 
the salvation of your souls, of which salvation the prophets 
searched out and examined into, who prophesied of the grace to 
youvmrd, searching what or what manner of time the Sjnrit 
of Christ Which was in them was signifying, when It testified 
beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glory that should, 

Prophets foretold it, it saves us through faith. 183 

follow, unto tvJiom it was revealed that not unto themselves book v. 7, 
hut to us they were minister-ing the things which are now 
declared tmto lis through them that preached the Gospel unto 
us tvlth the Holy Ghost sent down from Heaven : which things 
the Angels long to look into. 

Hearest thou that the Spirit of Christ was in the holy 
Prophets too^ and that they proclaimed beforehand the 
sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow? Did 
they then proclaim to the world as though a mere man 
were suffering for us ? and is this the my steiy which through 
our holy Apostles and Evangelists hath been given in trust, 
and into these things does he say that the Angels long to 
looh ? yet how is not he to be utterly repudiated who es- 
says to shut up the might of the mystery within the limits 
of the human nature alone ? God the Word Himself, Who 
is in the Form of God the Father, hath emptied -ffiwse// phn. ii. 7. 
taking servant's form and hath undergone birth in the flesh 
for our sakes. Himself hath suffered for us in His own Flesh, 
and He lived again as God, having emptied Hades and 
s§,id to them that were in bonds, Come forth, and to them that isa. xlix. 
were in darhiess, Shew yourselves. Why then essayest thou 
to overturn the so dread and marvellous economy through 
which we have been both saved and have been brought 
within all good ? for what we gained through it, thou wilt 
know and that very clearly, since blessed Paul hath thus 
written. And you that ivere sometime alienated and enemies Col, i. 
n your mind in wicked ivorks, yet now hath He reconciled in ~ 
the body oj His flesh through death to present you holy and 
unblameahle and unreproveable in His sight if so he ye en- 
dure in the Faith. Therefore the faith profits them who 
will hold it unshaken ; how it profits, the all-wise John 
will assure us saying, Who is he that overcometh the icorld \ s. John 
hut he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God ? This is ^'* ' 
He that came through water and blood, Jesus Christ, not in 
water only, hut in ivater and blood, and the Spirit ^ is Truth ; 
for three testify, the Spirit, the water and the Blood, and the lb. 8— 10. 

s The words beareth ivitness because the Spirit are omitted in the one MvS. which 
preserves us these books, probably through a very common carelessness of scribe. 

184 Father, water, Blood, Spirit, witness. Jesus is God, 

AG. NEST. Three are One. If we receive the witness of men, the witness 
of God is greater, for this is the witness of God, because He 
hath witnessed concerning His Son : he that helieveth on the 
Son of God hath the witness in himself, he that helieveth not 
God hath made him a liar, because he believed not the testi- 
mony which He hath testified regarding His Son. And how 
God the Father hath testified to His Son, the Divine-utter- 

S. John i. ing John the Baptist will declare saying. And I knew Him 
' not, but He That sent me to baptize with water, He said to 

me. Upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and re- 
maining upon Him, This is He WJiich haptizeth with the Holy 
Ghost. And I saw and have testified that This is the Son of 
God. Our Lord Jesus Christ therefore is witnessed to 
through the Father's Voice, that He is by Nature and in 
truth His Son, He is witnessed to no less through the 
water and the Blood and the Spirit. For by the holy 
water He purgeth away the sins of them that believe, He 

above pp. quickeneth through His own»Blood and connecteth to God 

85 note g. them on the earth : and since He is God by Nature He 
maketh also richly the grant of the Holy Ghost, pouring 
It forth as His own into the hearts of them who believe, 

2 s. Pet. and making them partakers of the Divine Nature, and 
crowning them with the hope of the good things to come. 

We confess therefore One Son, Christ Jesus the Lord, 
that is, the Word of God made Man and Incarnate and 
Him crucified and raised from the dead and to come in due 
time in the Glory of God the I^'ather with the holy Angels j 
through Him and with Him to God the Father be glory 
with the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen. 

Christ signifies an anointing or setting apart to some worlc. 






What is Christ? 


The name Christ hath neither the force of a definition, 
nor does it denote the essence of any of what kind it is, as 
for example a man or a horse or an ox, but itrather makes 
declaration of a thing wrought. For some of them of old 
were anointed with oil, as then pleased God, and the anoint- 
ing was a token ^ to them of kingdom : Prophets too were » avvO-nixa 
spiritually anointed with the Holy Ghost, so as thence too 
to be named christs (and ^ the blessed David sings in the 
Person of God and says. Touch not Mine anointed and do 
My Prophets no harm : the Prophet Habuccuc too says, 
Tliou iventest forth for the salvation of Thy people, to save Hab. Hi. 
Thy christsj : but in regard of Christ the Saviour of all we jfxx 
say that an anointing took place, yet neither symbolic, as 
though done with oil, nor as for the grace of Prophet^s 
office, nor yet that which is understood as in destination^ for ^ ■^pox^'- 
the achievement of ought, such as we say took place in the ** * *' 
case of Cyrus, who reigned over the Persians and Medes, 
for he led an army against the land of the Babylonians, 
God Almighty over all instigating him thereto. For it was 
said. Thus saith the Lord to Gyrus My christ, whose right Isa. xlv. 
hand I held. Albeit the man was an idolater, he was called ^^^ ^^^^^ 
christ, by reason of being as it were anointed king by the P- ^7. 
decree from above and fore-ordained by God to mightily 

a See Ep. 1 to the Monks, pp. 6 e, 7, 10. 

186 Christ, Incarnate God, restores us the Holy Ghost. 

SCHOLIA subdue the land of the Babylonians : — but this rather do 

we say ^. 
Rom. V. Since on account of the transgression in Adam, sin hath 
1^- reigned against all, and then the Holy Ghost fled away 

from the human nature and it came therefore to be in all 
ill, and it needed that by the Mercy of God, it mounting 
up to its pristine condition should be accounted worthy of 
the Spirit : — the Only-Begotten Word of God became 
Man, and appeared to them on earth with Body of earth, 
and was made free from sin, that in Him Alone the nature 
of man crowned with the glories of sinlessness, should be 
rich in the Holy Ghost, and thus be re-formed unto God 
through holiness : for thus does the grace pass through to 
us too, having for its beginning Christ the First-born 
among us. And therefore does the blessed David teaching 
Ps. xlv. 7. US sing to the Son, Thou lovedst righteousness and hatedst 
wichedness, therefore God, Thy God anointed Thee ivith the oil 
of gladness. 

The Son therefore has been anointed like us in human 
wise '^ with the praises of sinlessness, as I said : the nature 
of man having in Him been made illustrious and now be- 
come worthy of partaking of the Holy Ghost, no more de- 
s ifj.(pi\o. parting, as at the beginning, but delighting to dwelP there- 
yros in. Wherefore it is also written that the Spirit soared down 
S.Johni. upon Christ and hath abode upon Him. Christ therefore is 
the Word of God called Who because of us and as we is Man 
and in servant's form : both anointed as Man after the Flesh, 
and anointing Divinely with His own Spirit them that be- 
lieve on Him. 


How we must understand Emmanuel. 

Heb. ii. GoD the Word is named Emmanuel, because He laid 
lb*. 14. hold of the seed of Abraham and like us partoolc of flesh and 

blood. Now Emmanuel is interpreted. With us is God. 

But we confess that the Word of God was with us, not 

^ The Latin translation of Marius Greek or Syriac. 
Mercator here adds (to fill up the sense) <^ avdpwnivws, and so Syr. The Lat. 
de christo, of chiist, which is not in the version omits this word. 

Emmanuel aided them of old, is with us as God and Man. 187 

locally (for in what place is God not. Who fills all things?) § 2. 

nor because He is seen to corne to us by way of aid (for 

thus was it said to Jesus, As I was with Moses, so I will be Josh. i. 5. 

with thee too), but because He was made in our condition, 

i. e. in human nature, without forsaking His own Nature, 

for the Word of God is Unchangeable in Nature. 

But why was it, when it was said to Jesus, As I was 
ivith Moses, so I will be tvith thee, that he was nevertheless 
not called Emmanuel ? this is the reason, even though He 
be said to be with any of the saints. We therefore say that 
He God the Word became with us, at that time of which 
Baruch says, ITe did shew Himself upon earth and conversed Bar, Hi. 
luith men, and found out all tlie ivay of instruction and gave jb. se. 
it to Jacob His servant and to Israel His beloved, for He is lb. 35. 
onr God and there shall none other be accounted of in compa- 
rison li'ith Him. As far then as pertained to His being 
God by Nature, He was not with us ; for incomparable is above p. 
the difference between Godhead and manhood and exceed- 
ing great the difference of the natures. 

And therefore was the Divine David calHng to Mystic 
relationship God the Word Who had not as yet come to 
us and saying in spirit, Wlnj hast Thou departed far from Vs. %.\. 
us, Lord, despisest us in season in tribulation ? There- 
fore He departed nof^ from us, but was with us. Who 
while He remained what He was, tooh. hold of the seed of 
Abraham, as I said ; received moreover the form of a ser- 
vant, and was beheld as Man upon the earth. 

But Christ and Emmanuel signify to us the Same Son, 
the one, because He was anointed as we in human wise, re- 
ceiving the Spirit for the nature of man in Himself first 
(for He is set forth as the first beginning * of the race), ^«pxr; 

* In his first Paschal homily, some Only-Begottentheprophet Isaiah says, 
fifteen years before (A. D. 414) S. Cyril who shall declare His Generation? Sea- 
had quoted this verse and explained it, sonably therefore on us in our much 
"For the Saviour having not yet as- affliction beamed the Saviour ?7io<ie (/a 
sumedonr likeness, wasdepartedfar from woman after the flesh, in order to save 
M*, as regards the plan of the Incarna- man who is out of woman, and that, loos- 
tion : since much is the interval between ing him from the bonds of death, He 
the nature of man and that of God the might teach him to say rejoicing, where 
Word: for of us says one of the saints, I thy victory death, where thy sting o 
am earth and ashes, of the Being of the grave?" ftom. Pasch. i. pp. 4e 5 a. 

188 Emmanuel, Christ, Jesus = Gob, with uSj anointed. Saviour. 

SCHOLIA Himself again anointing, as God, with the Holy Ghost 
those who believe in Him ; the other, because He was with 
us in the way I have explained, whereof the Prophet Isaiah 

Isa.vii, tells us saying, Behold a Virgin shall conceive and hear a 

^ ' Son and shall call His Name Immanuel. For when the 

holy Virgin conceived out of the Holy Ghost, but bare ac- 
cording to the flesh a Son, then too was He called Em- 
manuel; for the Incorporeal was with us by carnal birth, and 

Ps. 1. 2, 3. that took place which was told by David, God shall appear 
openly, our God and shall not he silent, and that (I deem), 

Isa. lii.6. 1 Who spealc am at hand. For the Word spake through 
the Prophets as yet Unembodied, He came Embodied. 

^ 3 What is Jesus. 

By the force of the ideas ^ whereby we are bound to 
speak of One Son of God, Christ and Emmanuel and Jesus 
S. Matt, are the Same, and this name too from the fact, /or He shall 
'■ ^^' save (it says) His people from their sins. For just as the 
name Emmanuel meant, that the Word of God through His 
Birth of a woman was made with us ; and Christ again, 
that made Man, He is said to be anointed as we in human 
wise ; so too Jesus, that He saved us His people, which 
specially proves Him to be truly God and by Nature Lord 
of all. For the creature is not said to belong to a mere 
man ^, but rather it will befit to say that all things are the 
Only-Begotten's even though He was made Man. 

Some one haply will say. Yet the people of Israel were 
called Moses\ 

To this we will say, The people was called God^s and 
that was true ; but because they passed into revolt, and 
made a calf in the desert, they were dishonoured of God, 
He vouchsafed not any more to call them His people, but 
made them over to a man. Not so we, for we are Jesus' 
own, in that He is God and all things created through Him. 
Ps, c. 3. For so saith David, For He hath made us and not we our- 
selves, WE are the people of His pasture and the sheep of His 

■^ intentionum = 06a)prj|udTaii/. angels His own." de recta fide to the 

f "He is therefore God who has the Princesses p. 82 a. 

Emmanuel out of Heaven, yet Man. 189 

Hand. And Himself again says of us, Mij sheep hear My § 4. 
voice and they follow Me, and again, And other sheep I have ^- ^°^" 
which are not of this fold, them, also I must hring and there lb. 16. 
shall he one fold, one Shepherd. And He bade too the 
blessed Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me ? feed lb. xxi. 
My lambs. 

Why the Word of God was called Man. § 4 

The Word out of God the Father was called Man, albeit by 
Nature God, in that He partook of blood and flesh like we. cf.Heb.ii. 


For thus was He seen of those on the earth, and not letting 
go what He was, but assuming human nature like us, per- 
fect as regards itself; yet in human nature too hath He 
remained God and Lord of all, by Nature and in truth 
Begotten of God the Father. And this the most wise Paul 
most clearly shews us, for he says. The first man is of the l Cor. xv, 
earth earthy, the second Man the Lord ° out ofJTeaven. Albeit 
the holy Virgin hath borne the Temple united to the 
Word, yet is Emmanuel said to be (and rightly) out of 
heaven, for from above and out of the Essence of God 
the Father was His Word begotten. Yet He descended 
unto us when He was made Man ; yet thus too is He from 
above. And John testified, saying of Him, He that cometh S- Jobn 
f^'om above is above all, and Christ Himself saith to the 
people of the Jews, Ye are from beneath, I am from above, lb. viii. 
and again, I am not of this world, albeit He was as Man lb! 
called part of the world ; yet therewith also was He above ^^°^^ PP- 
the world as God. For we remember that He plainly says. 
And no man hath ascended up to heaven but He That came lb. iii. 13. 
down from Heaven, the Son of man. But we say that the 

s I have retained the words, the Lord, has the words. On the other hand in 

on the authority of John of Caesarea S. Cyril's Apology for his 11th chapter 

(who has preserved us the Greek in against the Eastern Bishops, p. 194 c, 

his Apology for the Council of Chal- the principal mss., the syriac transla- 

cedon ; of this John nothing else seems tion (the manuscript of which is as old 

to be known, his Defence exists in Rome as the century after S. Cjnril) and Mer- 

in a syriac translation as mentioned cator all omit the words, as does Merca- 

by Card. Mai, Nova Bibl. Patr. ii.445, tor here. In the two citations of these 

and anonymously in Greek in ms, both words in the Quod Unus Christus (to 

at Venice and at Cairo), and of the sy- be given below), the syriac version like- 

riac translation of these scholia. In wise omits the words. See also below, 

the ecumenic Epistle to John, Arch- p. 226. 
bishop of Antioch, the syriac translation 

190 The Full made His own the eviptiness. 

SCHOLIA Son of Man came down from Heaven by an economic nnion, 
see p 83. the Word allotting to His own Flesh the endowments of 
His glory and God-befitting Excellency. 

^5 In what way the Word of God is said to have been emptied. 

God the Word full by nature and in every way Perfect, 
and distributing out of His own Fullness His own goods to 
the creature, we say was emptied : in no wise wronged in 
His own Proper Nature, nor changed so as to become 
otherwise, nor made in ought inferior, jbr inconvertible 
and unchangeable is Himself also even as He Who begat 
Him, and never may He be capable of passion. But when 
Joel ii. He was made Flesh, i. e. Man, He made (as He said, I ivill 
^' pour forth of My Spirit upon all flesh) the poverty of human 

nature His own : first, in that He was once made man, al- 
beit He remained God ; next in that He took the form of 
a servant. Who is in His own Nature free, as Son, and 
while He is Himself the Lord of glory He is said to receive 
glory : Himself Life, He is said to be quickened : and re- 
ceives power over all. Himself King of all and with God, 
and He was obedient to the Father, suffered the Cross and 
so on. But these things befit the measure of the human 
nature, yet He makes them His own with flesh and fulfils 
the economy, remaining what He was. 

§ 6 How Christ is One. 

1 Cor. The Divine Paul writes. Though there he gods many and 

lords many in heaven and in earth, yet to us One God the 
Father of Whom all things and we of Him, and One Lord 
Jesus Christ through Whom all things and we through Him. 
Yea and the very wise John said of God the Word, that 

S. John All things ivere made through Him and without Him was no- 
thing made, and the blessed Gabriel declared the Gospel to 

S. Luke the Holy Virgin saying. Behold thou shall conceive in thy 
womb and hear a Son, and shalt call His Name Jesus. 
Since then the Divine Paul declares that all things were 
made through Jesus Christ, and the Divine Evangelist 
confi.rms the force of the sentence and preaches that He 

The Word has Two Generations : He our Sacrifice. 191 

was God the Maker of all things, speaking truly, and the § 7. 
Angel's voice too points out that Jesus Christ was truly 
born of the Holy Virgin : yet we do not say that Jesus 
Christ was mere man^, nor do we conceive of God the 
Word apart from His human nature but, we say that He 
was made One out of both, as God made Man, the Same 
begotten Divinely out of the Father as Word, and humanly 
out of woman as Man : not as though called to a second see above 
beginning of being then when He is said to have been 
born after the flesh : but begotten indeed before all ages, 
yet when the time came wherein He must fulfil the eco- 
nomy, born also of a woman after the flesh. Therefore, 
albeit others are called by like name christs, yet is there 
One Jesus Christ through Who7n are all things, not that a 
man was made Maker of all things, but that God the Word, 
through Whom all things were made, liJie as we took part Heb. ii. 
of flesh and blood, and was called Man, yet lost not what 
He was ; for so, so made in flesh is He rightly understood 
to be Maker of all. 

How Emmanuel is One. § 7 

Once for all in the last ages is God the Word said to 
have been made Man, and (as Paul saith) was manifested lb. ix. 2G. 
hy the Sacrifice of Himself And what is the Sacrifice ? He 
offered His own Body for us for an odour of a sweet savour 
to God the Father, and entered in once into the holy place lb. 12. 
not hy the blood of goats and bulls, but by His own Blood, for 
so to them who believe on Him obtained He eternal redemp- 
tion. Therefore very many before Him were saints but no 
one of them was called Emmanuel. Why ? For not yet 
had the time come, when He was to be with us, i.e., to 
come in our nature through flesh. Who is superior to every 
creature. One therefore is Emmanuel, for once was the 
Only-Begotten made Man, when He underwent fleshly Birth j^-^^^ 
through the holy Virgin. For it was said to Jesus ^ too, I Josh. i. 5. 

^ The words, yet we do not sai/ that by homoeoteleuton, but the Syriac has 
Jesus Christ was mere man, ai-e wanting supplied them. 
in the Latin, apparently from omission 

192 Modes of union : that of the Son God Alone hiows. 

SCHOLIA will he with thee, yet was he not Emmanuel ; He was also 
with Moses, yet neither was he called Emmanuel. As 
often therefore as we hear the name, With us is Ood, given 
to the Son, let us wisely conceive that not so was He with 
us in the last times, as He is sometimes said to have been 
with the saints, for with them He was as a helper only : 
but with us He was, because He was made like us, not 
losing His own nature, for He is unchangeable as God. 

§ 8 What we say the union is. 

Union is arrived at in many ways : for some severed in 
disposition and mind and at variance one with another 
are said to be united in friendly agreement, laying aside 
their differences. And we say that things are united which 
6*toXA.«J/*- are joined® to one another or brought together in other 
ways, either by juxta-position or mixture or composition. 
When therefore we say that the Word of God was united 
to our nature, the mode of union is clearly above man's 
understanding ; for it is not like one of those mentioned, 
but wholly ineffable and known to no one of those who are, 
save only to God Who knoweth all things. 

And no marvel, if we are overcome by such ideas, when 
if we accurately investigate our own matters how they be, 
we confess that the grasp of them is beyond the under- 
standing that is in us. For after what mode we conceive 
that the soul of man is united to his body, who can tell ? 
But if we, who are wont to conceive and avail to speak 
Kutlall' scantly and with difficulty must form our judgement '' of 
^«' things so subtil and beyond understanding and speech ; we 

say that it will befit to conceive (yet altogether less than 
the truth is our word) that of such sort is the union ' of 

• " Paul somewhere says of the Son out only sin. He is therefore God in 

of God, Who being in the form of God that He is Word of the Father, and the 

deemed not the being Equal with God a own of His Essence; man, in that He 

thing to seize but emptied Himself, taking hath heen made flesh as it is written, 

servant's form and found in fashion as a and put about Him our flesh. The 

man. The Word of God therefore hath faith respecting our Lord Jesus Christ 

been rnade man; He came not into a having tnis definition, let the words 

man like as He was in the Prophets [spoken] of Him be discerned according 

[comp. dial. i. p. 398 c, hom. pasch. x, to the ratio befitting them ; and if thou 

A.D. 423, p. 159 c] but has been made hear, I and the Father are One, view the 

in truth this which we too are, with- One Godhead of the Son and of the 

Closest connection ofhody and soul, tJuit of Emmanuel higher. 193 

Emmanuel^ as one reckons that the soul of man too has with § 8. 
its own body. For the soul makes its own the things of 
the body although in its own nature imparticipate of its 
sufferings, both physical and those brought on it from with- 
out. For the body is moved to natural desires and the 
soul which is in it shares the perception thereof ^ by reason ^f""""^- 
of the union, but participates in no way, yet thinks that 
the achievement of the desire is its own enjoyment. And 
even though the body be struck by any or be cut with 
steel, it co-grieves, its own body suffering, yet will itself 
in its own nature suffer nought of the things inflicted. 

Nevertheless above this too do we say that the union is 
in the case of Emmanuel. For it were necessary that the 
soul united thereto should grieve along with its own body, 
that so, fleeing the disgrace, it might submit a tractable 
neck to God. But of God the Word, it were absurd to 
say that He were co-percipient of the contumelies (for free 
from passion is the Godhead and not in our condition), yet 
has He been united to flesh possessed of a reasonable soul, 
and when it suffered. He was impassibly in cognizance of 
what befell it and brought to nought as God the infirmities 
of the flesh, yet made them His own as belonging to His 
own Body : thus is He said both to hunger and be weary 
and suffer for us. 

Hence the union of the Word with the human nature 
may be not unaptly compared with our condition ^. For " "^o^f „ 
as the body is of other nature than the soul, yet is one man 

Father and conceive of the Son as God allotting to the Godhead the God-befit- 
out of the Essence of the Father; if ting, attributing to the flesh the things 
again thou hear ofHim that He wept and spoken of because of it and as it were 
was grieved and was in fear and began to forth of it through the natural motions 
be in sore distress, conceive of Him again that are in us : of which the mind having 
as being man along with being also God the perception, gushes up through the 
and attribute to the human nature what tongue the things voicelessly whispered 
is due thereto. For since He took a in the depth out of sight." Thes. cap. 24 
! Body mortal and subject to decay and li- p. 232 b c d e. Near the close too of his 
'■■ able to such like passions, needs does He 4th Paschal homily (A. D. 417) S. Cyril 
with the flesh make His own its suf- says, '« The Word makes His own (full 
iferings, and when it endures them, Him- rightly) the Suffering (for His was the 
self is said to be enduring them. For Bodyand none other's), seeing that when 
thus do we say that He was both cruci- the Body was scourged, and besides 
fiud and died, the flesh suffering this, spat on by the all-daring Jews,Himself 
not the Word apart and by Himself, for through the Prophet Isaiah says, il/^y 
H e is Impassible and Immortal. Hence Back I have given to scourges, My cheeks 
we shall orthodoxly receive what is said, to blows." Hom. Pasch. 4 p. 68 d. 



194 Tiijyes of that Inefahle Union. 

soHOLiA produced and said to be of both ; so too out of tlie Perfect 
Person of God the Word, and of manhood perfect in its 
own mode, is One Christ, the Same God and Man in the 
Same. And the Word (as I Baid) makes its own the suffer- 
ings of Its own Flesh, because Its own is the Body and not 

Koivo- another's : and It shares ^ with Its own Flesh the opera- 
tion of the God- befitting might that is within It ; so that 
it should be able both to quicken the dead and to heal 
the sick. 

But if we must, using examples out of the God-inspired 
Scripture, shew as in type the mode of the union, come 
let us say it, as we are able. 

§ 9 Of the coal. 

Isa. vi. The Prophet Isaiah says. There was sent unto me one of 
' the Seraphim and in his hand a Hue coal which he took ivith 

the tongs from off the altar and he said to me, Lo this touched 
thy lips and shall take away thine iniquities and purge thy 
sins. But we say that the live coal fulfils to us the type 
and image of the Incarnate Word, Who, if He touch our lips, 
i. e., when we confess the faith Him-ward, doth then both 
make us pure from every sin and free us from the pris- 
tine charges against us. 

Natheless one may see in the coal, as in an image, the 
Word of God united to the human nature, yet not losing 
the being what He is, but rather trans-elementing what He 
had taken, or united, unto His own glory and operation. 

2 6ut\Tj- For as fire having to do with ^ wood and entering into it, 
seizes hold of it, and removes it not from being wood, but 
transmutes it rather into the appearance and force of fire, 
and inworks all its own property therein, and it is now 
reckoned one with it, so shall you conceive of Christ too. 
For God united inefiably with the manhood, hath kept it 
what we say that it is, and Himself hath remained what He 
was ; but once united, is accounted one with it, making 
His own what is its, and Himself too introducing into it 
the operation of His own Nature. 

Types of that Ineffable Union. 195 

That the flesh having a reasonable soul hath become the Body of the uneni- §10 
bodied Godhead, and that by severing them one from another, we shall 
wholly and surely undo the plan ^ of the ecomony in Christ. ^ \6yoi> 

In the SoDg of Songs our Lord Jesus Christ Himself has 
been introduced to us saying, I am the flower of the plain, Songof 
the lily of the vallies. As then the smell is something un- lxx ^' 
embodied, for it uses as its own body that wherein it is, 
yet is the lily conceived of as one out of both, and the fail- 
ing of one utterly destroys the plan * thereof, for in the * ^ho" 
object is the smell and the object is its body : so shall we 
conceive of the Nature of the Godhead in Christ too, that 
it sheds forth on the world the savour of His own more 
than earthly Excellence J, as in the object His human Nature, 
and that the unembodied by Nature became by economic 
union ail-but embodied also, because It willed to be recogni- 
zed through the Body ; for It hath wrought therein things 
God-befitting. Hence will the Unembodied be rightly con- 
ceived of as in His own Body, even as in the flower too, 
the object, is the scent, yet both together is called lily. 

That the Word being co-brought to true union with the human nature, § 1 1 
the things united '' have remained uneonfused. 

The holy Tabernacle was reared by the will of God in 
the wilderness and in it was manifoldly typified Emma- 
nuel. The God of all said therefore to the divine Moses, 
And thou shalt make an arh of incorruptible luood, tivo ciibits Exod. 
and a half its length, and a cubit and half its breadth and n. ' ' 
a cubit and a half its height, and thou shalt overlay it with 
pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it. But 
the wood that will not rot will be a type of the incorrup- 
tible Body (for cedar does not rot) ; gold as matter sur- 
passing all others will indicate to us the Excellence of the 
Divine Essence. 

i " Being therefore the savour of God whence Himself is, makes known Him 

the Father, He will not be of other Es- That begat Him : hence no creature is 

sence than He; but as the scent natu- He, seeing that the Father is not." Thes. 

rail}- and essentially issuing forth from cap. 32, p. 274 d. 

flowers, is indicative ofthe species which ^ ra Tivw/xet/a. substantiac, Lat. at viro- 

bt'gat it, thus the Son too, being as it a-rdo-fis, syr. 
were a savour of the Father's Essence 


196 Ark overlaid witliin, the Soul, without, the Body. 

SCHOLIA But observe how the whole ark^ was overlaid with pure 
gold within and without. For God the Word was united 
to the holy Flesh, and this (I deem) is it that the ark was 
overlaid without. But that He made His own the rea- 
sonable Soul also that was within the Body, will this shew, 
viz., that He bade that it should be overlaid within also. 
And that the Natures or Hypostases have remained uncon- 
fused, shall we see hence. For the gold that was spread 
5 eira\7]\- upou ^ the wood, remained what it was, and the wood was 
(iiifiivov j,-pj^ -j^ |.j^g glory of the gold ; yet it ceased not from being 


But that the ark is taken as a type of Christ one may 
Num. X. l>e assured of through many proofs. For it used to pre- 
^^' cede them of Israel, seeking rest for them; Christ too 

s. Joim somewhere says, J go to prepare a place for you. 

xiv. 2. 

X 22 ''"''** *'^^ Word being God was made Man, and that not man merely 
honoured witli bare connection was called to equal Dignity or Authority 
with God the Word, as some suppose. 

1 Tim. The Divine Paul says that great is the Mystery of goclU- 

"'■ oiess. And this is true, for the Word was manifested in the 

flesh, since He is God ; justified in Spirit, for in no wise is 
He seen to be holden by our infirmities, albeit for us made 
Man, for He did no sin ; seen moreover of angels, for nei- 
ther were they ignorant of His generation after the Flesh ; 
He was preached moreover unto the Oentiles, as God made 
Man ; and thus believed on in the world. And this the 
Eph. ii. Divine Paul proved thus writing, Wlierefore rememher that 
ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh who are called 
JJncircumcision by that ivhich is called the Circumcision in 
the flesh made by hands, that at that time ye were without 
Christ, aliened from, the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers 
from the covenants of pivmise, having no hope and without 

' The idea that the Ark was a tyye of splendent : withm adorned by the Word 

Christ's Body is very ancient, see the and without kept by the Spirit." [The 

fragment preserved to us of S. Ire- latter part of tlie note ought to be can- 

naeus(p.558 0.T.). S. Irenaeus speaks celled, for S. Irenaeus (as Severus un- 

of the pure gold, somewhat similarly, derstood him) followed 2 Sam. vi. 1. in 

" For as the Ark was gilded with pure the LXX which gives 70,000 as thenum- 

gold both within and without, so was ber which David gathered.'] 
the Body of Christ too pure and re- 

11, 12. 

Christ God dij Nature: GtODHEAd cannot he ijrasped hy earth. 197 

God in the world. The Gentiles were therefore without §12. 
God in the world, when they were without Christ : but ^'^^ ^*^. . 

. ' recta fide 

when they acknowledged Him to be truly and by Nature '« P""- 
God, themselves too were acknowledged by Him confessing p. 70 d 
the faith. And He was received u}) into glory, Divine glory 1 Tim. 
that is ; for blessed David sings, God is gone uy in joy. Ps. xlvii. 
For He went up verily with Body, not in bare Godhead, ^' 
for God was Incarnate. 

We believe therefore, not in one like us honoured with 
Godhead by grace, lest we be caught worshippers of a 
man, but rather in the Lord Who appeared in servant's 
form, and Who was truly like us and in human nature, yet 
remained God, for God the Word, when He took flesh, laid 
not down what He was, but is conceived of the Same God 
alike and Man. 

Thus is the faith and rightly. But if any say. What 
harm if a man like us be conceived of as laying hold on 
•Godhead and not God rather be made man? we shall 
answer that there are a thousand things which may be 
brought to bear against this, and which all but tell us that 
we ought firmly to strive against it and not thus to believe. 

For come before ought else, let us look at the mode of 
the economy with Flesh and throughly investigate the na- 
ture of our condition ; the nature of man was perilled and 
was brought down to the extreme of ill, condemned to 
curse and death and involved in the toils of sin, was stray- 
ing and was in darkness, it knew not Him Who is by Na- 
ture and truly God, it worshipped the creature more than 
the Creator. How then could it be freed from such ills ? 
Or do we say that it was lawful ^ for it to lay hold on the ^ ^«i"'^ 
Divine Nature, albeit it did not at all know what the Dig- 
nity of the Supreme Nature is, it which was holden of un- 
learning and darkness, and defiled by the soil of sin ? how 
was it like that it could mount up to the All-Pure Nature 
and lay hold on glory which none can lay hold of, except he 
receive it ? For let it be supposed that by knowledge for 7 ; ^ ^j 
example, and through knowing we say that it lays hold 'hat Na- 
thereof ^ : who is to teach it ? For how shall they believe ex- Rom. x. 


198 God tJw Word loivered Himself, not man raised himself. 

SCHOLIA cept they hear ? But this is not at all to take hold 
of Godhead, and to seize the glory that beseems It. 

Hence it will be more meet (and reasonably so) to con- 
ceive that God the Word through Whom are all things, 

s avyna- desiring to save that which was lost, by co-abasement ^ 

"^ unto us, lowered Himself to what He was not, in order 

that the nature of man too might become what it was not, 
eminent in the Dignities of the Divine Supremacy by 
union with Him, and should be rather brought up to what 
was above nature, than bring down unto what was alien 
from His Nature, the Unchangeable, as God. It behoved 
that the Incorruptible should lay hold on the nature subject 
to corruption, that He might free it from the corruption, it 
behoved that He Who knew not to sin should be made 
conformal with those who were under sin, that He might 
make sin to cease : for as where is light, there surely 
darkness will have no work, so where incorruption is pre- 
sent, is all necessity that corruption flee, and that, since 
He Who knew not sin hath made His own that which was 
under sin, sin should come to nought. 

But that the Word, being God, was made Man, and not 
rather that Christ was Man deified, I will endeavour to 
shew from the Holy Scriptures also. Blessed Paul says 

Phil. ii. therefore of the Only-Begotten, Who being in the Form of 
God thought not the being equal with God a tiling to seize, but 
emptied Himself taldng servant's form, made in the lilceness 
of men, and being found in fashion as a man, He humbled 
Himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of 
the cross ; wherefore God also highly exalted Him and gave 
Him the name ivhich is above every name, that at the name 
of Jesus Christ every Imee should bow of heavenly and 
earthly and infernal and every tongue confess Lord Jesus 
Christ to the glory of God the Father. 

Whom therefore shall we say was in the Form of God 
and Equality of the Father, and thought these things not 
a tiling to seize ; but descended rather into emptiness and 
into servant's form, andhumbleth Himself and was made in 
our likeness ? If man made of a woman bare and sole, 

Ee humbled, emptied Himself: is in His own glory with flesh. 199 

bow was he in the Form and Equality of the Father ? or § 12. 
how has he fulness that he may be conceived of as emptied ? see p. 112 
or in what height placed afore, is he said to have humbled "°^^ ^ 
himself? or how was he made in the likeness of men, who 
was so formerly too by nature, even though haply he were 
not said to be so made ? yea where was he emptied, taking 
the fulness of the Godhead ? or how was he not made most 
high who mounted up into glory supernal ? 

Therefore we say that not man was made God, but rather above p. 
that the Word of God Who was in Equality and Form of ^^^* 
the Father was made in emptiness because of the human, 
nature, for He was emptied in this way, by reason of our 
likeness, being Full, as God : He was humbled on account 
of the Flesh, while He departeth not from the Throne 
of the Divine Majesty, for He hath His Seat Most High : 
He was made in the likeness of men, being of the Same 
Form with the Father, of Whose Essence He is the Form ^. ^ ^^^^ 
Yet since He was once made as we. He is said to have as- 
cended with Flesh too into the glory of the Godhead, 
which indeed He had evident as His own, yet was He in 
it after another sort, on account of the Human Nature, for 
He is believed to be Lord of all, even with Flesh. 

But to Him boweth every knee, and that not to the 
grief or dishonour of the Father, but rather io His glory : 
for He rejoiceth and is glorified when the Son is adored 

bv all, albeit made like us : for it is written again. For He Heb.ii, 
•^ . 16, 17. 

took not on Him angels hut He tooJc on Him the seed of Abra- 
ham, ivherefore in all things it behoved Sim to be made like 
unto His brethren. Lo the Word took hold of the seed of 
Abraham, in that He is God, not some man like us took 
hold of Godhead, and He is Himself made like unto us, and ^^«X- ^^' 
is called our Brother as Man, not we to Him as regards 
the Nature of the Godhead. And again : Forasmuch then Ib.i4, 15. 
as the children partook of blood and flesh, He also Himself 
likewise partook of them, that through death He might des- 
troy him who holdeth the power of death, that is, the devil, 
and might deliver them who through fear of death were all 
their lifetime sid^ject to bondage. Lo again Himself just as 

200 Incarnate = horn as we yet God. Two sets of 

SCHOLIA we partook of blood and flesh; and this hath a reason most 
Rom. viii. closely united and kin, for it is written, For what the Law 
could not do in that it ivas iveak through the flesh, God send- 
ing His oivn Son in the likeness of flesh of sin and for sin 
condemned sin in the flesh. Observe again that not man is 
shewn to be affecting' the Divine Nature, and mounting 
up to His Dignity; but God the Father sending rather 
His Son in the likeness of flesh of sin to destroy sin. 
Therefore the Word, being God, made Man let Himself 
down into emptiness ; and Christ is seen to be no mere 
man, affecting the Divine Glory. 

5 13 That the Word of God made Man is called Christ Jesus. 

Desiring to investigate the Mystery of the economy 
with flesh of the Only Begotten, we say this, holding true 
doctrine and right faith, that the Word Himself out of God 
the Father, Very God out of Very God, the Light That is 
out of Light, was Incarnate and made Man, descended 
suffered rose from the dead : for thus defined the holy and 
great Synod the Symbol of the Faith. 

But investigating and desiring to learn what is the true 
meaning of the Word being Incarnate and made Man ; we 
see that it is not to take man in connection in regard of 
equality of dignity or authority or of mere community of 
name of sonship ; but rather to be made man as we, toge- 
ther with Sis preserving to His own Nature Its being 
cf. s. unchanged and without turn. Who economically became in 
CW^ assumption of flesh and blood. 

One therefore is He Who before the Incarnation is called 
by the God-inspired Scripture, Only-Begotten, Word, 
God, Image, Brightness, Impress of the Person of the 
Father, Life, Glory, Light, Wisdom, Power, Arm, Right 
Hand, Most Highest, Magnificence, Lord of Sabaoth, and 
other like names, truly most God-befitting ; and after the 
Incarnation, Man, Christ Jesus, Propitiation, Mediator, 
Firstfruits of them that slept, First-begotten of the dead. 
Col. i. 18. Second Adam, Head of the Body the Church ; the first 

names are His. One, yet natures iiicon fused. 201 

names also following Him : for all ai^e His, botli the first § 13. 
and those in the last times of the world. 

One therefore is He Who both before the Incarnation 
was Very God and in the human nature hath remained 
That He was and is and shall be. We must not then sever 
the One Lord Jesus Christ into Mart separately and into 
God separately, but we say that Jesus Christ is One and 
the Same, yet knowing the distinction of the Natures and 
keeping them unconfused with one another. 

When therefore Holy Writ says that in Christ dwelt 
all the fulness of the Godhead bodily, we do not therefore Col. ii. 9. 
say that the Word by Himself dwelt in another, the man 
Christ, nor plucking asunder one from another things 
united do we conceive of two sons, but this rather, that 
holy Writ calls by the name Christ sometimes separately 
the human nature of the Word of God which He having 
as His own, used as a Temple. And it has been written 
somewhere of human souls also. Them that dwell in houses J"^ iy- ^^- 
of clay, ivh.ereof we too are of the same clay. Do we then, 
since he calls the bodies of men houses of clay, and afiirms 
that their souls dwell in them, sever one man into two ? 
yet how is it not wholly without blame "\ that in a man 
should be said to dwell his spirit ? so that even though the 
form of speech passes through this mode, unable to do above p. 
otherwise, it does not beseem that the natures of things 
are therefore injured, but rather we must conceive that 
they hasten the straight way of the truth. 

When then any of those things which do not possess 
like nature one with another, are seen brought together above p. 
to unity by composition, and the one (tor example) is said 
to dwell within the other ; we must not sunder them into 
two, seeing that the concurrence unto unity is in no wise 
injured, even though one of the things united be sepa- 
rately called by us what the two together are. For in man 
too (as I said) is said to dwell his spirit; yet both the 
spirit separately and likewise the body are called man. 

«>', and so also the Syriac translation ; the Latin version gives inration- 
ahile, as though it had read av6y)Tov in place of d/uw/xTjTOf. 

202 Jesus maizes His own what helong to His Manhood. 

SCHOLIA And some such thing as this doth the most wise Paul 
2 Cor. iv, indicate to us saying, For though our outward man perish 
yet the inward man is renewed day by day. When then 
any saith that our inward man dwelleth in our outward 
man, he speaks true, yet he does not sever the one into 
Isa. xxvi. two. The Prophet Isaiah too somewhere saith, By night 
does my sioirit rise early unto Thee, God. Is then his 
spirit said to rise early to God, as being other than him- 
self ? albeit how is it not absurd to say any thing of this 
kind ? Therefore we must know figures of speech, yet not 
depart from what is reasonable, but fetch about the force 
of the things signified to the aim befitting each. 
S. Luke And although Jesus be said to advance in age and wis- 

1 xO'P^Ti, dom and grace ^, this will pertain to the economy. For 
favourT ^^^ Word of God permitted His Humanity to advance by 

reason of the habits of its proper nature, and willed as it 
above p. ^ere by little and little to extend the illustriousness of 

114 and •' 

note h His own Godhead, and along with the age of the Body to 

2 o-vij-ira- put out therewith ^ what is Its own; so that nought strange 
yfiv should be seen and terrify any with its overmuch unwonted- 
s. John ness : while even so they spake, Hoiv hioiveth this man 
^"' ■ letters ha,ving never learned ? Therefore bodily is the in- 
crease; and the advance in grace "and wisdom will befit 
the measures of the Human nature : yet we say that the 
Word out of God is Himself in His own Nature All-Perfect, 
not lacking advance, nor ivisdom, nor grace, but that He 
imparts rather to the creature wisdom and grace and the 
things whereby it is in good case. 

And though Jesus be said also to suffer, the suffering 
will belong to the economy; but is said to be His, and 
with all reason, because His too is that which suffered, and 
He was in the suffering Body, He unknowing to suffer 
(for He is Impassible as God) ; yet as far as pertained to 
the daring of those who raged against Him, He would 
have suffered, if He could have suffered. 

Therefore since the Only-Begotten has been made as 
we, as often as He is called Man by the God-inspired 
Scripture, considering the economy, let us confess that 
even so is He God by Nature. 

Mercy-seat type of Emmanuel, God and Man. 203 

Proofs of Divine Scripture, that tlie Word of God even wlien made Man 
remained God. 


God says somewliere to the hieropliant Moses, And thou Ex. 
shalt make a mercy seat, by inlaying of pure gold : two cubits 20. 
and a half the length thereof and a cubit and a half the 
breadth thereof, and thou shalt malce two cherubhn of gold, 
of beaten ivorli, and shalt put them on either side, one cherub 
on this end the other cherub on that end of the mercy seat, 
and thou shalt malce the two cherubim on the two ends there- 
of. The cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high, 
overshadoiving the mercy seat with their wings and, their faces 
one to another, looking to the mercy seat shall the faces of the 
cherubim be. A most sure image will this be that God the 
Word even in the human nature remained God and in His 
own Glory and Majesty even though for the economy's 
sake made like unto us ; for a propitiation through faith Rom. 
was Emmanuel made unto us. And this the most wise 
John proved saying to us, My little children, these things 1 S.John 
write I unto you that ye sin not; and if any man sin, loe^^'^'^' 
have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the Right- 
eous, and He is the Proptitiation for our sins ; so too Paul 
says, Whom God set forth a propitiation through faith in Rom. 
His Blood. "i- 25. 

But see the Cherubim standing round about the Mercy 
seat and overshadowing it with their wings, but turned to- 
ward the Mercy seat and all but fixing their eye on their 
Lord's beck. For to the will of God alone looketh the 
whole multitude of the heavenly spirits, and is never sated 
with the sight of God. So doth the Prophet Isaiah say 
that he saw the Son on a throne high and lifted up, the Isa. vi. 1. 
Seraphin standing around and waiting on ^ Him as God. 3 obse- 

Another. & 15 

The Divine Moses was of old appointed to free Israel 
from the violence of the Egyptians. But since it was need- 
ful that they who were under the yoke of an unwonted ser- 
vitude, should first learn that God was now reconciled 
to them. He bade him work miracles : for a miracle oft- 

204 Brazen serpent typo of Incarnate Son : 

SCHOLIA time brings us to belief. Moses therefore says to God Al- 
Ex. iv. miglity, But if they shall not believe me nor hearken to my 
voice, saying, The Lord hath not appeared unto thee, ivJiat 
shall I say to thein? the Lord then said unto him, What is 
that in thine hand ? And he said, A rod : and He said to 
him, Cast it on the ground : and he cast it on the ground " 
aiid it became a serpent and Moses fled from before it : avd 
the Lord said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and tahe it by 
the tail; and he put forth his hand and took it by the tail 
and it became a rod in his hand. And He said to him. That 
they may believe that the Lord God of their fathers, the God 
of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob hath ap- 
peared unto thee. Observe herein" the Son of God by Na- 
ture and in truth, as a E,od of the Father (but the Eod is 
the ensign of Kingdom), for in the Son hath He power over 
Ps. xlv.6. all. Whence Divine David also saith. Thy Throne, God 
is for ever and ever, a Hod of Equity the Rod of Thy King- 
dom. But He cast it on the ground, i. e., surrounded it 
with an earthly Body, or through the human nature sent 
it upon the earth, for then, then was it made in likeness of 
the wicked, men that is, for of wickedness is the serpent a 


And that this is true, thou wilt hence know. For our 
Lord Jesus Christ Himself, in image and figure of the eco- 
nomy wrought with flesh is taken for the brazen serpent 
which Moses reared to cure the serpents' bites. For He 
S. John says. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, 
m.i4, 15. g^g^^ g^ mtts^ the 8on of man be lifted up, that whosoever 
believeth in Him should not loerish but have eternal life. 
For as the serpent made of brass was an occasion of sal- 
vation to those in peril (for looking on it they were saved), 
so our Lord Jesus Christ too to those who see Him in the 
likeness of bad men in that He was made Man, yet are 

n The words mid he cast it on the ground, the water turned mto blood, see below 

omitted in the Latin, are given in the §36 p. 225. In his second Paschal homi- 

Syriac version. ly ( A.D. 415) S. Cyril speaks of the rod 

. o See a most interesting chapter on become a serpent, but there likens God's 

the two miracles mentioned in this and own people to a rod springing up from 

the next section, in S. Cyril's Glaphyra the earth, but becoming a serpent when 

pp. 21)8 sqq. In the Glaphyra, S. Cyril it fell away from its lawgiver, and again 

goes on to speak of the third miracle, becoming fair and good (p. 28 fin.). 

on ^Ae Father's Throne with Body. Leprous hand. 205 

not ignorant tliat He is God Who quickens^ will be the §1G, 
Bestower of Life and the power of escaping bitter and 
venomous beasts, I mean the powers that oppose us. 

It will be a figure too of this that Moses' Rod devoured 
the other rods, which the Magi had cast on the ground. 
The Rod therefore was indeed cast on the earth, yet did 
not abide a serpent, but taken again it was what it had 
been; for although the Father's Rod, i.e., the Son, through 
Whom He hath power over all was made (as I said before) 
in our likeness : yet when the economy was fulfilled He 
hastened back into Heaven, and was again as in the Fa- 
ther's Hand a Rod of Righteousness and of Rule; for He Ps.xlv.6. 
sitteth at the Right Hand of His Father in His own Ma- 
jesty, possessing the Supreme Throne even with Flesh. 

Another. § 16 

And the Lord God said again to him, Put thine hand into Exod. iv. 
thy bosom, and he put his hand into his bosom and took ' 
forth his hand out of his bosom and his hand became as snow. 
And He said again. Put thine hand into thy bosom, and he 
put his hand into his bosom and brought it forth of his bosom, 
and it ivas turned again to the colour of his flesh. The Hand 
and the Right Hand of God the Father the Divine Scrip- 
ture calls His Very Son. For it introduces Him saying, 
I by Mine Hand founded the Heaven, and the Divine David l^a. 
too singeth. By the Word of the Lord the Heavens were sta- Ps.xxxiii." 
blished. See therefore that Moses' hand was as yet hidden ' 
in his bosom and had not yet become leprous; brought 
forth and immediately it became leprous; then after a 
while put in and again brought forth, and for the future 
not leprous ; for it ivas restored (it says) to the colour of his 
jiesh. Therefore as long as God the Word was in the 
Bosom of the Father, He shone with the brightness of 
Godhead, but when He was in a manner forth of it be- 
cause of the Incarnation or being made Man, He became Rom.vHi. 
in the liheness of flesh of sin and was numbered among the \'^^ ,— 
wiched : for the Divine Paul saith. Him who Jcnew not sin 12- 

2 Cor. V. 

206 Jesus Christ Incarnate Word : sj^aike the Law, 

SCHOLIA He made sin for lis, that we 7night he made the Righteous- 
ness of God in Him. This I think is what the leprosy- 
means, for the leper was unclean according to the Law. 
But when He was again in the Bosom of the Father (for 
He was taken up at the Resurrection from the dead), the 
Hand again brought forth was seen clean; for our Lord 
Jesus Christ will come. He will come in His season in the 
brightness and glory of the Godhead, although He have 
not cast away our likeness. For blessed Paul too saith of 

Heb. ix. Christ, For He once died to talce away the sins of many, and 
unto them that look for Him unto salvation shall He appear 
the second time without sin. 

Therefore as often as the Divine Scripture names Christ 
Jesus, do not think of man by himself, but think rather 
that Jesus Christ is the Yery Word out of God the Father, 
evenP when He became Man. 



That Christ was not a (God-clad man, nor did the Word of God merely dwell 
in a man, but rather that He was made Flesh, or Perfect Man, according 
to the Scriptures. 

They who have their faith in Christ undefiled, and ap- 
proved by right votes of all men, will say that God the 
Word Himself out of God the Father descended into emp- 
tiness, taking servant's form and, making His own the 
Body which was born of the Virgin, was made as we and 
called Son of Man. He is indeed God according to the 
Spirit, yet the Same Man according to the flesh ^. And 
the Divine Paul also addressed the people of the Jews say- 
lb, i. 1, ing, God Who manifoldly and in many ways of old spaJce to 
the fathers in the prophets, in these last days spake to its in 
the Son. And how is God the Father understood to have 
spoken in the last days in His Son? For He spake to them 
of old the Law through Him ; and hence the Son Himself 
says that they are His Words through the most wise 

p I have supplied eveii from the Syriac ; ta fide to the Princesses Arcadia and 
KOI Sre ifOpwrros yeyove being S. Cyril's Marina, p. 48 a c, and in S. Cyril's De- 
usual way of stating this. fence of his eighth chapter against the 

1 See a very similar expression in a strictiiresof the Eastern Bishops, p. 178 

little treatise of S. Athanasius on the b and c. 
Incarnation, quoted by S. Cyril, de rec- 

spake to us. Made flesh = God made Man. 207 

Moses. For He says^ Tldnlc not thai I am come to destroy § 18. 

S. Matt 
V. 17, 18. 

the law or the pro^jhets, I am not come to destroy hut to fulfil: ^* ^^^^^ 

for I say unto you that one jot or one tittle shall not pass 

from the Law tilL all he fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall lb. xxiv. 

jyass away hut My words shall not pass away : there is also 

the Prophet's voice, I that speak am at hand. Hence when isa. Hi. e. 

He was made in flesh, then spake to ws the Father through 

Him, as saith blessed Paul, in the last days. But lest we 

should not believe that He it is Who before the ages also 

was Son, he added immediately, Through Wliom He made Heb. i. 2. 

the worlds too : he also mentions that He is the hrightness lb. 3. 

of the glory and the Impress of the Person of the Father. 

Man therefore was He truly made, through Whom God 
the Father made the ivorlds too ; and was not (as some see above 
suppose) in a man, so as to be conceived of by us as a man note i 
who has God indwelling in him. For if they believe that 
these things are really so, superfluous will seem to be the 
blessed Evangelist John, saying. And the Word was made s. John 
Flesh. For where the need of being made man ? or why is ^" " 
God the Word said to be Incarnate, unless was made fiesh 
means that He was made like us, and the force of the being 
made man declares that He was made like us, yet remained 
even so above us, yea also above the whole creation ? 

But I think it due by instances also to prove what I 
have said and to persuade that the Only-Begotten has been 
made Man and is God even with Flesh and hath not rather 
indwelt in a man, rendering him God-clad, like others too 
who have been made partakers of His Godhead. 

Ideas or thoughts '. & 18 

God says somewhere of us, I ivill dwell in them and ivalk 2 Cor. vi. 
in them and I will he to them a God and they shall he to Me 
a people. And our Lord Jesus Christ Himself too saith, 
Lo I am coming and if any man open to Me, I will enter s. John 
both I and the Father and we will dwell ivith him and sup Rev. iii. 

with him. We are also called temples of God, for Ye (he f^^ 

r TheSyriac gives a very similar title, Cogitationes ad fidem aptas. 

2 Cor. vi. 

208 If Emmanuel God as God-divelt, we too. 

SCHOLIA says) are the Temples of the Living Oocl, and again. Know 
\^°^' ^'" ye not that your bodies are the Temples of the Holy Ohost 
Which is in you Wliich ye have of Ood ? But if they say 
that He is Emmanuel, as each one of us has had God in- 
dwelling in him, let them confess it openly, that when they 
see Him worshipped as well by us as by the Angels, in 
Heaven alike and upon earth, they may blush as thinking 
cf.i Tim. otherwise, and ignorant of the drift of the holy Scriptures, 
S ' Luke ^^^ ^^^ having in them the faith which they delivered to 
h ^: US, who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers 
of the Word. 

But if they say that He is therefore God and glorified 
as God because the Word of God the Father merely dwelt 
in Him, and not because He was made Man, let themi 
hear again from us, If to them who had God indwelling 
in them, it suffices that they might therefore be truly 
gods and adored by all, all are gods and to be adored, for 
He dwelleth in the holy Angels, and we have Him our- 
selves too in us through the Spirit ; but this is not enough 
to shew that they are by nature gods and to be adored who 
have the Spirit in them. Not therefore for this is Emmanuel 
God and to be worshipped because the Word of God dwelt 
in Him as in a mere man, to be considered by himself and 
apart, but because He was made flesh, i. e. Man, for He 
remained therefore God who is to be worshipped. 

§ 19 Apostolic sayings wherein Christ is called God. 

Eph, iii. Speaking of the Mystery Christward, he says, Which in 
other ages was not made hnown unto the sons of men, as it 
Coi.i.26— "^s now revealed unto His saints, unto ivJwm God would malte 
^^' hnown what is the riches of the glory of this mystery amoiig 

the Gentiles which is Ghrist in you the hope of glory. Whom 
WE preach. If* therefore He is God-clad and not truly 
God, how is Himself the riches of the glory of the Mystery 
which is proclaimed to the Gentiles ? or how is God at all 
proclaimed ? 

s see de recta fide to the Princesses, p. 71 fin. 

S. Paul says that Christ is God. 209 

Another. & 90 

For I ivould that ye knew what conflict I have for you and Col. ii. 
for them at Laodicea and as many as have not seen my face ' 
in the flesh, that their hearts might he comforted, being hiit 
together in love and unto all riches of the full assurance of 
understanding to the achioivledgement of the Mystery of God 
of Christ *. Lo lie calls the Mystery of God the Mystery of 
Christ, and wishes certain to have full understanding unto 
the achiowledgement of it. Of what understanding there- 
fore was there need to those who would learn the Mys- 
tery of Christ, if they were to hear that God dwelt in a 
man ? for there would be need of exceeding understanding 
to know on the other hand that the Word being God was 

made Man. 

Another. § 21 

For from you sounded out the word of the Lord not only in i Thess. 
Macedonia and Achaia, hut in evefry ^lace your faith to God- 
ward is gone forth. Lo again he makes mention that their 
faith was Godward, while Christ toosaith, He that helieveth S.John 
m Me hath everlasting Life : and the word of the Lord he 
calls the preaching of Him. 

Another. § 22 

For yourselves hnow our entrance in unto yott that it was i Thess. 
not in vain, hut after that ive had suffered many things he- 
fore and been reviled as ye hioiu in Philippi, tve were hold 
in our God to speah unto you the Gospel of God. Lo speak- 
ing in God, he made mention of the Gospel of God, who 
preaches Christ to the Gentiles. 

Another. §23 

Call to mind, brethren, our labour and travail, labouring lb. 9. 

t of God, of Christ. The word and is written in the year 1066, has tov Oeov 

omitted in the Latin (and there is great Kal irarphs Koi xpi(rTou : the syriac 

manuscriptal variation in these words translation of the Thesaurus curiously 

of S. Paul). The syriac translation gives, has, of God the Father of our Lord Jesus 

(if God and of Christ. In Thes. 287 c, Christ. In the Thesaurus too S. Cyril 

the best manuscript gives, rov Ofov -rra- cites the text to prove that the Son is 

rphs TOV xpto'Tov ; the Cod, Coislin 248 God. 

210 Christ the Great God : in Him our blessed Hope : 

SCHOLIA night and day that ive might not he burdensome to any of 
you, we preached the Gospel of God among you : and again, 

1 Thess. For this cause we too thank God without ceasing, because when 
ye received from us the word of hearing of God, ye received ii 
not as the word of men but as it is in truth the Word of, 
God which worlceth in you luhich have believed. Does he 
not plainly call tlie preaching about Christ the Gospel of 
God and ivord of God ? this surely is plain to all. 

^ 24 Another". 

fpjj ;; For the grace of God our Saviour ^ hath appeared to all 

11—13. meji, teaching us that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts 

we should live soberly and uprightly and piously in this 

world awaiting the blessed hope and coming of the glory of 

the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Lo our Lord, 

Jesus Christ is most openly called God and Great : fon 

He it is Whose coming of glory we awaiting, are diligent 

to live soberly and unblameably. But if He be a God-clad 

man, how is He also great God ? or how is the hope in Him 

a blessed one ? if so be that the Prophet Jeremiah is true 

Jer. xvii. in Saying, Cursed the man that putteth his trust in man 

For neither could his bearing God (as I said before) render 

him God Himself: next let them teach us what hinders 

that all others be gods and to be worshipped who have 

God in them ? But blessed Paul calls Christ God and Gh'eat 

and that hath a blessed coming, he who is found saying of 

Rom. ix. the Jews, and of Emmanuel, Whose are the fathers and the 

' ' covenant and the promises and of whom as concerning the 

flesh, Christ Wlio is over all God^ blessed for ever. Amen. 

But that by Divine revelation he did make his preaching. 

Gal. ii. is clear in that himself saith. Then fourteen years after 

' ' went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas and took Titus 

with me also ; hut I went up by revelation and set forth to 

them the Gospel which I preach to the Gentiles, but privately 

to them who seemed to be somewhat, lest haply I should run 

or had run in vain. He preaching Christ to the Gentiles 

" This title I have introduced from vatoris, salutaris, saving, or, quickening., 

the Syriac The Latin goes straight on. * I have added God from the Syriac. 

■» The Syriac translates as we, for sal- 

p S. Paul jyyeacJied, Icnoivs hearts, forgives, Co-sits. 211 

as Grod^ every where calls His Mystery Divine ^. He went § 25. 
up to Jerusalem hy revelation and set forth to them ivlio 
seemed to he somewhat, i. e., to the holy Apostles and 
Disciples, lest perchance he shoidd rim in vain or had nin. 
Bnt when he had gone down from Jerusalem and was again 
among the multitude of the Gentiles, did he correct ought 
of his former [teaching] ? did he not persevere in con- 
fessing that Christ is God? and indeed he writes to certain, 
I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him ivho called Ga.\. i. 6, 
you, unto another gospel which is not another, save there he 
some that trouhle you, and woidd pervert the Gospel of Christ : 
and he says again, But though we or an Angel from JSeaven lb. 8. 
preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let 
him he anathema. For what reason therefore leaving all 
else albeit they had God indwelling, did he preach Jesus 
Alone as God ? 

Another. § 25 

It is written of Christ, But ivhen He was at Jerusalem in „ t i. 

_ _ _ S. John 

the feast day many helieved in His Name, when they saio the ii.23— 25. 
signs vjhich He was doing, hid Jesus Himself tr-usted not Him- 
self to them, hecause He hieiv all men and hecause He needed 
not that any one should hear ivitness of a man, for Himself 
hieiv what ivas in man. If He were a God-clad man, how 
were not the many deceived who at Jerusalem believed on 
His Name ? or how doth He Alone know the things which 
are in man when none else knoweth them ^ ? for God is said 
to have /as/u'onetZ our hearts one hy one. Or why doth He ps. 
Alone forgive sins? for He saith, That the Son of Man hath sl^atif" 
power upon earth to forgive sins. Why is He Alone apart '^- <*• 
from others the Co-sessor of God the Father ? why do the 
Angels worship Him Alone, and did He teach us to deem 
of the Father as our common Father which is in Heaven, 
but ascribethHim in special manner to Himself? 

But perchance you wiU say that words of this sort are ta 
be attributed to the indwelling Word. Ought He not 

y The Syriac reads 7^o»^»^ofor?iom;wrt<, ^ See S. Cyril's commentary on this 

i. e. had run in vain who preach Christ verse, on S. John, pp. 165 fin., 166 O.T., 

as God to the Gentiles and everywhere and above, p 56. 
call His Mystery Divine. 

p 2 

212 Cheist God : else indiveUing and man~wor8lLi][). 

SCHOLIA therefore, according to the measure beseeming Prophets. 

Himself too to have said, Tims saith the Lord ^ ? But wher 

He would ordain the things that are above the Law, tak-i 

ing to Himself authority befitting a Legislator, He used tc. 

say, I say to you. 

cf.s. How says He that He is free and not indebted'^ to God) 

xvnf26. ^^ ^^ because He is Sou in truth. And if He were £ 

God-clad man, would He be also free by Nature ? Fo] 

God Alone is free and unbound : for He Alone exacts as 

it were tribute from all, and receives from all as fron 

■* religio- debtors due observance *. And if Christ is the end of the 


OpriaKela Law and the Prophets, yet is a God-clad man, might one 

not say that the end of the prophetic preachings has brough 

upon us the charge of man-worship ? 

S, Matt. Again, the Law set forth. Thou shalt ivorship the Lord th 

from ^od and Him only shalt thou serve. By which teaching i 

^.^^}' led us unto Christ, as unto a knowledo^e more excellen 
VI. 13. . ° 

than they had who were in the shadow : shall we therefore 
making light of worshipping God, worship a man who ha; 
God indwelling ? for where were it best that God be con 
ceived to be ? in heaven or in a man ? in Seraphim or ii 
earthly body ? 

If therefore He were God-clad man, how partook H< 
Heb.u. i|]j.Q g^g yjQ -y^ flesh au d blood ? For if because He indwel 

14. _ 

him, this were enough for Him that He should partake o 
ours like as we, and if His so participating is the being mad 
man : He indwelt in many saints too : He was therefor 
not once but full often made man. Why therefore is H 
Ib.ix. 26. said once in the end of the world to have aiipeared to pn 
away sin by the sacrifice of Himself? how do the Divin 
Scriptures preach to us one Coming of the Word ? 

§ 26 If*' He were a God-clad man. He too (it seems) was mad 
the Temple of God, and how is Christ in us also ? as 
Temple in temples ? or rather as God in the temples throng 

a see above, p. 57 and note x. <= The syriac supplies the fresh se< 

b obnoxium = ej'oxoi'. The syriac trans- tion-number 26 here; the Latin givt 

lation has, owes the tribute-money ; see no break. 

above p. 53 note t. 

The Son made Man tvUhout change. 213 

tlie Spirit ? If He were a God-clad man, why is His Body § 27. 
alone Life-giving ? for such should have been the bodies of 
others also, wherein indwelt Almighty God. 

And the Divine Paul also wrote somewhere. He that ties- Heb. x. 

28 29 

pised Moses' Law died ivWiout any mercy at the hands of two 
or three witnesses; of how much sorer inmishment, suppose ye, 
shall he he thought worthy who hath trodden under foot the 
Son of God and hath deemed polluted the Blood of the Cov- 
enant ? Yet Divine was the Law, and the Commandments lb. ii. 2. 

. cf. Gal. 

spoken through Angels : how then will he be thought ivor- ai 19, * 

thy of sorer punishment who hath deemed p>olliited the ^^^'f' ^"* 

Blood of Christ ? or how is the faith Christ-ward better 

than the worship after the Law ? But (as we have already 

said) Christ is not as other saints, a God-clad man, but 

rather God in truth and He possesses glory higher than all 

the world, because, being the Word of God by Nature, 

God was made flesh or perfect man ; for we believe that 

the Body which was united to Him is ensouled and endowed 

with reason, and wholly true is the union. 

How we must understand The fVord was made Flesh and dwelt inns, and <L 07 
how the Word is sent which is God, and how the Body is said to be His own. 

The blessed Paul makes mention that the Only-Begotten 
Word of God took hold of Abraham's seed and also that Heb. ii. 
He partook of flesh and blood as we. We remember too n,; ^4^ 
the voice of John, for he says. And the Word luas made Flesh s. John i, 
and diuelt in us. Was it therefore the aim of these men, 
being spiritual, to teach that the Word of God sufiers 
change, or that it is right that He should undergo the 
mutation which belongs rather to the creature? so that 
that too which He was not, He should haply either come to 
of His own will, or another against His will drive Him into 
another nature ? God forbid : for He remains the Same, 
excluding from His Nature every change, unknowing to 
suffer a shadoiv of turning : for That Supreme and Heavenly s. James 
Nature is ever fixed in Its own. 

How then the Word has been made Flesh it is needful to 
Bee, First then the Divine Scripture fuU often calls man 

214 The Word has a second Birth, yet changes not, 

SCHOLIA flesh and as it were from part makes declaration of the whole 
animal, and does the same sometimes no less from the soul 

S. Luke alone, for it is written that all flesh shall see the salvation 

Gal. i. 16. o/* God, and moreover the Divine-uttering Paul saith, I 
conferred not with flesh and blood, and the hierophant Moses 

Deut. X. addressed them of Israel, Thy fathers ivent down into Egypt 
in threescore and fifteen souls. And one would not there- 
fore say that bare and fleshless souls made their descent 
into Egypt, nor again that to soulless bodies and mere flesh 
God gave bounteously of His salvation. 

As often therefore as we hear that the Word was made 
Flesh, let us conceive of man made out of soul and body. 
But the Word being God was made perfect man taking a 
body endowed with soul and mind, and having united this 
to Himself in truth, as He knows (for thoughts of this kind 
are utterly unattainable by our mind), was called son of man. 
Yet if one must say somewhat, looking as in a mirror, the 
human mind defines that the Word was united to the Body 
having a reasonable soul, much as is the soul of man too 
to its own body, which is of other nature than it, yet ob- 
tains even thus participation and union with the body, so 
as to appear not other than it, in that by composition one 
living thing is efiected out of both, it nevertheless remain- 
ing (as I mentioned before) in its own nature. Hence we 
say that not by mutation or change has the Word of God 
been made Man, nor yet that It recked not of being God 
(how could it be so ?) but that taking flesh of a woman 
and united to it from the womb, He proceeded forth, the 
Same, Man aad God, for not as casting away the IneSable 
Generation out of God the Father, did He endure that of 

above a woman, inviting Him to a beginning so to say of being, 

^P* ' ' but rather permitted to His own Flesh to be called into 
being by means of the laws of its own nature, in regard 
I mean to the mode of its birth : nevertheless the human 
nature hath in Him something special, for He was born of 
a Virgin and hath Alone a mother incognizant of marriage. 

atove And he says that made Flesh He also tabernacled in us, that 
through both he might shew that He both was made Man 

The Word with His manhood One, in us an indwelUny . 215 

and let not go His own, for He hatli remained what He § 27. 

For that which dwelleth is full surely conceived of as 
one thing in another, to wit, the Divine Nature in the hu- 
man, not undergoing mixture or any commingling or pass- 
ing into what it was not. For that which indwells in an- 
other, becomes not that which it is wherein it dwells j 
but is conceived of rather as one thing in another. But 
in respect of the Nature of the Word and of the Manhood, 
the diversity herein indicates to us only the difference [of 
natures]. For One Christ is conceived of out of both. 
Preserving well therefore (as I said before) the inconfu- 
sion^, he says that the Word tabernacled in us. For }xQ^T},hffvy. 
knows that the Only-Begotten Incarnate and made Man 
is One Son. 

But see (I pray) that the Divine Evangelist is wisely 
crowning the whole nature of men, for he says that the 
Word dwelt in us, not saying that the Incarnation of the 
Word took place for any other reason (as seems to me) 
save that we too, enriched by the participation of Him- see above 
self through the Holy Ghost might gain the benefit of ^?" ^^' 
adoption. Therefore we believe that in Christ took place 
an union most complete and true : but in us even though 
He be said to dwell. He will make His Indwelling non- 
essential'^. For in Him dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead Col. ii. 9. 
bodily, i. e., not by participance or relation only, as when 
light shineth in or fireinfuseth into other things its innate 
heat, but (so to say) that Very Divine andDntaint Nature 
is to be understood as that which is making for Itself an 
Indwelling by means of a true (as we said before) Union 
in the Temple which is born of the Virgin : for thus Christ 
Jesus both is and is conceived of as One. 

And that our speech is overcome in its utmost possi- 
ble expression, I will not deny, but let not the Mystery of 
Christ be therefore disbelieved, but let it be deservedly 

d ffxeriKTii', the Greek word is re- own Body : that was a habitation of 

tained in the Latin translation. The real union, His inhabitation of our souls 

reasoning is, Christ made Man was is of grace only. See the careful ex- 

throughly and essentially united to His planation of Col. ii. 9 m p. 35. 

216 God fills all as He knows : sent^ His Divine ivorkfvr us. 

SCHOLIA more marvellous : for the more it overpasses all mind and 
speech, the more must it be put beyond all marvel. 

But we do not say that the Word made Flesh, i. e., Per- 
fect man, is comprehended by the limit of the body (for 
that were most silly), but we believe that thus too It fills 
(as It useth) Heaven and earth and the things below : for 
all things are full of God, and all things little to Him. But 
how is He wholly both in each and in all, is hard to under- 
stand and say, yea rather is even impossible, 
how His ^nd He possesses this too (as I suppose) that He is with- 
out Body and Unportioned ; yet is the Body called by us 
the own of the Word, not in the same way as laughing 
is proper to a man or neighing to a horse, but because 
it was made His by true union, accomplishing the use 
of an instrument unto whatever was its nature to work, 
save only what belongs to sin. 
how God Yea and if God the Word be haply said to have been 
is'sent"^ sent, let not any one of you be terrified, thinking. Whither 
shall the Unembodied advance ? or whither He withdraw 
see above of Whom all things are full ? but let him know that the 
104, 108, ' mode of mission is of another kind : not that He Who is 
note s^^ ^^^^ should change from place to place but rather that He 
should take on Him a sacred ministry, which we learn was 
also enjoined to the disciples by Christ the Saviour of all. 
Heb. iii. Again, the Divine Paul too says of Christ, Wherefore, holy 
brethren partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apo- 
stle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus Christ. Note 
that when he shews Him ministering in human wise al- 
beit He is by nature God, then does he also attribute to 
Him the office of the Apostolate : but it is nought un- 
reasonable (as we said before) if God the Word be said to 
be sent by the Father, for He most surely fills all things 
and in no place at all is He absent : but we interpreting 
things Divine by human words, are wont to understand 
economies of the Immortal Nature by bodily outlines. 
Again though the Holy Ghost fills all things, the blessed 
Gal, iv. 6, Paul writes and says. And because ye are sons, God sent forth 
the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, wherein ive cry Abba, 

TJte Son Eternal Offspring of the Fathee, Man/s Child. 217 

Father : and the Saviour Himself too saith, It is expedient § 28. 
for you that I go away, for if I go not away, the Comforter xvi. 7. 
will not come unto you, but when I depart I ivill send Him 
to you^. We must therefore referring all things to the 
Rule of piety, follow sure knowledge, for so doing shall we 
best profit ourselves. 

How the holy Vh-gin is conceived of as Mother of God. § 28 

The Word out of Grod the Father was begotten in some 
ineffable way (for beyond all understanding is His Genera- 
tion, and as befits the Unembodied Nature) : yet is That 
which is begotten conceived of as the Own Offspring of 
the Generator and Consubstantial with Him, for therefore is 
It called also Son : the Name indicating to us the Verity of 
the (so to say) Birth and Parturition*^. And since the ^ r^s uS:. 
Father ever liveth and hath being, it must needs be that He rod t6kou 
on account of Whom He is Father co-live and have co-Being 
Eternally with Him. The Word therefore was in the begin- lb. i. i. 
omig and was Ood and was with God (as saith the most wise 
Evangelist), but in the last times of the world for us men Creed of 
and for our salvation was made flesh and was made Man : 
and not at all letting go what He was, but having His 
own Nature unchanged and existing ever in the excel- 
lences of Godhead, yet undergoing for us economically the 
emptiness and not despising the poverty that belongs to the 
human measures. For being Rich He became poor (as it is 2 Cor. 
written), that we by His poverty might become 7'ich. He 
was made therefore Man and is said to have endured Gene- 
ration after the flesh of a woman, because of His taking of 
the holy Virgin the Body that was united to Him of a 
truth : whence we say that the holy Virgin is Mother of 
God, as having borne Him in fleshly or human wise, albeit see above 
that He hath His Generation before the ages out of the^*"°*^^ 
Father f. 

e The words, but when I depart, T will on the word, setit, as used of God, al- 
iened Him to you, are omitted, from lio- though He fill all things, 
moeoteleutoii, by the latin ; but given in «' See S. Cyril's first Chapter and de- 
the syriac translation, and are necessary, fence of it against Andrew, above p, 24 
since S. Cyril's whole argument turns note q. 

218 B.V. hare God, not Godhead apart Inj Itself. 

SCHOLIA And this, that some suppose that the Word was then 

called to a beginning of being when He became Man, is 

utterly impious and exceeding discordant. For the Saviour 

Himself shews them to be most unwise, saying in regard to 

S. John Himself, Verihj I say unto you, Before Abraham was I am : 

^"^' ^ * for how was He before Abraham Who was bom after the 

flesh many ages after him ? The Divine-uttering John too 

lb. i. 30. will I deem suffice to convict them saying, This was He of 

Whom I said, After me cometh a Man Who was made before 

me, for He was before me. 

Leaving therefore as exceeding foolish to contend about 
what is superfluous, come let us rather go on to what is 
beyond, I mean unto what is profitable. Let not any be 
troubled, hearing the holy Virgin called Mother of God, nor 
let them fill their souls with Jewish unbelief, yea rather 
with Gentile impiety. For the Jews attacked Christ say- 
lb. x. 33. iug. For a good ivorhwe stone Thee not but for blasphemy 
because Thou, being a Man, mahest Thyself God : and the 
see Nest, children of the Greeks, hearing the doctrines of the Church 
Merc. p. that God hath been born of a woman, laugh. 
54 Bal. g^^ ^Yiej shall eat the fruit of their own impiety, and 
isa.xxxii. shall hear of us. The fool will utter folly and his heart ima- 
1 Cor. i. gine vain things. But the plan of our Mystery, albeit to 
the Jews it be an offence, to the Gentiles folly, yet to us who 
know it, verily admirable is it and saving and far removed 
from being to be disbelieved by any. For if there were 
any whatever who should dare to say that this flesh made 
of earth had become mother of the bare Godhead, and that 
she bare out of her own self the Nature which is over the 
whole creation, the thing would be madness and nothing 
else : for not of earth has the Divine Nature been made, 
nor will that which is subject to decay become the root 
of immortality nor that which is subject to death bear the 
Life of all things, nor yet the Unembodied be the fruit of 
the palpable body, that which is subject to birth [bear] 
that which is superior to birth, that which hath its beginn- 
ing in time, that which is without beginning. 

But since we affirm that the Word became as we and 

Soul not horn ofhodij,yet the two man: Christ God and man. 219 

took a body like to our bodies and united this of a truth § 30. 
unto Himself^ in a way namely beyond understanding and 
speech^ and that He was thus too made Man and born after 
the fleshj what is there incredible therein or worthy of 
disbelief ? albeit the human soul (as we have already full 
often said) being of other nature than the body, is yet born 
with it, just as we say that it too has been united there- 
with. Yet will no one (I deem) suppose that the soul has 
the nature of the body as the beginning of its own ex- 
istence, but God inplaces it ineffably in the body and it 
is born along with it ; yet do we define as one the animal 
that is made up out of both, i. e., man. Therefore the Word 
was God but was made Man too, and since He has been 
born after the flesh by reason of the human nature, she who 
bare Him is necessarily Mother of God. For if she have 
not borne God, let not Him Who is born of her be called 
God ; but if the God-inspired Scriptures call Him God, as 
God Incarnate and made Flesh, and it be not possible in 
any other way to be Incarnate, save through birth of a see p. 32 
woman, how is she not Mother of God, who bare Him ? 

But that He is truly God Who was born, we shall know 
from the God-inspired Scripture too. 

Sayings about Christ. § 29 

Behold a Virgin shall conceive in the ivomb and hear a isa. vii. 
Son and they shall call His Name Emmanuel. How then 
(tell me) is that which is born of the holy Virgin called 
Emmanuel ? Emmanuel (as I already said) signifying, that above p. 
the Word out of God which is in truth God was made by 
reason of the Flesh in nature as we. But He is Emma- 
nuel, for He emptied Himself, having undergone a genera- 
tion like to ours, and so had His conversation with us. 
Hence He is God in flesh and she truly Mother of God, 
who bare Him carnally or after the flesh. 

Another. § 30 

For they shall lay down every rohe that was gathered hy lb. ix. 5, 
guile and garment ivith its change and shall he loilling if 

220 God the Son a Boy and saved us. 

SCHOLIA tJiey shall have been burnt with fire ; for a boy has been born 
to us and a son given unto us whose rule is upon His Shoulder 
and His Name is called The Messenger of the great Counsel. 
Hearest thou that He was called a Boy because He under- 
went a birth like us ? But Him a Boy by brightest star 
did the sky point out, did the Magi worship coming from 
the uttermost limits of the earth, did the Angels bear good 

_S. Luke tidings of to the Shepherds saying that a Saviour was born, 

lb. 14. and proclaiming Peace and the Good ivill of the Father. 
He is also the Messenger of the Great Counsel : for He made 
known to us the Grood-will of the Father, Who in Him was 
pleased to save the earth, and through Him and in Him to 
reconcile the world unto Himself: for being reconciled to 
Christ, we are reconciled to Grod : for Grod and truly Son 
of God the Father is He^. That He is therefore the Counsel 
of the Father Whose Messenger He has been to us, Him- 

S. John self will teach saying, For so God loved the world that He 
gave His Only -Begotten Son, that every one that believeth in 
Him should not perish but should have everlasting life. But 
the Only-Begotten Son is He Who was born of the holy 
Virgin, for the Word Himself was made Man, Who was 
God in the flesh and thus appeared to those on earth. 

lb. vi. 47. Finally He says, He that believeth on Me liath everlasting 
life. And that through Him and in Him we believe on 

lb. xii, the Father, He hath set forth saying, He that believeth on 
' '■ Me believeth not on Me but on Him That sent Me and he that 
seeth Me seetli Him that sent Me. 

t oi Another, 

Isa. xlix. Hear Me, ye isles, and give ear, ye nations : after long time 
shall He stand, saying. The Lord from the ivomb of My 
mother shall they call My Name. The Word being God, 
was not ignorant that He should undergo birth. Incarnate 
of a woman for our sakes : He knew that He shall be 
called Christ J esus, God the Father afore proclaiming unto 

Isa. ixv, US the Neiv Name of His Son which is blessed in the 

15, 16. 

IvXX. g " God therefore is Christ, to whom we reconciled, are recoiciled to God (2 Cor. 

V. 20)." de recta fide to the Princesses p. 67 b. 

God made Man hij birth. 221 

earth,^. AndnotehowHementionsHisownMotlierwliobare §32. 
His Body. Hence if He knows that He is Very God, slie 
who bare Him after the flesh is called Mother of God_, and 
rightly so : but if He be not God, as some daringly, yea 
rather wickedly, think : let them deprive the holy Virgin 
herself of this name, that she be not called Mother of God. 

That the Only-Begotten is called God even when appearing as Man. t on 

Solomon praying says. And now, Lord God of Israel, 2 chron. 
let Thy ivord be credible ivhich Thou spaJcest unto Thy servant ^^' ^^' ^^' 
David : shall God in very deed dwell with men on earth ? 
Observe that he marvels at the Incarnation of the Word, 
for it seemed a thing incredible : for then did He dwell 
with men upon the earth when He was made Man. Else 
how is this anything special or how worthy of marvel, that 
God should not depart from these things which Himself had 
created, cherishing them that is, and holding together the 
things which had been already made, creating those which 
have not been yet made ? But verily it is a special mir- 
acle that God made Man should have dwelt on earth with 
men, according to the promises long before given to the 

Divine David. For it is written. The Lord sivare unto Ps.cxxxH. 


b Either Immanuel, fVith us is God, we say has been given to the Word 

or, Jesus, Sainour, are new names, as through the Angel's voice." de recta fide 

specially belonging to the time of the to the Emperor, p. 26 d. " Before the 

Incarnation. S. Cyril elsewhere speaks times of the Incarnation no one is found 

of each : in his Thesaurus he had said, naming the Word out of God, Jesus or 

" Except the Son were God by Nature, Christ, uidess by foreknowledge that 

He would not have been called, JF«7/i ?/s He should be called this in due time 

is God, which took place when He was when He also was made flesh. A neiv 

born through a woman, assuming like- name therefore to Him is the Name 

ness with us. Not at all of an angel or Jesus, when He was made man." de 

of any other generate being is the word, recta fide to the Princesses, p. 120 d. 

Emmanuel, the invention, but the Fa- " For a «ew w(7?ne to the Word is Jesus, 

THER thus named the Son. And the concurrent with the birth of the flesh, 

holy Prophet will be our witness, say- And the Prophet's oracle will support 

ing of the Divine Offspring, And thei/ us, which says. And they shall call His 

shall call His name that new Name which Name the new najne which the Lord shall 

the Lord shall give Him (Isa. Ixii. 2 give Him." Dial. v. 551 d. "For when 

LXX). For a new name verily to the will any shew that the Word was called 

^on'is, Emmanuel, that is. With us is God. Jesus or Christ, save because He was 

For before His Presence in the world made man ? for He is Jesus, because 

with flesh, He was and was called merely He saves His people, Christ, because 

God ; after the Birth from the Virgin, anointed for our sakes. Therefore not 

no longer merely God, but, with us, i. e. the Word out of God the Father, as yet 

God made man. Since therefore the bare before the Incarnation, but made 

Father calls His own Son God, let them in flesh does he call both Jesus and 

blush who impiously and unlearnedly Christ: and of Him questionless does he 

say that He was made. For what is by say that He was yesterday and to-day, 

Nature God, is not a creature," cap. The Same too for ever." Hoin. Pasch. 

32 p. 303 b c. " This new Name (Jesus) vii. (A.D. 420) p. 101 b c. 

222 King David's testimony. 

SCHOLIA David and will not reject him, Of the fruit of thy helly shall 
I set upon thy seat. But verily he, albeit lie believed that 
the Almighty God would never deny His Promise, yet did 
more carefully search out the place itself of the Birth and 
Ps.cxxxii. say. If I go up upon my bed, if I give sleep to mine eyes or 
slumber to mine eyelids or rest to my temples^ until I find 
a place for the Lord, a tabernacle for the Ood of Jacob. At 
length when he had found out this too through the Spirit, 
and knew the place of the Birth after the flesh of the Only- 
lb. 6. Begotten, then did he preach it and say, Lo lue heard of it 
at Ephratah, that is, in Bethlehem, we found it in the fields 
0/ the ivood. And that yi saying Ephratah, he means Beth- 
Mic. V. 2. lehem, the Prophet hath proved. And thou, Bethlehem, house 
of Ephratah. But note that Him, Whom he believed to 
have been created ' as we in Ephratah, he names the God 
7 i.e. in of Jacob, Whose dwelling was in the Tabernacle: for there'^ 

Ephratah "^. . . ° 

did the holy Virgin bear Jesus. 

Elsewhere too does he call Him the God of Abraham, 
Ps. xlvii. saying, The princes of the people are gathered together with 
the God of Abraham. For well-nigh, instructed in the 
knowledge of things to come, did he see with the eyes of 
his mind and the illumination of the Holy Ghost, the princes 
of the people, \. e., the holy Apostles, in the obedience of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Seeing therefore that He is named God of Abraham and 
God of Jacob, Who is born of a woman, why is not the holy 
Virgin Mother of God ? 

§ 33 Another. 

Hab. iii. The Prophet Habaccuc says, Lord, I have heard Thy 
hearing and feared, I have thought on Thy worhs and shud- 
dered. In the midst of the two living creatures shalt Thou be 
Icnown, in the coming of the times shalt Thou be shewn, while 
my sold vjas troubled, shalt Thou in anger remember mercy. 
God shall come from Teman, the Holy One from mountParan. 
How shall He be hnown in the midst of the two living crea- 
tures ? for when He had been born of a woman and had 

' Creatum, ma.Ae, ^y^y^vriufvov : the Syriac version gives yeye/'j/Tj/teVo»', born. 


SabalckuWs testimony : the Patriarch Jacob's. 223 

lived even unto the time of the Precious Cross, hy the grace § 34. 
of God (as saith blessed Paul) did He by His Body taste 
death for every man. But since He was by Nature God, 
He rose again unto everlasting life. He therefore is hiown, 
Who for us endured the Precious Cross, in the midst of 
the two living creatures. And Himself says somewhere to 
the Jews, When ye have lifted up the son of man, then shall §_ john 
ye know that I am. But how, calling Him also God, does ^"'' ^^* 
he fore-announce that He shall come from Teman and from 
mount Paran ? Teman is interpreted South : for Christ 
was manifested, not from northern regions, but from the 
southern Judaea, wherein Bethlehem is. 

Since therefore He Who has been named Lord and God, 
cometh out of the southern Judea, for He was born in Beth- 
lehem, how is not the holy Virgin Mother of God ? 

Another. ^ 34 

In ^ Genesis it is written, And Jacob was left alone, and Gen. 
there wrestled luith him a Man until the morning : but he 24^^26 
saw that he ivas not prevailing against him and he touched 
the fiat of his thigh as he was wrestling with him^ and said 
fo him., Let me go for the morning ascendeth. But he said, 
I do not let thee go, except thou bless me. And after more, 
Ajid He blessed him there : and he called the name of that ib. 29— 
place. The Face of God: for I saw (he said) God face to^^' 
face and my life is preserved. And the sun rose when he 
passed the face of God : and he halted on his thigh. Mys- 
tic is the sense of that which is written, for it appears to 
hint at the wrestling of the Jews which they used in re- 
gard to Christ, well-nigh wrestling with Him, neverthe- 
less they were overcome and will themselves implore His 
Blessing, if through faith they turn them to Him at the 
last times. But note this, it was a man who was wrestling, 
and Jacob called him The Face of God : nor that alone, 
for he knew that He is God in truth. For I have seen (he 
said) God face to face and my life is preserved. For Em- 

^ see above pp. 106, 107. ding, and the flat of Jacob'' s thigh was out 

' Thus too the Syriac version, not ad- of joint. 

224 Daniel testifies God in man's likeness. 

SCHOLIA manuel is by Nature God, yet is He called also The Face 

Heb. i. 3. of God : for He is tlie Image of the Father's Substance : 
thus did He call Himself to the Jews, saying respecting 

S- John Qq^ ii^Q Father, Nor have ye seen His Face and ye have 
not His Word abiding in you, for Whom He sent, Him ye 
believe not. 

But that Very God is that Man Who was wrestling with 

Gen. Jacob, holy Writ will again give proof, for it says, And 

the Lord said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell 

there, and mahe there an Altar to God that appeared tmto 

thee when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother. 

For returning from Mesopotamia and being then in fear 

of Esau, he sent over Jabok his children and all his stuff, 

lb. xxxii. d^if]^ ]iQ i^dg left alone and there lorestled a man with him. 
24. '' 

§ 35 Another. 

Blessed Daniel setting forth to us a dread vision says, 
Dan. vii. I was Seeing in a night vision, and lo with the clouds of 
13, 14. Heaven came as it were the Son of Man and came even unto 
the Ancient of Days and they brought Him into His Presence 
and there was given Him dominion and honour and a Idng- 
dom, and all peoples nations and languages shall serve Him : 
His Power a Power for ever ivhich shallnot pass, andHis King- 
dom shall not be destroyed. Hearest thou how he does 
not mention that he had seen simply a man, lest Em- 
manuel should be believed to be one of us and like as we, 
but as it ivere the Son of Man ? For the Word being by 
Phil. ii. Nature God ivas made in the likeness of men and was foimd 
in fashion as a Man, in order that in the Same might Both be 
conceived of, neither bare man nor yet the Word apart from 
manhood and flesh. Yet does he tell that to Him was 
given the princedom and honour which He ever had ; for 
he says that allpeoples nations and languages shallserve Him, 
Since therefore even when in the human nature the Only- 
Begotten Word of God hath the creature serving Him and 
the Princedom of His Father and Himself, and the holy 
Virgin bare Him after the flesh : how is not the holy Vir- 
gin conceived of as Mother of God ? 


Tlie SoN^ JJnsuffering , not apart from that luhich suffers. 225 

Of the Passion of Christ, and that it is profitable that we speak in one man- § 36 
ner and another of One and the Same, nor do we divide Him into twain. 

Saint Paul sets forth to us the Saving Passion^ for he 
saith at one time. By the Grace of God for all tasted He death, Heb. ii. 9. 
and also. For I delivered to you in the first place that lohich l Cor. xv. 
I too 7-eceived, that Christ died for our sins according to the ' 
Scriptures and that He ivas buried and that He rose again the 
third day : moreover the most wise Peter also saith. For- 1 S. Peter 
asmuch as Christ suffered for us in the Flesh. Seeing there- 
fore we believe that One is our Lord Jesus Christ, i. e. God 
the Word beheld in human form or made man as we, in what 
manner can we attribute Passion to Him and still hold 
Him impassible, as God ? 

Tlie Passion therefore will belong to the Economy, God 
the Word esteeming as His own the things which pertain 
to His own Flesh, by reason of the Ineffable Union, and 
remaining external to suffering as far as pertains to His 
own Nature, for God is Impassible. And no wonder, since see above 
we see that the soul itself of a man, if its body suffer some- 
what, remains external to the suffering as far as belongs 
to its own nature, yet is it not conceived of as external to 
suffering, in that the body which suffers is its very own : 
and albeit it be impalpable and simple, yet is that which 
suffers not foreign to it. Thus will you understand of 
Christ too the Saviour of all. 

But I will make use of examples which may shew us by 
way of shadow, that the Only-Begotten shared in the suf- 
fering as far as belongs to the ownness of His Body, yet 
remained free from suffering, as God. Almighty God then 
was bidding the most wise Moses to work miracles, that 
Israel might believe him that he was sent from God, and 
that they should be set free from violence : He says, And Exod. iv. 
Ihou shall take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the 
mrth, and the ivater ivhich thou shalt take from the river, 
ihall he Hood upon the earth. But we say that the water 
s an image of life, and that the Son proceeding out of 
;he Father as out of a river, by reason of being of the 

226 Types of Liie dij big : 

SCHOLIA Same Essence, is by Nature Life, and therefore quickens 
all things. But when (He says) thou shalt have poured 
forth the water, it shall he hlood upon the earth. Hence, 

8de when He was made flesh of ^ the earth, i. e., when He girt 

Himself with flesh from the earth, then is He said to have 
suffered death in it like to our death, albeit He is by Na- 
ture Life. 

In Leviticus God intimates that the leper is polluted and 
impure and therefore bids: that he should be put forth of 
the camp, and that if the disease be healed, he should thus 

Lev. xiv. be cleansed. And they shall taJce for him that is cleansed 
two clean birds and cedar wood and scarlet wool and hyssop, 
and the priest shall command and they shall hill one of the 
birds in an earthen vessel in living water, and the living bird 
shall he taJce and shall bathe it in the blood of the bird that 
ivas hilled in the living ivater and he shall sprinMe upon 
him ivho is cleansed from the lep)rosy seven times, and he 
shall be clean. Us there rendereth clean and washeth away 
the Soils of our uncleanness and driveth off the mortality 
of fleshly desire the Most Precious Blood of Christ and the ; 
purification of all-holy Baptism. But note this (for letting ; 
alone subtil search into the force of the Scriptures, we 
will for the present make mention of what helps to the 
mystery) : he compares Christ to two birds'", not as though 
there were two Sons, but rather one out of two, the God- 
head and the manhood, gathered together into union. 
The birds are clean, for our Lord Jesus Christ did no sin, 
but the Word was holy, in Godhead and in Manhood : He 

9 vTi]vo7s is likened again to flying things ^, by reason of His being '! 

1 Cor. high above the earth and from above, for Christ is the 

XV. 47. jij^^ Q^f. qJ Eeaven, albeit the holy Virgin bare His Flesh". 

™ We still possess a long Letter of ° See Ecumenic Letter to John arch- 

S. Cyril's to Acacius Bishop of Scytho- bishop of Antioch, 3 Epp. p. 72, and 

polls (or Bethshan), illustrating the above p. 44 note e. S. Gregory of Na- 

unity of Godhead and Manhood in zianzum, in his famous Letter to Cle- 

Chnst, as typified, 1, in the two goats donius (Ep. ad Cled. 1) speaks of that 

(Lev. xvi. 7 sqq.), whereof one was sa- Apollinarian error, of which S. Cyril 

crificed, one went free, yet both were was suspected, in these words, "If any 

needed to make up the perfect Atone- one say that the Flesh hath come down 

ment : 2, in the two birds for the cleans- out of Heaven, and is not hence and ofj 

ing of the leper, as here. Epp. pp. 121 us (Trap' 7;/icui'), be he anathema. Fori 

— 132. that the second Man is out of Heaven, and] 

His what befall His Flesh, yet One. 227 

How then is He from above and out of Heaven ? God tlie § 36. 
Word from above and out of the Father, taking flesh from 
the holy Virgin and manifesting it as His own, as though see above 
He had brought it down from above and out. of Heaven, 
said. No man hath ascended up into Heaven, save He That S. John 
came down from Heaven, the Son of Man : for He ever 
allotteth to His own Flesh that which is His own, and once 
united to it is accounted one with it. 

Yet see, when the one bird is slain, the other is dipped 
in his blood, yet died not. And what is this ? The Word 
lived, even though His Flesh died, and He was participant 
in the Passion, through ownness and union with it. There- 
fore the Same was living, as God, but like as He made 
His Body His own, so did He receive into Himself in all 
ownness^ the sufferings too of His Body, Himself suffering i kut'oI- 
nought in His own Nature. It is therefore helpful and '^*"^'^"' 
necessary unto profit that in regard to Christ we should 
admit the after one manner and another, as belonging to see head- 
one and the same person, yet should not permit Him to tilfn^aml^' 
be severed into two sons, albeit the things done be said to goo*^ ^' 
be of diverse kind and in no ways harmonizing with one 

This is what I mean: we say that God the Word is born 
out of a woman after the flesh, albeit Himself give to all to 
be born, and call to the birth the things which are not yet 

y4s is the Heavenly, such too they that before flesh and with flesh confessed by 
are heaverily, and, No one hath gone up us. Therefore He says that His flesh 
into Heaven except He Who came old of albeit by nature of earth came down 
Heaven, the Son of Man, a.nd whatever from above and out of Heaven, and will 
else there is, is to be understood as said, ascend into Heaven too where it ivas he- 
because of the union with the Heavenly fore. For thatwhich is inherent in Him 
(5ta t))v TTphs rhv ovpdviov evaiffiv)." 1. 1 by Nature He puts about His own flesh 
p. 740 ed. Par. IGOSJ. as being not other than it as regards the 
S. Cyril in 7th Paschal homily (A. D. Economic union. And we will not 
420, probably almost ten years before his because of the utter union of things un- 
hooks against Nestorius) had said, " God like in their nature, take away the fact 
the Word was born on earth through that One is properly the Radiance of 
the holy Virgin, after the flesh, but the Father, the other again the little 
came down from heaven. How then does flesh {rh (rapKiov) of earth or perfect 
He say that the Son of man came down man : but even thus distinguishing and 
out of Heaven ? how again does He say in mere ideas (see above p. 78 note z) 
nthat He will go up where He -was before parting the plan of each, we will draw 
iS. John vi. 62)? Thou seest therefore them in to union again unparted. For 
how drawing in the inefl!able concur- the Word was made flesh, according to 
rence in union unparted and unsevered the holy Evangelist, not turned into 
laSia(rTdTCf> re Kal aStopiffTij} . . . kv6- flesh." p. 102 bed. See also de recta fide 
rijTi), He would have One Christ both to the Emperor, p. 36 a b. 


228 All His, yet in diferent mode. 

SCHOLIA born. How then doth the Same both undergo birth and 
call to being ? After one manner and another. For He 
was born^ in that He is conceived of as Man like us, He 
calleth into being the things that are not, in that He is 
S.Luke God by Nature; for it is written of Him, The Little one 
"' ^' ivaxed and grew strong, filled luith wisdom and grace, albeit 
He is by Nature all-Perfect as God, and out of His own Fat- 
ness imparteth spiritual gifts to the saints, and is Himself 
Wisdom and the Giver of grace. How then waxeth the 
see above Little One and is filled with ivisdom and grace ? After one 
note h manner and another. For the Same, Man alike and God, 
makes His own the human, by reason of the union, and 
is all-Perfect and Giver of wisdom and grace as God. 
see above He is Called First-born and Only-Begotten, but if one 
p. 7 note gi^Q^i^j examine the force of the words, the First-born will 
be He Who is First-born among many brethren, the Only- 
Begotten as Sole, no longer First-born among many bre- 
thren. Yet is the Same one and other; how then? After 
one manner and another. First-born among many brethren 
by reason of the human nature, the Same again Only- 
Begotten, as Alone Begotten of the Alone God the Father. 
He is said to have been sanctified through the Spirit and 
moreover to sanctify" those who come to Him; He was 
baptized according to the Flesh and was baptizing in the 
Holy Ghost : how then doth the Same both sanctify and is 
sanctified, baptizeth and is baptized ? After one manner 
and another ; for He is sanctified humanly, and thus is He 
baptized : He sanctifies Divinely and baptizeth in the 
Holy Ghost. 

Himself raising the dead was raised from the dead, and 
being Life by Nature is said to quicken. And how again? 
After one manner and another. For the Same was raised 
from the dead and is said to be quickened after the Flesh, 
yet quickens and raises the dead as God. He suffers and 
does not suffer p, after one manner and another : for He 

o " He sanctifies, being Holy by Na- sanctified albeit having authority over 

ture, as God; He is sanctified with us all as God), He is not ashamed to cull 

humanly, when taking the likeness with ns brothers." dial. vi. p. 596 e. 
us (and in this respect I mean He is P " Ifbeing God Immortal, He is said 

He ivorshijjs and is worsliijyped : One. 229 

suffers humanly" in the Flesh as Man, He is impassible § 36. 
Divinely as God. 

Himself hath adored with us, for Ye worsldp (He says) ?• "^"j^" 
ivliat ye Icnoio not, we ivorsld]) ivJiat we knoio : yet is He 
to be adored also, for to Him everi/ hnee howeth : and this fi"'*"' 
again after one manner and another. For He worshippeth 
as having assumed the nature that payeth worship, He 
again the Same is worshipped as surpassing the nature 
that worshippeth in that He is conceived of as God. Yet 
must we not sever the worship unto man by himself and chapter 8 
God by Himself, nor yet as connected with God by equality 
of dignity, while the Persons are dissevered, do we say that 
the man is worshipped with Him (for it were replete with 
the uttermost impiety) : but we must worship One Word 
of God Incarnate and made man, and at the same time 
believe that the Body united to Him was ensouled with a 
reasonable soul like ours. For neither did God Almighty 
bid two first-borns to be worshipped as well by us as by 
the holy Angels (for One is He Who was brought into the Heb. i. 6. 
ivorldj : and if we look more carefully into the mode of 
this bringing in, we find it to be the mystery of the Eco- 
nomy with flesh. But He was brought into the world then 
when He was made Man, albeit He be seen to be in His 
own Nature most far removed from the earth and be be- 
lieved to be truly in the Excellence of Godhead : for Other 
than the elements is their Maker. Therefore above the 
things which Himself made is He by Nature in that He is 
God by Nature. Yet is One (as I said before) to be wor- 
shipped then too when He is among many brethren : for 
then is He for that reason called First-born. 

One'i did the blind from the birth when wondrously 
healed worship : for Jesus (it sajs) finding him in the temple S.John 
said, Dost THOU believe on the Son of God, and he said. Who li). ix. 35. 
is He, Lord, that I might believe on Him ? Christ manifest- lb. 36. 

to die as man, being Most High as God i See this same argument in the trea- 

He is said to be exalted as man." Thes. tise de Recta Fide to the Emperor 

cap. 20 p. 196 c. See the very similar Theodosius p. 31, put forth anew in the 

words near the end of the Quod Unus, little Dialogue De Incarnatione Unige- 

pp. 302—304, and the notes f, g, h. niti, p. 703 : see also above, p. 76. 

230 One with flesh too. Truly an oath. Witli intimates tivo. 


S. Joliu 
ix. 37. 

S. Matt. 

see chap 

iiig Himself embodied to liim says, Thou hast hoth seen Him 
and He That sjieaheth ivith thee is He. Seest tliou how He 
used the singular number, not permitting God and man 
to be conceived of separately ? yea rather if one were to 
call Emmanuel man, it signifies not bare man (far from it) 
but the Word of God united to our nature. As One did 
the Divine disciples worship Him, when beholding Him 
wondrously borne on the waters they worshipped saying, 
Trulij '^ Thou art the Son of God. 

When therefore we say that man is co-worshipped with 
God, we have brought in a gross severance. For the 
word. With, except it be said of one by composition, will 
always full surely persuade us to conceive of two. For 
like as no one will be said to live with himself nor again 
to eat with to pray with and to walk with himself (for the 
ivith prefixed to the word introduces a declaration of two 
persons) : so if one say that the man is co-worshipped 
with God, he will without question say two sons and se- 
vered one from another : for the plan of union, if it be 

■■ S. Cyril's argument on those words 
in his Thesaurus, against the Arians who 
denied the Son's Godhead, equally 
holds here as to its being no mere man 
apart by himself who was walking on 
the water. S. Cyril says, " What then 
will they say who contend against the 
Truth and follow only their own likings, 
when they seethe whole choirof the holy 
Apostles together worshipping the Son 
as God and saying m ith an oath that 
Tnih/ He is the Son of God? for if ac- 
cording to their unlearning He is one of 
the creatures how is He fruh/ Son of 
God.'' for it were impossible that one 
who has not by nature come forth out 
of any, and who has not the own {rh 
iSwv) of the essence of him who begat 
him, be truly son. And how if the 
disciples made a mistake in saying this, 
was the Saviour silent, albeit He did 
not disregard them when they made 
mistakes ? and verily to Peter when on 
one occasion he answered not aright. He 
says, Get behind Me satan, thou art an 
offence to Me because thou savourest not 
God's but man's. But since He was 
silent, when called truly the Son of God, 
in that He rebuked them not as mis- 
taken, it is clear that He accepts them 
as saying aright. Seeing then that 

the holy Apostles say that He is Son 
and truly so, and that Christ Himself 
assents to it, who will endure them 
who bruit something else?" Thes. cap. 
32, pp. 308 d e. " What did the most 
wise disciples, esteeming Him as Son 
not as creature ? For wlien stepping on 
edge of wave, strewing neath His Feet 
with ineflable might the moist and soon- 
dissolving nature of the waters, He 
coursed the wide expanse, and gave the 
holy disciples an unwonted wonder, and 
at length of His own will went with them 
and sailed in their little skiff, albeit He 
might most easily, had He willed to do 
it, have been borne on the waves them- 
selves : they in astonishment and reflect- 
ing on that resistless authority, began * 
to worship saying. Truly Thou art Son 
of God. Will they then, doing this with 
an oath and saying that He is truly Son 
of God, be reasonably accused of false- 
hood and be taken and convicted of ab- 
erration from the truth ? For if He is 
not Son, sprung of the Essence of Him 
Who begat Him, but a creature, gilded 
with the glory of sonship and having 
the appellation in mere words, why did 
they worship Him ? why did the ini- 
tiators and heralds of the Truth call 
Him Son?" Dial ii. p.437 de. 

Nicene Fathers spake hy HolyOhost: tlieir galiisayers mad. 231 

conceived of in regard to mere equality of dignity or au- § 3". 
tliority, is convicted of being untrue. And this has been 
shewn by us in many words. 

Against those who say the human befit God the Word by reference only. & 37 

Some prate concerning the Economy with flesh of the 
Only-Begotten and^ bringing down to our frail perceptions 
the Mystery venerable and great and most dear to the 
Spirits abovCj whereby also we are saved^ pollute the come- 
liness and beauty of the Truth, whereas they ought, not to 
try and prop up whatever seems to them right, but x?ither 
with subtil and keen eye of the mind to look into the aim 
of the Sacred Writings and thus to go on the right road, 

following what the most holy fathers have searched out ^, " exami- 

" ... narunt 

who taught by the illuminings of the Holy Ghost, defined 

for us the Symbol of faith, saying that the God the Word 
Himself Which was in mode ineffable* begotten out of 
the Essence of the Father, by Whom all things were made 
which are in Heaven and which are in earth, for us men 
and for our salvation came down, was made flesh, was made 
man, suffered, ascended into heaven, will in his season come 
to judge quick and dead. 

But there are certain who deem that they are learned 
and knowing and are puffed up with pride and swelling, 
Avho if they hear these words, mock, and deem that those 
things which are so rightly said, are mad ravings^: while ^ delira- 
we specially believe that the knowledge of the Truth lay 
open through the illumination of the Holy Ghost to the 
holy Fathers. But they, as if they alone could think what 
is better, deem that not the Only-JBegotten Son of God 
Himself, God the Word Which is out of His Essence, suf- 
fered in His own Flesh for us humanly, albeit conceived of 
as God He have in ,His own Nature the inability to suffer ; 
but putting as man separately and by himself him that was 
born of the holy Virgin, and attributing to him to what 
extent it seems good to them, a kind of glory, they say 
that he was united to the Word of God the Father. And 

« inaestimabiliter, put at the beginning of § 28 to translate airoppriTws ; the 
Syriac version too gives unspeakably. 

232 The Son's the Body, Us passions and sufferings. His Nature 

SCHOLIA explaining the mode of the union, they say that there 
was given him by God equality of dignity or authority 
and to be called by like name both Christ and Son and 
Lord. But if the man who is invented by them be said to 
suffer ought, it must (they say) be referred to God the Word 
Himself, in that he is connected to Him by equality of 
worth, while in their severed natures each is what he is. 

I will open the force of their opinions, so far as I can, 
bringing forward instances from the Sacred Writings. 
Christ hungered, was wearied with the journey, slept, en- 
tered into the boat, was stricken with blows by the atten- 
dants, was scourged by Pilate, received the spittle of the 
soldiers, who piercing with the spear His Side, offered 
vinegar mingled with gall to His Mouth : yea and He 
tasted death, suffering the Cross and other contumelies of 
the Jews. All these things they declare to have befallen 
indeed the man, but to be referred to the Person of the 
Very Son. But we believe, as in One God the Father 
Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible, so too 
in One our Lord Jesus Christ His Son. And we refuse to 
divide Emmanuel into man by himself and into the Word 
by Himself: but knowing that the Word became truly Man 
too as we, we say that Himself the Same is God of God, 
and in human wise Man as we of a woman. And we as- 
sert that by reason of the ownness of the flesh He suffered 
indeed infirmities, yet reserved to His Nature its impassi- 
bility, in that He was not Man alone but the Same there- 
with also God by Nature. And like as the Body was His 
own, so too the natural and blameless passions of the body 
and the things which by the frowardness of some were put 
upon Him. 
4 ^Traetu He suffered without suffering ^ Who did not therefore 
i^above tumble Himself that He might only be like us, but be- 
p. 228 cause (as I said before) He had reserved to His Nature 
superiority to all these things. But if we should say that 
through conversion or mutation of His own Nature He had 
passed into the nature of the flesh*, it would be in all ways 
t This most carefully guarded language of S. Cyril is not the effect of any 

Imjjasslhle : Himself Unchanging. 233 

necessary for us eveu against our will to confess that the § 37. 
Hidden and Divine Nature was passible. But if He have 
remained unchanged albeit He have been made man as 
we, and it be a property of the Heavenly Nature that It 
cannot suffer, and the passible body have become His own 
through the union : — He suffers when the Body suffers, in 
that it is said to be His own body, He remains Impassible 
in that it is truly His property to be unable to suffer. 

And if Emmanuel have been glorified through suffering, 
as Himself says when about to suffer for us the Precious 
Cross, Now is the son of man glorified, why do they not s. John 
blush, attributing the glory of the Passion to a man hav- '''"' ' 
ing connection only with Him in Equality of dignity ? for 
as they deem. He connected with Himself according to the 
Will and Good-pleasure of the Father a man only and 
made him equal to His own glory, and permitted that by 
like name he should be styled both Christ and Son and 
God and Lord :— hence neither is the Word truly Incar- 
nate nor was He at all made man. And haply to call the 
holy doctors of the whole world false and liars, will do no 
harm ? for either let them say, yea rather come forward and 
prove that the mode of connection which is brought in by 

necessity arising from controversy with the Unchangeable Word of God has 

Nestorius, but of a mind from the begin- been transformed and become ought 

ning educated in careful precision of else than He was from the beginning, 

thought and utterance as regards the needs does He at one time utter words 

Mystery of the Incarnation. In his 7th befitting man, at another displays deeds 

Paschalhomily (A. D. 420), after speak- belonging to Godhead alone, in order 

ing of great agricultural distress in vari- that both together (rb (Tvvajx<p6Tepov) 

ous degrees of severity in different vil- may be conceived of ... . Sin, as sin- 

lages in Egypt, S. Cyril points out that less and unknowingto have it He rightly 

it is the due punishment of their sin and rejects, but sutlers His body and His 

speaks of the proneness to pity of the human nature to suffer what belong to 

Only-Begotten, and that He is God and the nature itself, as a proof that He 

Man in One. See a passage quoted from really and truly bears flesh and was 

this Homily, above p. 22" note n, and the made man, according to the Scriptures, 

closing words of the extract, " For the But since (as we said above) it behoved 

Word was made flesh, as saith the holy Him to be shewn forth as God even in 

Evangelist, not turned mto flesh; for flesh, He works sometimes what belong 

he says not this, but called Him flesh, to God and says to them who see Him, 

instead of saying in full man." Horn. If ye believe 7iot Me, i.e. by reason of 

Pasch. vii. 102 d. And in the Thesaurus, looking on a man, yet believe My ivorks, 

*' It was then the aim of the Incarnate that ye may know and believe that I am 

Word to shew clearly that He really in the Father and the Father in Me. 

put about Him flesh and has been made Hence the things said and wrought in 

man, not casting away the being God God-befitting wise shew that the Savi- 

the Word : for it was not possible that our is God : and again the things said 

the human race should in other way be and done humanly shew that He is of a 

saved. Yet lest any hearing that He truth man. For this is the force of the 

has been made flesh should suppose that mystery." Thes. cap. 24 p. 231 abed. 

2oi Union true, relation tuitenahle. 

SCHOLIA tliem has the force of incai'nation and that that is that the 
Word was made flesh ; or if they think that these things 
are not so, why do they invent for us a mode of uncon- 
nected connection, the truth being- neglected ? whereas it 
would be fitting that they should say that the Word of God 
the Father was united to our humanity, for thus in His 
own flesh is He conceived to have suffered what belongs to 
man, but so far as pertains to the Nature of the Godhead, 
He is free from all that disturbs, as God. 

And that by speaking of reference ^, which I know not 
how they invented, they withdraw Emmanuel from His 
Glory and make Him barely one of the Prophets, and set 
Him amid the measure of the many, and are full surely 
caught thus doing, I will prove, giving examples from the 
Divine Scripture. 

There once murmured'^ in the wilderness against Moses 

Ex. xvi. and Aaron the people of Israel saying, Would ive had diedj 
striclxen hy the Lord in Egijpt when we were sitting at the 
flesh 2)ots and were eating bread even to fulness. Therefore 
the most wise Moses says (for it were like that he should 

lb. 8. reply to men so rashly impatient). But who are we? for 
neithei' against us is your murmur lug hut against God. And 
in those times even God Almighty used to reign through 
the holy Prophets over the people of Israel, but they in 
this too, slack of courage approached the Divine Samuel 

1 Sam. saying, Lo thou hast grown old and thy sons walk not in thy 

viii. 5. i(iayg and noiv set over us a Tcing ivhich may judge us even as 
the other nations. The Prophet felt this grievously but 

lb. 7. Almighty God said, Hear the voice of the people even as they 
have spoken to thee, for not thee have they rejected hut Me 
they have rejected that I should not reign over tliem. 

And elsewhere too has Christ said to the holy Apostles, 

S. John JIq ifjjio receiveth you hath received Me : and He promis- 

xiii 20 * 

eth that He will address the merciful before His Tribunal, 

S. Matt. Gome, ye hlessed of My Father, receive the kingdom pre- 
pared for you fro')n the foundation of the world. And ac- 

" Probably avacpopa, which S. Cyril " See the same illustrations in the 

uses several times in the Quod Units est treatise Quod XJmis est Christus below, 

Christus, below pp. 255, 257 &c., and es- p. 259. 
pecially on this very subject, p. 259. 

The Word One, sufifered in the fleslij Impassihlc. 235 

kuowledging as His own^ their righteous ways towards § 37. 
those to whom they had dealt kindly, He says, In that ye ariter 
did it to one of these least, to Me did ye it. ^*^40* 

Lo in these instances is clearly recognized the mode of 
reference of what kind it is. The people of Israel were 
murmuring against Moses and Aaron and the matter had 
reference to God, yet were Moses and Aaron men as we. 
In the same way too will you conceive as to the others 
whereof we have just made mention, yet were some (as I 
said before) holy men and worthy of admiration, yet men 
as we. Is it then in this way that the man too who is con- 
nected (as they call it) with God the Word, will have refe- 
rence of his sufferings to Himward ? And how will he not 
now be mere man and apart and nought else ? Hence 
Emmanuel is not truly God, is not Only-Begotten Son, is 
not God by Nature. 

Why then was no one of the rest honoured by God the 
Word with equality of dignity or of sway, but they con- 
tend that this man alone obtained all things equal ? speci- 
ally seeing that God, the Saviour of all men, judgeth not S. John 
according to the 2>erson hut righteous judgement, as Himself 
maketh mention. Why then doth He co-sit Alone? how 
will He come as Judge, with Angels waiting on Him ? 
why is He Alone worshipped as well by us as by the spirits 
above ? 

But in good truth it is so (says he), for we find that thou 
also dost the same, for thou confessest that He suffered, 
in that thou attributest to Him the sufferings of the flesh, 
albeit thou keepest Him impassible as God. 

But WE, good sirs, (shall I say) having first united to 
the Word the human, have to the flesh allotted the suffer- 
ings, have kept Him impassible as God : for though He 
hath become as we, yet are we cognizant of His God-be- 
fitting Excellence and of His Supreme Endowments. 

Hence first putting the Union as a basis and foundation 
to the Faith, we confess that He suffered in the flesh, that 
He remained again superior to suffering in that He pos- 
sesses Impassibility in His own Nature. But if we are 

236 God sujjerlor to suffering, suffered in His Manhood. 

SCHOLIA diligent to put apart God and Man, severing the Natures 
f'o.vatpopav One from another, and then say that in reference ^ only does 

the Word of God make His own what have befallen His 
S. Matt. Body; He That is born of the holy Virgin, Emmanuel, 

ivhich is, interp-eted, With us is Godj, will haply have but 

the measure of Moses and Aaron. 

Thus even though He say through the holy Prophets, 
Isa. 1. 6. My Back have I given to scourges, My Cheelis to hloivs, My 

Face I turned not from the shame of spittings, and again, 
Ps, xxii. They dug My Hands and My Feet, tliey told all My Bones, 
Ps. ixix. f^iid again, They gave for My meat gall and for My thirst 
^^' they gave Me to drinlc vinegar : we shall allot all these things 

to the Only-Begotten Himself, Who suffered Economically 
Isa. liii. in the flesh according to the Scriptures (for with His ivheal 

were WE healed,, and Himself hath been lueahened because of 

our sinsj, yet do we know that He is Impassible by Nature. 

For if (as I just said) Himself is Man alike and God, with 

reason do the SuflFerings belong to His Manhood, His own 

as God is it to be conceived of as superior to suffering. 

Thus minded shall we be pious and through such right 

Phil. iii. thoughts advancing, we shall attain unto the prize of our 

high calling in Christ Jesus, through Whom and with 

Whom to God the Father be glory with the Holy Ghost 

unto ages of ages, Amen. 

The Bible our Food. Ifeafhcn errors. 237 



by way of disunite ui'ith Hermias 

Wrong thought of Clhrist either before the Incarnation or when Incarnate. 
Nestorius. If Virgin not Mother of God, Christ not God. Objection to 
the word " was made." He takes ours, gives us His. Meaning of name 
" Christ." The Incarnation gives to the Son names no longer common 
to the Father and the Holy Ghost. „ Connection.,, „ Reference, ,, 
ai'a<popd. Not Two Natures after the Incarnation : yet no confusion. The 
Burning Bush a type. Union. Phil. ii. 5 — 9. The "emptying." A man 
not "made man." 2 Cor. i. 19. „ Connection „ undoes union. "Yes- 
terday To-day and for ever." S. John i. 29—31 : S. Matth. xiv. 32, xiii. 41 , 
avdpooircuos. The Incarnate Son called in O.T. " the glory of the Lord." 
Objections put forward : Sanctifier and sanctified, received glory and 
exalted, learning obedience and forsaken, fear of death, weariness, sleep, 
advancing in wisdom. Perfect through sufferings. Impassible yet " suf- 
fered in the flesh." 2 Cor. xiii. 3, 4. Equality of honour involves duality. 
S. John ill. 16. Phil. ii. 5—11. S. John xvii. 5, vi. 38. S. Matth. xxviii. 19. 
1 Cor. i. 22 — 25. Suffering in the flesh. One Son begotten from Eternity 
from forth the Father, in the last times born of a woman. 

A. Thebe shall no satiety of holy teachings ever come to 
them who are truly sound in mind and who have gathered 
the life-giving knowledge into their understanding. For 

it is written, Not by bread alone shall a man live but by s. Matth. 
every word that goeth forth through the mouth of God. For ^^"^' 
the mind's nourishment and spiritual bread ivhich stayeth Ps. civ. 
man's heart, as is sung in the book of Psalms, is the word ^** 
which is from God. 

B. You say well. 

A. The wise therefore and eloquent among the Greeks 
admire elegancy of speech, and good language ^ is among ' rb ehr)- 
their chiefest aims and they make their boast in mere re- "^"^^'^ 
finements of words and revel in bombast of language : and 
their poets have for their material falsehood, wrought by 
proportions and measures unto what is graceful and tune- 
ful ; but of the truth they reck full little, sick with a scar- 
city of right and profitable doctrine, I mean regarding 
God Who is by Nature and truly, yea rather as the most 

238' Errors of heretics worse. Arums, and 

Christ holy Paul says, They became vain in their imaginations and 
fi-'^i' ^^^'^^*^' ^^6^^''^ void of understanding was darkened. 8aying 
that they ivere ivise they became foolish and changed the glory 
of the Incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of cor- 
ruptible man and of birds and four-footed beasts and creep- 
ing things. 

B. True, verily of tliem said God by the voice of Isaiah, 
Is. xliv. Know ye that their heart is ashes and they are deceived. 

A. Thus much for them : but they who have become in- 
cf. Isaiah ventors of vmholy heresies, profane and apostate and en- 
larging their unbridled mouth against the Divine glory 

cf. Acts and uttering things perverted, will be caught as having of 
their folly slipped into charges not slighter than those of 
the infatuation of the Greeks or haply into charges even 

2 S.Pet. surpassing theirs. For it were better for them not to have 
"■ " ' ■" knoivn the ivay of truth than having known it to ttirn back 

from the holy commandment given to them : for the true pro- 
verb hath come to them, The dog returned to Ids own vomit, 
and. The washed sow to the imlloiuing in the mire. For they 
parted amongst themselves the charges of blasphemy 
against Christ and like fierce and bitter wolves they waste 
the flocks for which Christ died, and despoil what is His, 
Hab. ii. multiplying to themselves that lohich is not theirs, as it is 
^'ox collar, Written, and weighting their yoke^ heavily, of whom may be 
i^s'.John ^^^^ with much reason, They ivent out from us but they were 
ii. 19. iiqI qJ ,fig^ 

B. Sui'ely. 

A. Seasonably does our discourse contend about such 
things. For some in their lack of understanding do bring 
down the Only-Begotten Word of God from His Supreme 
Excellence and lower Him from Equality with God the Fa- 
ther, afiirming that He is not Consubstantial, nor liking to 
crown Him with an Identity Exact and of Nature : others 
going as it were along the same road with these and fall- 
Prov. ix. ing into the snare of death and pitfall of Hades turn 

3 ^apevd' aside ^ the mystery of the Economy with flesh of the Only- 
Begotten and pvirsue a folly fraternal (so to speak) with 
the former. For the one will be caught dragging down 
as it were (so far as in them lies) from the heights of His 


theij who hiame Incarnation and miscall B. Virgin. 239 

Godhead tlie Word sprung of God the Father ere jet In- Is One 
carnate; the others have elected to make war with Him 
Incarnate^ well-nigh finding fault (daring ones !) with His 
Pitying grace, maintaining forsooth that it counselled 
not well for that He underwent flesh and the measures of 
our emptiness, i. e. was made man and was seen on earth Bar. iii. 
cmd conversed loith men though God by Nature and co- 
seated with the Father. 
B. You say rightly. 

A. God-inspired Scripture therefore will cry out against 
the unlearning of them both, setting forth to us the truth 
and shewing that feeble and of none account is their speech, 
and establishing on the path of the Godhead them who 
are used to view with subtil and accurate eye of under- 
standing the Mystery thereof. But who they will be who 
in unhallowed wise debase the so august and ineffable 
Economy of the Saviour (for you seem to be in no small 
degi-ee troubled about this very thing) I would fain ask 

B. You testify rightly, /or with jealousy am I jealous for i Kings 
tlie Lord, and, yet more, goaded am I distraught and that ^'^' * 
exceedingly. And I fear when I look whither their words 

will end. For they adulterate the faith that was delivered 
to us, using the inventions of the new-seen dragon and 
pouring like venom into the souls of the simpler certain 
frigid and perverse things and full of infatuation. 

A. But who is this new-seen dragon and what his triflings 
against the doctrines of the Truth tell to me who ask. 

B. The new-seen dragon, this crooked one and who has 
his tongue drunk with venom, who ail-but bids farewell to 
the tradition of the initiators of the world, yea rather 
to all the God-inspired Scripture, and who innovates 
what seems good to him and says that the holy Virgin is 
not Mother of God, but mother of Christ and mother of 
man, bringing in moreover other things discordant and 
senseless, upon the right and sincere doctrines of the Ca- 
tholic Church. 

A. You say (I ween) Nestorius, for I understand, but I do 

240 The Virgui's Son God made man. 

Christ not know, my friend, the actual state of his words : how 

does he say that the holy Virgin is not Mother of God ? 
Nest, B. She bare not (he says) God : for the Word was before 

Merc.V" ^^^ ^^^' y®^ rather before every age and time, Co-eternal 
55 Bal. ^itij Qq^ the Father. 

A. They will therefore manifestly deny this too, that Em- 
manuel is God, and to no purpose as it seems, does the 

S, Matth. Evangelist interpret the name saying, Which is interpreted, 

!• 23. '\YlfJt, lis is God, for thus did God the Father clearly affirm 

through the voice of the Prophet that He was to be called 

Who has been born of the holy Virgin after the flesh, as 

God Incarnate. 

B. Yet it appears to them to be not so, but they would 
see Schol. say that with us is God or the Word out of God, in the 

'' way of succouring us : for He hath saved all under heaven 

through him who was born of woman. 

A. And was He not (tell me) with Moses too freeing 

Israel from the land of the Egyptians and the tyranny there, 

Ps- . in a strong hand and a high arm, as it is written ? shall we 

12. not find Him after this also saying clearly to Joshua, Aiid 

°^ ^* '■ ■ as I VMS with Moses so will I be with thee too ? 

B. True. 

A. Why then was none of these called Emmanuel, but the 
name befitted Him alone Who was wondrously born after 
the flesh of a woman in the last times of the world ? 

B. How then shall we deem that God has been born of a 
woman ? that the Word partook of Being, in her and from 
forth her ? 

■» e'lKaio- A. Away with so frigid ill-advice * ! For these are the 
ill-counl words of One who wanders, and of a mind diseased with 
a turning aside to what it ought not, to think that the In- 
effable Being of the Only-Begotten has become fruit of 
flesh : He was as God Co-Eternal with the Father Who 
begat Him and IneSably begotten of Him by Nature. 
But to those who would know clearly how and in what 
manner He appeared in likeness to us and became man, 
the Divine Evangelist John will make it known, saying, 
S.John i.^«fi tlie Word was made flesh and tahernaded in us (and 


Was made, said of God_, means not change. 241 

lue saw Ris glory, {the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the is One 
Father) full of grace and truth. 

B. Yet if the Word has become (they say) flesh, no 
longer hath It remained Word but hath left being what 
It was. 

A. Verily this is jugglery ^ and humbug ^ and the inven- 5 repepela. 
tions of a mind beside itself and nought else. For they '^'""'^ 
(it appears) are supposing that the word Was made ^ indi- " e^eVero 
cates as of unavoidable necessity, turning and change. 

B. Yes (they say), and they moreover confirm their affir- 
mation, taking proofs out of the God-inspired Scripture it- 
self. For it has been somewhere said (he says) of Lot's 

wife that she was made a inllar of salt, and besides of Gen. xLx. 
Moses' Rod that he cast it on the ground and it was made g^ j^ 3 
a serpent. For in these cases a change of nature took 

a. Therefore when certain sing. And the Lord was made to Ps, xciv. 
tne a refuge, and again, Lord, Thou weet made a refuge, to p7. xc. 1. 
lis in generation and generation, what now will they say * ? 
hath He Who is hymned, letting go His being God, 
passed by a change into being a refuge, and removed 
He by Nature into something other than what He was at 

B. How is such a thing not incongruous and unbefitting 
Him Who is by Nature God : for being by Nature without 
change. He abideth full surely what He was and ever is, 
even though He be said to be made a refuge to any ? 

A. You spoke most excellently, and very right. Hence 
he mention of God being brought forward, if Was made 

[be said by any body, how is it not unlearned and unholy 
xceedingly to suppose that it means change, and not ra- 
her to strive to conceive of it in some other way, and to 

iurn in wisdom to what most especially befits and is con- 
ruous to the Unchangeable God ? 

B. How then do we say that the Word was mad^ flesh, pre- 

a The two texts quoted here were used /xfvos, Heb. i. 4), against their misin- 

igainst the Arians by S. Athanasius, terpretations of it (against Arians, i fin. 

vindicate the use of the same word, pp. 2G8 sqq. O.T.), as S. Cyril used 

yiviTo, yiv6ixevos (in KpdTrwv yiv6- them here against Nestorian quibbles. 

242 God horn man to enrich man. 

Christ serving to It ever Uncliangeableness and witliout-turning, 
as Its own and Essentially innate to It ? 

A. The all-wise Paul, the steward of His mysteries, the 
8 hpov- Priest ^ of the Gospel preachings, will make it clear say- 

Phil. ii. iiig, Be ye thus minded each one m yourselves according to 
ivhat was in Christ Jesus also, Who being in the Form of 
God held not the being Equal to God a thing to seize, yet 
emptied Himself taldng bondman' s form , made mi Wceness of 
men, and, found in fashion as a man, humhled Himself, made 
obedient unto death, the death of the Gross. For His Only- 
Begotten Word albeit God and out of God by Nature, the 

Heb. i. 3. Briglitness of the glory and the Imj^ress of the Person of Him 
Who begat Him, was made man and that not turned into 
flesh, or undergoing commingling '^ or mixture or ought 
else of such like, but rather abasing Himself unto empti- 

ib. xii. 2. ness, and /or the joy set before Him despising shame and not 
dishonouring the poverty of the human nature. For He 
willed as God to render the flesh which is holden of death 
and sin, superior to both death and sin, and to restore it to 
what it was in the beginning, having made it His own, 
not (as some say) soulless but ensouled with intellectual 

above p. soul : yet, not disdaining to go along the path hereto be- 
fitting, He is said to undergo a birth like ours, abiding 
what He was. For He has been born in wondrous wise] 
according to flesh of a woman : for no otherwise was iti 
possible that He being God by Nature should be seen by) 
them on earth than in likeness of ns, the Impalpable and ' 
without body, yet Who thought good to be made man and 
in Himself Alone to shew our nature illustrious in the 
dignities of Godhead : for He the Same was God alike and 

Phil. ii. man, and in likeness of man, in that herewith He was alsc 

ib. 8. God, but m fashion as a man. For He was God in ap- 

i" t) (pvpixhv t) KpacTLv. (pupixhs implies other Fathers put together in p. 48 note? 

the commingling of a dry substance hO.T.)- S. Cyril himselfin his writings' 

with a moist, as in kneading : Kpacris on the Incarnation denies it in the sense I 

the blending of two liquids togetlier so which ApoUinaris' error was importing 

as to form a compound. S. Cyril ob- into the word: he uses the expression i 

serves (ag. Nest. i. § 3 above pp. 16, 17) of mixing to express the intensity of the 

that some of the older Fathers had used union of God the Son with us, below 

the word Kpacris (see TertuUian's use p. 250 note i. , 

of it Apol. i. 21 and the passages of the m 

Made flesh, man : sin and curse to undo them. 243 

pearance as we, and in bondman's form tlie Lord, for tlius is One 
do we say that He was made flesh. 

Therefore do we afSrm that the holy Virgin is also 
mother of God. 

B. Does it like yoa that arraying their words against 
yours we make a subtler scrutiny of the conceptions, or 
shall we yield it simply to your word that the matter has 
been well apprehended ? 

A. Irreprehensible as I deem is all that will be said by 
us, wisely and skilfully and not repugnant to the God-in- 
spired Scriptures. But say, yourself too, what seems good 

to you: for a counter-plea^ will beget something profit- ^«''Tfo-- 

B. The Divine Paul writes (they say) of the Son as hav- 
ing BEEN MADE both curse and sin ^ : for he says. Him that 2 Cor. v. 
knew not sin He made for our saJces sin, and again, Christ Gal. iii. 
redeemed us from the curse of the Jaw, made for our salces a 
curse. They say that He was not made actual curse and 

sin, but the holy Scripture is indicating hereby something 

else : thus they say that And the Word was made flesh is S.John i. 

conceived of by us. 

c Although (as said above p. 24 note ing, they say that//«e Word was so made 

q) Andrew's chief objection to S. Cyril's flesh, as He may be said to be made 

iirst cliapter lay in misunderstanding curse and sin. How ought they not, 

S. Cyril's term, " She Imth borne after being men of sense, to have seen, that 

the flesh," applied to tire second Gene- the blessed Evangelist having put, Was 

ration, viz. the temporal one, of God made, removes all suspicion of any 

the Son, still he very briefly touches change, by subjoining immediately, ^nrf 

on, what was Theodoret's main objec- tabernacled in us ? 

tion, the risk of Apolinarianism. An- " In another way too it is absurd to 

drew closes his objection with these venture to say, that the Word was so 

words, "Besides, if we apply ourselves made flesh, as He is said to have been 

to the words without examination, we made curse and sin (for He has not 

shall be imagining both a change of the been made curse's very self, nor yet sin), 

Word and a passing into flesh, and thus but being Righteous He ivas reckoned 

we shall suppose that He has been among the transgressors, in order to 

made both sin and curse, except we give bring sin to nought : and He Who bless- 

heed to what precedes and follows and eth the creation has been called a curse, 

to the usage of the Scripture. Moreover in order to undo our curse and rid from 

that the Word was made flesh, v/e shall sentence them that believe on Him. 

duly take of the tabernacling in flesh, Hence He has not been made of a truth 

according to the sense of the Gospels." curse and sin but has been called so, to 

S. Cyril replies, '• Seeing that, on the bring to nought curse and sin. 

Evangelist saying. The Word was made " Hence if He have thus been made 

flesh, they say that they are afraid lest, flesh. He hath brought to nought the 

the word teas made retaining its proper flesh, just as He hath curse and sin, and 

meaning, some change be conceived of hath neither been made man nor been 

as taking place regarding the Divine in truth incarnate: but in mere sem- 

Nature of the Word ; I applaud their blance is the mystery and in bare names 

fear, but marvel that drawing aside the is the plan of the Incarnation seen." 

word and its true and necessary mean- p. 159 c d and 161 d e 162 a. 

R 2 


244 His the Body, His too all that is its. 

Christ A. And verily as in saying that He was made a atrse and 

sin, so this that He was made Jlesh introduces with it and has 

1 irpoavi- in its horizon ^ the conception of what follows thereupon. 

coining to B. How Say you ? for when one says of Him, He that 

front of it knows not sin has been made sin for us, and has bought 

from the curse of the law also them who were under the 

law, MADE for their sakes a curse, how should one doubt 

that this is in the times wherein the Only-Begotten was 

Incarnate and made man ? 

A. It introduces therefore with the mention of the In- 
carnation the things too that on account thereof are eco- 
nomically brought upon Him Who underwent the voluntary 
emptying, as are hunger and weai'iness. For as He would 
not have been wearied Whose is all might, neither would 
He have been said to hunger. Himself the Food and life 
of all, had He not made His own the body whose nature 
it is to hunger and be weary '' : so neither would He ever 
have been numbered among transgressors (for thus do 
we say that He was made sin ^), He would not have been 
MADE a curse, enduring the cross for our sakes, had He 
not been made flesh, i. e., been Incarnate and made man, 
enduring generation like ours in human wise, that I mean 
through the holy Virgin. 

B. I assent, for you deem aright. 

•• See S. Athanasius against the Arians eeiving our infirmities, He is said to be 

iii. § 30—35 pp. 442—450 O.T. infirm Himself, though not Himself in- 

e Elsewhere S.Cyril says, "For firm, for He is the Power of God : and 

Christ u'cis made for us sin, as it is Hehecanie sin for iis unAa curse, though 

written. And surely not guilty of sin not having sinned Himself but because 

(for we are not wont so to wander in He Himself bare our sins and our cjir^f, 

mind) seeing that He had no knowledge so &c." Agst Arians, ii. 55 fin. p. 359 

of transgression, being God by Nature O.T. Similarly S. Cyril, " As therefore 

and beaming forth of God the Father. He is said to have been infirm though 

But because He has been made a sacri- not infirm (for He is the Power of God), 

fice for sin (for Christ our Passover was because He bare our infirnritivs, and the 

sacrificed for us), therefore do we say that Divine Scripture says that He has been 

He was made sin also." Glaph. 349 c. made a curse, not meaning that He has 

And in commenting upon Hosea iv. 8, been actually transmade into a curse, 

They eat the sin of Mi/ people, S. Cyril but that He "bare the curse for us, and 

says, " A kid therefore of the goats was again He is said to have been made sin, 

wont to be sacrificed for sin, wherefore not as forgetful of His own Nature nor 

the sacrifice itself was also called sin." passing into sin IVho knew it not, but 

in xii Proph. 71 b. But the two expla- because He took on Him our sins, as it is 

nations of being made sin may be but written, in His body on the Tree, so " 

two aspects of what the Holy Ghost tells &c. Thes. cap, 15 p." 1C2 e, see also cap, 

us in these words. 32 p. 276 e. 

S. Athanasius says, "For as by re- 

Made f[esh. = lorn : else all is lost. 245 

A. Itis witliout understanding mother respects too to think is One 
and to say that the Word was in such soi't made flesh as 

He WAS MADE a atrse and sin. 

B. What way do you mean ? 

A. Was He not accursed that He might undo the curse and 
did not the Father make Him sin that He might end sin ? 

B. Thus do they too say. 

A. Therefore if it is true, as it is understood by them to 

mean rightly, that the Word has in such sort been made see above, 
flesh, as He has been made both curse and sin ; i. e. to the 
destruction of the flesh ; how will He render it incorrupti- 
ble and indestructible, as having achieved this in His own 
Flesh first ? for He did not leave it to remain mortal and 
under decay, Adam transmitting to us the punishment 
for the transgression, but rather as the flesh of the uncor- 
ruptible God, Own and His ^, rendered it superior to death 2 lUav 
and to decay. eouroO 

B. You say well. 

A, The sacred Scripture somewhere says, that the first 1 Cor. xv. 
man, i. e. Adam, was made a living soul. Him that was after, 
i, e. Christ, a quickening spirit. Do we then say that as 
for the destruction of curse and sin He was made curse and 
sin, so that for the overthrow of being a living soul was He 
made a quichening spirit? for they twisting into what is in- 
congruous the force of made, say that He was in such wise 
made flesh, as He was made both curse and sin. We must 
therefore take away the Incarnation, or being made man, 
of the Word. Which when it is received as a verity, gone 
is the whole plan of the Mystery ; neither was Christ born, 
nor died, nor raised, according to the Scriptures. Where ib. 4. 
therefore is the Faith, the word of faith ivhich we preach ? Rom. x. 
for how did Grod raise Him from the dead except He also 
died ? how died He except He was born after the flesh ? 
where too is the living again of the dead, bringing in for 
(the saints a hope of the undying life, except Christ have 
been raised? where too the quickening of our human 
bodies, which is wrought by the participation of His holy 
Plesh and Blood ? 

2 i'6 Like to His Lretliren Icglns luitJi Birth. 

Christ b. We say tlioii tliat tlie Word was mad'e flesh in regard 
of tlie birth after the flesh from a woman, which in the hist 
ages of the world He is said to undergo, albeit before every 
age as God, 

A. Full surely : for thus was He made in likeness to us 
in everything except sin. And the all-wise Paul will tes- 

ij,^i"' tify saying, For since the little ones have partahen of hlood 
and flesh He too liheiuise partooh of the same that throvgh 
death He might destroy him that hath the sway of death, that 
is the devil, and micjld free them who in fear of death were 
through their whole life subject to bondage : for verily He 
talteth not hold of angels but taJceth hold of Abraham's seed, 
whence He ought in all things to be likened to His brothers. 
The lilceness in all things has as a sort of beginning and 
introduction thereof the birth of a woman, and the manifes- 
tation in flesh of Him Who in His own Nature is not visible, 
and the economic habitation ^ in our estate of Him of 
mightiest Name, and the lowliness in human nature of Him 
Who is high on the Thrones above, and that He Who is in 
Lordship of Nature was made in servants^ degree : for the 
Word was God. 

B. You deem aright : yet know that those men say this 
too, that it is impossible and uncomely to deem and to say 
that the Word Born of God the Father Inefl"ably and above 

see above our understanding should undergo yet a second generation 
fqq. from out of woman : for it were enough for Him (they say) 
to be once begotten of the Father in God-befitting wise. 

A. They find fault therefore with the Son and say that 
He counselled not aright in undergoing the voluntary emp- 
tiness for our sake : brought to nought too and empty is 
now the august and mighty Mystery of godliness, and the 
fair scheme of the Economy with flesh of the Only-Begot- 
ten they represent as useless to them on the earth. But 
3 par-ra- not to their stutterings ^ does the Word of truth give the 
pi(rfio's jjiastery, but rather it will convict them as babbling things 
most senseless and knowing not a whit the mystery of 

f Kadeffii^, taken as coming from Kad4(o/ not from KaOirnxt. See meaning given 
from Hesychius in Liddell and Scott. 

WoED made flesh gives us all, our One IIo])e. 247 

Christ. For God the Father hath begotten of His own Self is One 
the Son by a single generation, yet did it please Him in 
Him to save the human race by the means of Incarnation or 
being made man, which must full surely take place through 
birth of a woman, in order that by the likeness to us of the 
Word that is born from God, the law of sin in the members cf. Rom. 

vii ^^3 

of our flesh might be condemned, death be brought to 
nought in the likeness of the death of Him Who knows not 
death : for if we have been co-planted (it says) in the liJie- Rom. vi. 
ncss of His death so shall ive be also in the Wieness of His 
Resurrection. Hence needs has He Who is and Who exist- 
eth ^ been born after the flesh, transferrins^ ours into Him- 1 °, , 

' Q o vnap- 

self in order that the ofispring of flesh, that is we, corrup- X'«"' 
tible and perishing, might abide in Him Who at length p. 93. 
has ours for His own in order that we too may have His. 
For for our saJces became He poor who is Rich in order that 2 Cor. 
WE bj/ His Poverty anight be rich. 

But they by aflirming that not Himself, the Word from 
out of God, WAS MADE flesli, or underwent generation after 
the flesh from out of woman, take away the Economy. For 
unless He being Rich became poor, lowering Himself out 
of His Clemency to our estate, neither have we gained the 
riches that are His, but are yet in poverty and holden of 
curse and death and sin : for the Word being made flesh is 
the undoing and overthrow of the things which from curse 
and penalty befell the nature of man. Therefore if they 
undermine the root of our salvation and dig up the foun- 
dation of our hope, where will be that which follows ? For 
(as I said) if the Word have not been made /e.s/i, neither is 
the sway of death overthrown, sin is in no wise brought to 
nought, and we are yet subject to the transgressions of the 
first man, i. e. Adam, having no return unto what is better, 
through (I mean) Christ the Saviour of us all. 

B. I understand what you say. 

A. And besides who is he to be understood to be who 

in nice manner tvith us hath partalcen of blood and flesh, as 

though other than we by nature ? for one will not say that 

that it pertains to a man to partake of human nature : for see above 
^ '- pp.lG&c. 

248 Body quickens not c.vcejit it he Life's own. 

Christ what one is by nature how can one be conceived of as tak- 
ing s as though it were something else than what he is ? 
does not my argument seem very reasonable ? 
B. Quite so. 
A. Consider in another way too that it is both unhallowed 

see above Q^^id discordant to attempt to take away from God the Word 

sqq. and His Birth of woman according to the flesh : for how will 

there His Body quicken except it be His Who is Life? how does 

1 S. John fJiQ Blood of Jesus cleanse us from all sin, if it is that of a 
common man and one who is under sin ? how did God the 

Gal. IV. 4. Father send His Son, made of a ivoman, made under the law ? 

Roiii.viii. how condemned He sin in the flesh ? for it pertains not to 
a common man and who has with us his nature despotized 
by sin to condemn sin. But since it has been made the 
body of Him Who knows not transgression^ therefore with 
reason did it shake off the despotism of sin and is rich in 

6 tSioTTjTo the Property ^ of the Word which is Ineffably and in mode 
unutterable united with it^ and is holy and life-giving and 
replete with God-befitting operation. And as in Christ our 
first-fruits^ we too are trans-elemented into being supe- 
rior to both decay and sin. And it is true that according 

1 Cor. XV. to the voice of blessed Paul, As we hare the image of the 
earthy lue shall hear the image too of the heavenly, i. e. of 
Christ. Christ is called an heavenly man, not as though 
He brought down to us His flesh from above and from 
Heaven ^, but because the Word being God hath come down 
from Heaven, and entering our likeness, that is, under- 
going birth after the flesh from out a woman, hath re- 
mained what He was^ i. e. above and out of Heaven and 
ahove all as God even with flesh. For thus somewhere 
S. John says the Divine John of Him, He that comeih fro7n ahove is 

"'• ^^* ahove all. For He hath remained Lord of all even when 
economically made in bondman's form, and truly marvellous 

s " For that which is honoured by a 643 d : see too above p. 16, below p. 254 

relation (o-xe'cei) which does not belong note m . 

to it by nature, admits full surely into ^ See above p. 101 and in Scholia, § 

itself a glory which is foreign to it. And 36 above pp. 226, 227 and note n. ; see 

since a thing will never partake of itself also more at length in S. Cyril's IScu- 

but will undergo this from relation with menical Epistle to John Archbishop of 

another, there is all need to say that that Antioch, translated in 3 Epistles of S. 

which partakes is of other nature than Cyril (Parker 1872) pp. 72, 73. 
that which is partaken of." Dial. 7. p. 

Incarnation, ivhat. The Viryln-Birfh. 249 

therefore is tlie mystery of Christ. And verily God the is One 
Father said somewhere to the Jews by one of the Prophets, 
See ye despisers and perish and marvel because I am work- Acts : 

ing a loorlc in your days, a worJc tvhich ye shall not believe Hab.T5. 
if one should detail it to you. For the mystery of Christ is 
in peril of being disbelieved by reason of the intensity of 
its marvellousness : God was in human nature, and in our 
estate He that is over all creation ; the Invisible, visible 
by reason of flesh ; He that is out of Heaven and from 
above in likeness of things earthy; the Impalpable subject 
to touch ; He that is in His own Nature Free in bondman^s 
form; He Who blesseth the creation was made subiect to seep. 213, 

note c. 
curse, among the transgressors All-Righteousness, and in 

guise '^ of death Life. For the Body which tasted death, « SoKnau 

was not another man^s but His who is by Nature Son. 

Have you ought to find fault with in these things as not 

right or rightly said by us ? 

B. By no means. 

A. Consider I pray this too in addition. 

B. What do you mean ? 

A. Christ somewhere said to them who would take away 

the resurrection of the dead, Read ye not that He which s. Matt. 
made man at the heginning made them male and female, the^'^*'*' 
Divine Paul too writes. Marriage is honourable in all and Heb. xiii. 
the bed pure. Then how did the Only-begotten Word of 
God, minding to enter the likeness to us-ward, not permit 
the laws of human nature to prevail, for the subsistence or 
birth of His own flesh : for not from marriage-bed and 
wedlock did He endure to take it but from a Virgin august 
and unwedded, with child of the Spirit, the Power of God s. Luke 
over-shadowing her, as it is written. Since God therefore ^' °' 
dishonoured not marriage yea rather honoured it with 
blessing, why did the Word being God make a Virgin 
with child of the Spirit the mother of His flesh ? 

B. I cannot tell. 

A. Yet how is not the reason hereof clear to all who 

consider this ? the Son came (as I said) or was made man, 

translementing our estate as in Himself first unto a holy above p. 


250 Conceived of tlie Holy Ghost that we might he 

S. John 
i. 13. 

7 V07]T7}V 

S. Matt 
xxiii. 9. 

XX. 17. 

Christ and admirable and truly marvellous birtli and life : and 
Himself first became born of the Holy Ghost, I mean as to 
the flesh, in order that, the grace passing through as by 
a path uuto ourselves too, we having not /rowi hlood nor 
from the ivill of the flesh nor from the will of man but from 
God through the Spii'it our souls' ''' new birth and spiritual 
conformation unto the Son Who is by Nature and truly, 
might call God Father and might thus abide undecaying, 
as possessing no longer the first father, Adam, in whom we 
decayed. And verily Christ said, at one time. And call 
no one your father on the earth, for one is your Father luhich 
is in Heaven, at another, for that He therefore descended 
in our estate in order that He might bring us to His own 
God-befitting dignity, I am going to My Father and your 
Father and My God and your God. For His Father by Na- 
ture ' is He Who is in Heaven, oitr God ; but since He that 
is Son by Nature and truly has been made as we. He says 
that He has had Him as His God, after the manner that 
is which beseems the emptying, and has given His own 

lb. i. 12. Father to us too ; for it is written. Bat as mnny as received 
Him He gave them authority to be made children of God, them 
ivhich believe on His Name. But if we in our unlearning 
take away from being made in birth as we the Word from 

Col. i. 18. out God the Father, Him who in all things hath the pre- 
eminence, as the most wise Paul saith ; after whom shall 
WE any more formed, be called begotten of God through 
the Spirit ? whom shall we take as a first-fruit for us in 
this, or who at all will bring the Dignity unto us ? 
B. They too will say, I suppose. The Incarnate Word. 
a. How will this be true, except He have been made flesh. 

' "He gives to the nature of man what 
is His, permitting it to call God Father : 
Himself taketh the properties of the 
linman nature calling the Father His 
God. Yet neither do we deny our bon- 
dage that is by nature when we call God 
Father nor will the Son lose His Natu- 
ral Dignity by likening Himself to us 
for our good." Thes. cap. 15 p IGOe. 
"Commixing therefore in a way and 
commingling us in Himself and H imself 
again in us, Himselfdescends into what 
is ours, catches us up into what is His. 

Thus, we are men by nature, He has- 
tening down for His love's sake into 
what is beside Nature was made man : 
God's bondmen by nature we as things 
made, He too is called bondman, borne 
unto what is beside Nature when He was 
made man. Yea and on the other hand, 
He God by Essence, we too gods 
mounting up unto what is beside nature 
for grace's sake (for we are men) : He 
Son by Nature, we too sons by adoption 
called imto brotherhood with Him." 
Thes cap. 82 p. 330 fin. 

born of the Spirit. Made like = GoD Incarnate. 251 

i. e. mail, making the human body His own by a union is One 
which may not be plucked asunder, in order that it may 
be conceived of as His and not anyone's else ? for thus 
will He send unto us too the grace of the sonship and we 
too shall be born of the Spirit, in that in Him first the 
nature of man attained this. And the Divine Paul appears 
to me, thinking over with himself something of this sort, 
to have said full rightly. For as ive hare the image of the i Cor. xv. 
earthij ive shall bear the image too of the heavenly : and he 
said that the first man was/yo»i ont of earth, earthy, the lb. 47. 
second from out of Heaven. But as the earthy such (he says) lb. 48. 
are the earthy ones too, and as the Heavenly One such the 
Heavenly ones also. For we are earthy, in that there stole 
in upon us as from the earthy one, Adam, the curse, decay, 
through which the law of sin too entered in, which is in the 
members of our flesh : but we have been made heavenly, 
receiving this in Christ. For He being God by Nature and 
out of God and from above, hath come down in our estate, 
in an unwonted and strange way, made offspring of the 
Spirit according to the flesh, in order that we too as He 
might remain holy and undecaying, the grace descending 
upon us as from out a second beginning and root, i. e., 

B. You speak excellently. 

A. How do they say that He has been made like also in 
all things to His brethren, i. e., us ? or who at all will He be 
conceived to be who entered into this likeness, unless He 
were other by Nature and not in our estate ? for that which 
is made like to any, must full surely be different from them 
and not like to them but rather of other form, other nature. 
The Only-Begotten therefore being by Nature unlike us is 
said to have been made like when made as we, i. e. man : 
and this will take place rightly and solely, in birth in our 
estate, even though in wondrous wise in Him, for He Who 
was Incarnate was God. Yet let it be acknowledged that 
the body united to Him has been rationally ensouled : for 
the Word being God, would not, letting alone that which 
is superior in us, i. e., the soul, have taken thought for 

252 3{ary mother of Gob. Ghristatltle. Mc took soul too. 

Christ the earthy body only, but in wisdom provided for soul 
and body alike ^. 

B. I agree, for you deem rightly. 

A. Hence if the opponents say that the holy Virgin ought 
to be called in no wise mother of God, but mother of Christ, 
they blaspheme openly and drive away Christ from being 
Grod and Son : for if they believe that He is really God, in 
that the Only-Begotten has been made as we, why do they 
shudder at calling her mother of God, who bare Him, I 
mean after the flesh ? 

B. Yea (they say) : for the name Christ because of his 
having been anointed with the Holy Grhost beseems only 
him who is of a woman and of the seed of David : the 
Word out of God will never need so far as belongs to His 
own Nature such grace, seeing He is holy by Nature. For 
does not the Name Christ indicate that some anointing took 
place ? 

A. You said right, that because of the anointing alone is 
g , He called Christ, just as Apostle by reason of Aposto- 
Kvf,mis- late^, and Angel from bearing tidings^, (for such kind 
a^yyexos of names signify certain things, not special persons or 
^^AAe"/" known individuals ; for the Prophets too have been called 
Ps. cv. christs, as is sung in the psalms. Touch not My christs and 
Hab. iii. deal not wickedly with My projjhets ; the Prophet Habbacuc 

too said, Thou wentest forth for the salvation of Thy yeoj^le, 
to save Thy christs): yet tell me this, Do not themselves 
too say that the Only-Begotten Word of God is One Christ 
and Son, as being Lord Incarnate and made man ? 

B. Perchance they say so, yet they want the name Christ 

k " We say therefore that the whole both body and soul, ..." adds, "For if 

Word which is out of God has been the body only of Adam sinned, it would 

co-united to the whole manhood of ours : have needed that this alone should reap 

for He wovild not have deemed of no ac- the cure: but since the soul not only 

count, that which is best in us, i. e. the sinned with it but also before it (for 

soul, bestowLng on the flesh alone the thought first limns the sin, then works 

Toils of His Coming." de recta fide to it through the body), it were right, I 

the Emperor Theodosius p. 18 d and (as suppose, that it too obtain healing" (Ep. 

a Dialogue) with shght modifications in 145 p. 1250 init.). See also S. Irenaeus, 

the Ad Herm. Book 7, 692 b. Similarly "Thus the Lord having redeemed us 

Theodoret in his great letter to the with His own Blood and given His Soul 

monks of Constantinople, after saving, for our souls and His own Flesh for 

" the Only-Begotten Son of God taking our flesh" (Book v. 1. 1. p. 450 O.T.). 


The Son Incarnate has distinct Names, before, common. 253 

not to belong to the Word born from out of God the Father, is One 
by reason that He has not been anointed according to His 
own Nature as Grod, but they add this as well : For it is 
not (they say) one of the names by which we should speak 
of the Father Himself or of the Holy Ghost. 

A. The statement is not yet quite clear ; explain it there- 
fore^ for you will do well. 

B. Listen then : for one can see the appellation of the Son 
most manifold and diversely brought out by the God-in- 
spired Scriptures, for He has been named God and Lord see^Schol. 
and Light and Life and besides King and Lord of hosts p. 200. 
and Holy and Almighty. But if one pleased to say these 
things of the Father too or the Holy Ghost, one would 

not miss what is befitting. For of One Nature, one full 
surely is the Excellence of the dignities; If therefore 
Christ is a name truly befitting the Only-Begotten, let it 
pass (they say) without distinction with the rest both to 
the Father Himself and the Holy Ghost : but seeing it is 
utterly unmeet to accommodate it to the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, neither will it rightly pertain to the Only-Be- 
gotten Himself but rather has been apportioned in truth 
to him of the seed of David in regard to whom anointing 
by the Spirit may without any blame be conceived and 

A. We too ourselves say that the names of the God-be- 
fitting dignities are common to Father Son and Holy 
Ghost, and with equal glories are we wont to crown toge- 
ther with Him Who begat Him the Son Who is begotten 
out of Him and the Holy Ghost besides. 

Yet, o most excellent (would I say), the name Christ and 
the fact itself, that is, the Anointing, along with the condi- 
tions of the emptiness have accrued to the Only-Begotten, 
introducing to the hearers a manifest proof of the Incarna- 
tion : for that He has been anointed in that He has been 
made man, it will very well betoken. If therefore we were 
investigating not the plan itself of the Economy with flesh 
but it were proposed to us to look on the Only-Begotten 
Word of God as yet external to the measures of the emp- 

254 God the Son, Perfect Man anointed imparts. 

Christ tiness, it were with good reason wliolly dishonouring^ to 
1 6.(ri(t>v- call Him Christ Who has not been anointed: but since the 
Divine and most holy Scripture says that He was made 
flesh, the anointing too will now befit Him, which took 
place in regard to the Incarnation which is His. And 
Heb. ii. truly the all-wise Paul says, For both the Sanctifier and the 
sanctified are all out of one, for luhich reason He is not 
ashamed to call them brothers saying, I will declare Thy 
Name to My brothers: for He was sanctified together with 
us when He was made in our estate. 

And that truly Son was He Who is anointed in that He 

WAS MADE flesh, i. e. perfect man, the Divine David will 

Ps^xlv. testify saying to Him, Th/y Throne o God is for ever and 

ever, a sccjJtre of rightness the sceptre of Thy Kingdom : 

Thou lovedst righteousness and hatedst transgression ■wherefore 

God Thy God anointed Thee ivith the oil of rejoicing above 

Thy fellows ^. Understand therefore how having both said 

that He is God and given Him a Throne for ever, he says 

that He has been anointed by God, clearly the Father, 

with some choice anointing above those who partake of 

Him "', i. e. ourselves. For if the Word have been made 

man too, albeit God, yet was He thus too without lack of 

^ avTore- the Goods of His proper Nature; being Self- Perfect" and 

s!' John full of grace and truth, according to the voice of John : 

'• ^^' and Himself Perfect in every kind of thing God-befitting, 

lb. 16. while from His fulness all we received, as it is written. 

Making His own therefore along with the measures of His 

own human nature what also belong thereto, He is called 

Christ, even though He be conceived of as not anointed, 

according (I mean) to the Nature of the Godhead or as 

1 irapa rohs fX€T6xovs crov. ueroxos participant of Thee {Traparovs fJ.€T6xovs 

is a sharer, partaker in, with a genitive crov). If therefore that which partakes 

of the thing shared. S. Cyril appears is other than that which is partaken (for 

to have taken /xerdxavs aov as ' sharers one must be conceived of in other), and 

o/Thee,' rather than (like Oeuv p-fro- thecreaturepartakesof the Son, He will 

Xoi, quoted in Liddell and Scott sub v., be other than the creature which par- 

partners with the gods) " partners with takes of Him : hence neither is He gene- 

Xhee." " rate. But if the Son be not other than the 

™ irapa tovs /J-erexovTas auTov. S. creature, be not severed from it by Na- 

Cyril had in earlier life said, " Blessed ture, what need of participation ? or 

David sings and says to the Son, There- how can any partake of what itself is ?" 

fore God Thy God anointed Thee with Thes. cap. 1 tin. p. 14. 
the oil of gladness above them that are 

Fantasy that the Son took a man. 255 

He is conceived of as God. Since (tell me) liow else will is One 
He be conceived of as Christ Son and Lord^ if tlie Only- 
Begotten liave disdained the anointing and abide not the 
measures of the emptiness ? 

B. They hasten along another path than ours, unskilfully 
interpreting the mystery of piety. For they say that God 
the Word hath taken a perfect man from out the seed of 
Abraham and David according to the declaration of the 
Scriptures, who is by nature what they were of whose 
seed he was, a man perfect in nature, consisting of intel- 
lectual soul and human flesh : whom, man as we by nature, 
fashioned by the might of the Holy Ghost in the womb of 
the Virgin and made of a woman, made under the law, in Gal. iv. 
order that he might huy us all from the bondage of the 
law, receiving the sonship marked out long before, He in 
new way connected^ to Himself, preparing him to make ^ '^"'''''" 
trial of death according to the law of men, raising him 
from the dead, taking him up into Heaven and setting him 
on the Right Hand of God. From whence he being now 
far above all rule and authority and might and lordship and Eph. i. 
every name named not in this ivorld only but in that to come 
also, receives worship from all creation as having a connec- 
tion inseverable with the Divine Nature, the whole creation 
allotting to him its worship in reference to and in idea of 
God"^. And we say neither two sons nor two lords : but 
since God the Word the Only-Begotten Son of the Father, 
to Whom this man is connected and partakes, is Son by 
Essence, he shares the name and honour of Son : and God 
the Word is Lord by Essence, to Whom connected, this man 
shares the honour. And therefore we say neither two 
sons nor two lords : seeing that He Who is by Essence is 
clearly Lord and Son, he who for our salvation is assumed, 
having an unseverable connection with Him, is borne up 
up along with Him to name and honour of son and of 

A. Fie ! the folly and distraught mind of them who ima- 
gine somehow that these things are so : for it is unbelief 

" ava(popq. 06oO Ka\ ivyoia. 

256 God, Jlohj, Lord, Life, man, Itallowecl, ivorshtjjs, rpilcl-cned. 

Christ and nought else, and the novelty of impious inventions and 
the subversion of the divine and sacred preachings which 
have proclaimed One Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the 
Word that is out of God the Father made man and incar- 
nate, so that the Same is God alike and man : and to One 

anove p. 

233 note belongs all, the God-befitting and moreover the human. 
For He beiug and existing ever in that He is God under- 
vi^ent the birth after the flesh from out a woman. To One 
therefore and the Same pertaining both that He Eternally is 
and existeth and that He in the last times is born after the 
flesh. Who, by Nature Holy as God, was hallowed with us in 
that He became man to whom it befitteth to be hallowed ; 
Who, both in rank of Lord and, having as His own hond- 
onan'sform, did call the Father His God ; Life and Life- 
giving as God, is said to be quickened by the Father in that 
He became Man. All things therefore are His, and He 
does not dishonour the economy which the Father Himself 
too praised, if it be true which is said by Paul's voice : 

2 Cor. V. for in one place he said. Him wJio hiew not sin He made 
sin for our salces in order that we might be made God's right- 

Rom.viii, eousness in Him, in another, Who verily spared not His own 
Son hut delivered Him up for all us in order that ivith Him 
also He might hestow on us all things. Does not therefore 
our discourse go after the scope of the sacred Scriptures ? 
B. Surely. 

A. If now as our opponents say and choose to hold, the 
Only-Begotten Word of God, taking a man of the seed of 
Divine David and of Abraham prepared him to be fashioned 
in the holy Virgin and connected this man with Himself 
and hath made him to come into experience of death, yea 
and raising him from the dead took him up into heaven 
and seated him on the Right Hand of God : superfluously 
(it seems) is He said both by the holy fathers and by our- 
selves and the whole God-inspired Scripture to be made 
man (for this I deem and nought else did the all- wise John 
signify when he wrote, TJie Word ivas made flesh) , and the 
mystery of the Economy with flesh has been (it is like) 
turned right round to the exact opposite. For one cannot 

If Gob not made man, it is man who co-sittcth. 257 

see that the Word being by Nature God and beaming forth is One 
from God, abased Himself to emptiness^ taking bondman's 
form^ and hath humbled Himself, but on the contrary, man 
was brought up into the glory of the Godhead and the ex- see Schol. 
cellency that is over all, and took God's Form and was above pp. 
rather exalted, co-throned with the Father : is it not true ^''''" 
which I say ? 

B. Fuli surely. 

A. If it be true as they say, and the Only-Begotten dis- 
dained the Economy, what shame did He despise ? how Heb. xii. 
hath He become ohedlent to the Father unto death yea the phii. a. 
death of the cross ? and if taking a man, He led him both ^* 
to experience of death, and bringing him into Heaven too, 
shewed him co-throned with the Father; where now at 
last will His own Throne ° be seen, if they say not two 
sons, but one who co-sitteth, him that is who is of the 
seed of David and Abraham ? how will He too be said to 
be Saviour of the world and not rather patron or bringer- 
forward ^ of a man through whom we have been also saved, * wapuKo- 
and a man, other than He, has become the completion of '^' 
law and Prophets ? for the Law uttereth the mystery of 
Christ and of Him hath Moses written, who hath also be- s. John 
come the bringer of us to Him. Our faith hath come I oai. iii. 
ween to nought, for it streamed away ; wholly nought is "^" 
our august mystery, which the all-excellent Paul too 
openeth to us saying. Say not in thine heart, luho shall as- Rom, x. 
cend into heaven? that is to bringdown Christ; or. Who 
shall go doivn into the deep ? that is to bring up Christ fro7n 
the dead. But ivhat saith the Scripture p ? Nigh thee is the 
ivord, in thy mouth and in thy heart, that is the word of faith 
which we are preaching : that if thou say in thy mouth. Lord 

"TheodoretinhisLettertotheMonks gloss, the Scripture, of which Origen 

of Constantinople (the same that is too and Theodoret are quoted as pre- 

quoted above p. 252 note k and p. 33 serving a trace. There seems little 

note b) written in the later years of his doubt that S. Cyril had it in this trea- 

life after the Eutychian troubles had tise as the Syriac translation ofthe trea- 

commencedandsoafter A. D. 448 uses tise also gives it. Dr. Tischendorf 

words very similar : If, as tliei/ accuse cites S. Cyril as reading the word in 

me, I proclaim two sons', whicli do I praise, his commentary on Isaiah p. 839 init. : 

which leave wiworshipped ? (Ep. 145, S. Cyril quotes this passage twice in 

p. 1247): see also p. 1310 fin. his treatise de Recta fide to Arcadia and 

P The two MSS D and F of S. Paul's Marina, pp. 104 c, 118 e, as far as we 

Epistles with some few others add this know, without the gloss. 



258 We worsliip JescSj a mem if God he not made man. 

Christ Jesus, and believe in tliij heart that God raised liim from the 
dead, thou shalt he saved. 

How then is the mystery of piety aii}^ longer great and 
famous and in supremest admiration^ if we are to believe 
that (as the perverted ones say) a man taken and connected 
ax^Ti- by way of accident ^ to God the Word, died and lived 
again : and he was borne up into Heaven, yet is it I sup- 
pose to some past belief, if not being by Nature and truly 
God, he delights him in the seat of Godhead, the Son by 
Nature haply thrust forth therefrom : and there stand in 
ministering position Augels and Archangels and the Sera- 
phim who are higher yet, before — not Him Who is in 
truth Son and God but before — a man who is rich in name 

«eio-zce/fpi- Qf sonship by participation and importation ^' and in fashion 
as we and who has been vouoilisafed the so God-befitting 
honour ? for in no wise do our opponents blush at saying 
this too. Is not their dogma replete with the uttermost 
impiety and blasphemy ? for that which is given and 

lilffKiKpi- brought in ^ may be lost, and that which is imported from 
without, has the loss of it not inconceivable. I pass over 
the further blasphemy and incongruity. 

Why then do they drag down the choiceness of the 
Economy unto what is uncomely, and make our Divine and 
most holy worship, a man-worship and nothing else, tak- 
ing it from Him Who is in truth Son and persuading us 
(TXf Tj- to worsliip one connected with Him by way of accident ^, 
whom they say also sped ahove all rule and authority and 
lordship, imposing the blame of having been deceived, not 
only on them on earth but also on the very rational pow- 
ers above, if with us they worship, not the by Nature and 
truly Son and the Word which beamed forth of the Es- 
sence of God the Father, Incarnate, but as other than He, 

9.€iSo5ro(- a man from forth the seed of David, a god modelled^ by 
mere will perchance of His and by external embellish- 
ments ^, not so in truth ? 

B. Yet although he is conceived of as man severally (say 

<5 4^oopai(T/j.o7s. The verb is used in S, Cyril's commentary on S. John v. 23, 
p. 231 d : p. 267 O.T. 


voias o 


- r7]v ava- 

avac^opa not Pinion. 259 

they), lie liatli worsliip from the whole creation, in refer- is One 
ence to and in conception of God.'. 

A. Then how (tell me) Avill this reference they talk of ^ be 
meetly conceived and spoken of by us ? And come, in- 
vestigating the Divine and sacred Scripture, let us seek 
the solution from it. They of Israel* therefore, recking 
little at one time of reverence to God, bitterly attacked 
Moses and Aaron : then Moses addressed them. And ivlio Num.xvi 
is Aaron, that ye murmur against him? for not against us Exod.xvi, 
hut against God is this your murmuring. For they were ^' 
sinning against Moses and Aaron, but what they did touch- 
ed the Divine glory, and the covert intent ^ of them who ^ ttjs vtto- 
insult has reference ^ to that glory. Yet Moses and Aaron rp6 
were not gods, nor has the creation worshipped them in l^p^J 
reference to God ^. ^ auacpopa 

God reigned over Israel after the flesh through Prophets. 
And they came and said to the Divine Samuel, Make us a i.Sam. 
liiiig like the rest of the nations. At this the Spirit-clad 
was grieved and with good reason, yet he heard God say. 
Not thee have they set at nought hut Me that I shoidd not lb. 7. 
reign over them. See again here too the mode of the set- 
ting at nought has reference •* to God. "* "^^^ ^'"«- 

. . . (popaf 

And indeed the Saviour and Lord of all Himself too 
says respecting those in need, Inasmuch as ye did it to one S. Matth. 
of these least, to Me ye did it. Is it then in this way that 
if any be said to honour him that is of the seed of David, 
he hath done it to the Son ? and if any do not believe, 
hath he surely offended against the by Nature Son, Who 
haply wishes him too to be honoured and believed in by 
us in equal and exact manner ? How then hath not the 
bond been brought into equal honour with the Lord, that 
which hath been made and a new god (according to the Ps. Ixxxi. 
Scriptures) is in the excellencies of Godhead, and to the 
Holy and Consubstantial Trinity there hath been appended 

■• avacpopa Qiov Koi ivvoia. pp. 234, 235 : compare also the famous 

s TTJs Trap' avTuiv dpvXov/j.'ei'iqs ayacpo- Pasch. hom. 16 for A.D. 429 (the same 

pas rh XPVI^<^- as is cited by the Eastern Bishops a- 

t Each of these three instances is put gainst S. Cyril's Chapters as tome 1) 

forward also in the Scholia § 37, above pp.231, 232. 

s 2 

260 Union unites, connection does not. 

Christ that wliicb is of unequal nature with It and with It is wor- 
shipped and partaketh of equal glory with It ? 
'"ryjvava- g^ Thcv sav that the reference^ must be taken in some 
such manner as this : viewing God the Word inseverably 
connected to him of the seed of David we worship him as 

A. Suffices it then in order to his duly taking the glory 

that befits God and to his being borne above the measures 

of creation^ that he should be only connected with Him, and 

will this render him that is not God an object of worship ? 

Yet I find one saying to God through the Psalmist's lyre, 

Ps.lxiii. ;^y gQi^i is fast joined^ after Thee : blessed Paul too writes, 

1 Cor. vi. He that is fast joined^ to the Lord, is one sjnrit. Shall we 

«o'koWw- then (tell me) worship those too in reference'' to God as 

7^lva(bo a l^^ving bocn fast joined ^ to Him ? Yet the word fast- 

8/ce/coAA.- joining^ has I suppose a greater and more forcible signifi- 

« rh rrjs caucc than the word connected ^, if it be true to say that 

^' what is fast-joined to any has its connection most strait". 


iT^-^fl B. It seems so. 

•Trjv A. Why now dropping luiion ", though a word in wonted 

use amongst us, yea rather that has come down to us from 

^(rvvd(p(i- the holy Fathers, do they call it connection^ ? though the 
term union by no means confounds them whereof it is said, 
but rather shews the concurrence into one of the things 
conceived of as united : and not (full surely) will that which 
is simple and of one kind be alone said to be Oney, but 
those too which are compounded out of two or more and 
out of diverse kinds. For so they think to be right who 
are skilled in these matters. 

Most mischievously therefore do they, severing into two 
the One and by Nature and Truly Son Incarnate and made 
Man, reject the Union and call it connection, which any one 

< ffvvSov- else too may have with God, being almost tied^ to Him by 

f^^""^ virtue and holiness, according to that which is by one of 
the Prophets rightly said to them who fall back into care- 

Zeph. ii. lessness. Be ye qatliered together and tied together, o undisci- 

1, 2. * * 

" see above, p. /i) note d. ttoAAj; tijv ffvva<piiav ex^'* 

" T(J rial KoWw/xefoy 4v ^irirdcrei y see above, p. 41 note c. 

3£odcs of connection. Taking bondman's form is True Union. 261 

plined nation, ere ye become as a flower that passeth away : is One 
a disciple too may be connected with liis teacker by means 
of love of learnings and ourselves, one witli another, not 
in one way but in many. Or perchance he too who is an 
assistant ^ in any work will be reasonably conceived as not ^vTrovpyhs 
unconnected ^ in point of good- will ''' with him who took ® atrvra- 
him to that service. And this rather is what the word f^Kovinoy 
connection appears to signify to us on the part of the innova- 
tors ^. For you learnt that they unlearnedly maintain that ^'^"P" 'T^" 
(ioD the Word taking a man, as some son other than Him- n(ov 
self, set him forth, as a sort of minister ^ of His Will, so as " j'-'^ovp- 
to make trial of death, and live again, and ascending into above p. 
the very heaven, sit on the Throne of the Ineffable God- ^^^' 
head ! For is he not through these words full surely seen 
to be altogether other than the by Nature and truly Son ? 
B. I admit it. 

A. But since they have slipped down to this depth of 
unlearning, as to think and say that not the Only-Begotten 
Word of God Himself was made as we, but that He took 
a man ; in what way do they want the assumption to be 
conceived by us ? is it as fore-ordained by Him for the 
accomplishment of somewhat that He willed, just as one 

of the holy Prophets says, / was not a prophet nor son of a Amos vii. 
prophet hut I was a goatherd and dressing mulberries, and ^^' ^^' 
the Lord took me from the sheep and said to me, Go, prophesy 
to My people Israel ? A goatherd. He set him to be a pro- 
phet and appointed him minister of His Pleasure. 

B. They will say perhaps that not of this kind was the 
taking, but just as taking bondman's form is conceived of 
by us. 

A. Hence that which is taken will with reason be con- 
ceived of as the own of the Taker by an inseverable Union ; 
so that Jesus is both God and Son, One and Only, of Very 
God, as being Word from forth of God the Father, begotten 
Divinely before every age and time, and in the last times 
of the world, the same after the flesh forth of a woman : 
for not any one's else, but His has the bondman's form 
been made. 

262 The Fees made as we, made lis as He : 

Christ b. How do you mean ? 

A. Will (tell me) that whicli is by nature bond be said 
not incongruously to take bondman^s form, or that which 
is truly free and is Essentially above the measures of bon- 

B. The free I suppose : for how will it be made what it 
was by nature ? 

A. Consider then that the Only-Begotten Word of God 
albeit made as we and having entered on the measures of 
bondage according to the human nature, hath witnessed 
to Himself freedom by Nature, saying in His joint-conti'i- 
S. Matth. bution ^ of the didrachma, Surely free are tlie sons. He 
xvu. 2 . pQggjygg therefore bondman's foi-m, making His own the re- 
sults of the emptying * and not spurning the likeness to 
usward : for it were not possible otherwise to honour the 
bond unless that which befitteth the bond had been made 
His that it might be made illustrious by the glory that is 
from Him : for that which excellcth ever hath the pre-emi- 
nence and the shame from our bondage was wiped out by 
us. For He Who is above us has been made as we and the 
Free by Nature was in the measure of the servants. Hence 
the dignity hath passed unto us too : for we too have 
been called sons of God and inscribed as our Father Him 
Who is properly His Father ; for our human things have 
been made flis also. 

Therefore in saying that He took bondman's form, is the 
whole mystery of the Economy with flesh. But if confess- 
ing One Son and Lord, the Word from forth of God the 
Father, they say that a man, him who is forth of the seed 
of David has been simply connected with Him, a partaker 
of His Sonship and of His glory, time is it that we in 
friendly grief over them who choose thus to think should say, 
Jer. ix. 1. Who ivill give to my head water and to my eyes a fountain 

^ ffvvei(T(\>opa, as the contribution in cesses Arcadia and Marina p. 82 c d : 

which He ordered that S. Peter's share on Isaiah p. 661 e, in his twelfth paschal 

should be paid along with His own. homily p. 181 e, in Horn. 88 on S. Luke 

This is a very favourite passage of S. and at the close of a fragment of a 

Cyril, he has commented on it in his Homily That Christ is One (published 

commentary on S. John iv. 22, p. 189 at the end of commentaries on S. John 

c (p. 217 O.T.) xiv. 11 p.791 a b ; in iii. p. 458): see too Glaph. 328 a b. 
his treatise on the right faith to the Prin- « but emptied Himself, Phil. ii. 7. 

One : though Godhead he one thing, manhood another. 263 

of tears, and I will weep this people day and night ? for tliey is One 
are turned aside to a reprobate mind, denying the Lord Who 2 S. Pet. 
bought them. For a pair of sons unequal in nature is pro- "' ^' 
claimed to us, and the bond is crowned with God-befitting 
glory, and some supposititious son is glorified with equal 
excellencies with the by Nature and truly Son, albeit God 
says plainly. My glory I will not give to another : for how is is. xlii.8. 
he not other and apart from the by Nature and truly Son, 
who has been honoured with mere and sole connection and 
taken as an assistant and vouchsafed sonship even as we our- 
selves are, and has partaken of glory from another and at- 
tained thereto by gift and grace ? 

B. We must not therefore sever Emmanuel into man 
severally and into God the Word. 

A. By no means : I affirm that we must say that He is 
God Incarnate, and that He is in the Same both One and 
Other. For neither hath He, made man, ceased from being 
God, nor doth He hold the Economy unacceptable, despis- 
ing the measure of the emptying. 

13. Therefore (they say) consubstantial with the Word 
was His body, for thus and no otherwise will He be deemed 
One Only Son. 

A. Yet how is not this now raving and clear proof of a 

mind wandering^? for how can one behold in sameness o^^-^apairal- 


essence things so far removed one from another in respect 
of their nature ? for one thing is Godhead, and another 
manhood. For of what do we say that the Union was 
made ? for a person will not say that the things united are 
one in number, but either (it may be) two or more. 

B. We must therefore sever (they say) the things named. 

A. We must not sever (as I said) into a several diversity, 
in regard I mean to their being away from each other and, 
apart ", but must rather bring them together into an in- " aw' d\- 
dissoluble union. For tlie Word has been onade flesh, as e?^■at /coi 
John saith. 

B. Have they therefore been confused and both become 
one nature ? 

A. But who will be thus distraught and unlearned as to 

264 One in mode wholly passing understanding : 

Christ suppose that eitlier the Divine Nature of the Word has 
been turned into what it was not, or that the flesh went 
over by way of change into the Nature of the Word 
Himself (for it is impossible) ? but we say that One is the 
Son and One His Nature even though He be conceived of 
as having assumed flesh with a rational soul. For His (as 
I said) hath the human nature been made, and He is con- 
ceived of by us none otherwise than thus, God alike and 

B. There will then be not two natures, of God and of 
man ? 

A. Godhead and manhood are one thing and another, ac- 
cording to the mode [of being] existing in each, yet in 
Christ have they come together, in unwonted wise and 
passing understanding, unto union, without confusion and 
turning^. But wholly incomprehensible is the mode of 
the Union. 

B. And how out of two things. Godhead and manhood, 
will One Christ be conceived of ? 

A. In no other wise (I suppose) than that whereby the 
things brought together one to another unto a union in- 
dissoluble and above comprehension will be One. 

B. As for example ? 

A. Do we not say that a man like us is One and his na- 
ture one, although he has not simpleness [of nature] but is 
compounded out of two, I mean soul and body ? 

B. We do. 

A. Does anybody, taking anew the flesh apart by itself, 
and sundering from it the soul that was united to it, divide 
a single person into two and not thereby destroy the right 
description of him ? 
2 Cor. iv. B. Yet the all-wise Paul writes, Fw even though our out- 
ivard man perish yet is the inward renewed each day. 

A. You said right : for he knew, he knew well from 
whence he is one, and makes the distinction [between the 
two] one to be grasped in idea only : he calls the soul, the 
inward man, and the flesh, the outward. For I call to mind 

^ TpoTT^s: eomp. S. James i. 17. 

Man^ i. e. God Incarnate, yet no mixture, 



the lioly Scriptures which sometimes signify to us the whole is One 
living thing from a portion, as when God says ", I will jpoiir Joel ii. 
forth of My 8])irit upon all flesh, and Moses says to them 
of Israel, In seventy five souls did thy fathers go down into Deut. x 
Egypt. And we shall find that this has been done in re- 
gard to Emmanuel Himself: for after the Union, I mean 
that with the flesh, if any call Him Only-Begotten and God 
from forth of God, he will be conceiving of Him as not 
apart from flesh or manhood, and if he say that He is man, 
he will not be excluding Him from being God and Lord "^. 
B. But if we say that the Nature of the Son is One, 
even though He be conceived of as Incarnate, all need is 
there to confess that confusion and commixture take place '^, 

c Compare Schol. § 27, above p. 214: 
also fragment 8 of Homilies (sub calce 
Comm. in S. Joan. iii. 464), Resp. 7 to 
Tiberius and his fellows (ubi supra, iii. 
oS'J) and elsewhere. 

^ So Expl. cap. 3 p. 149 e, cap. 4 
p. 150 e, def. cap. 8 adv. Epp. orient. 
179 b, schol. § 16 fin., § 36, above pp. 
206, 230 : also pp. 167, 168. 

^ The fear felt by the Easterns that 
One Nature Incarnate must necessarily 
involve the [Apollinarian] mixture, be- 
ing stated in full here and also by Sue- 
census in his hyponuiesticon, S. Cyril 
replies carefully both here and in his se- 
cond letter to Succensus, see further on. 
In his first Letter to Succensus, he says, 
" There is therefore One Son, One Lord 
Jesus Christ, both before the Incarna- 
tion and after the Incarnation : for not 
One Son was the Word out of God the 
Father, another again he who is forth of 
the holy Virgin, but Himself Who was 
before the ages is believed to have been 
born according to the flesh too of a wo- 
man, not as thougli His Godhead took 
a beginning of being, or was called unto 
beginning of existence through the holy 
Virgin ; but rather that (as I said) being 
Word before the ages He is said to 
liave been born of her because of the 
flesh (5ia tt]i/ adpKa as the better MSS). 
For His is His flesh, just as of each 
one of us his body is his own. But 
smce some wreath around us Apolin- 
arius' opinions and say, If ye say that 
the Word out of God the Father is One 
Son by an union exact and mingled 
{Ka6' ivooatv aKpi^rj Kol avyKeKpa/jLevTiv), 
haply ye are pleased to fancy and say 
that a confusion or commixture or com- 
mingling of the Word with His body 
has had place or a change of the body 

into the Nature of Godhead : therefore 
we repellmg ver}' earnestly the accusal 
say that the Word out of God the Father 
incomprehensibly and unutterably uni- 
ted to Himself a body ensouled with 
reasonable soul and proceeded man of a 
woman, made as we not by change of 
nature but rather by Economic Good- 
Pleasure (for He desired to be made 
man, not losing the being God by Na- 
ture): yet even though He came down 
in our condition and bare the bondman's 
form, even thus He hath remained in 
the Excellencies of the Godhead and 
in Natural Lordship." Epp. 136 c d e 
137 a. And in his second Letter to the 
same Succensus, putting down first the 
objection which Succensus had sent 
him, ,, If there is one Incarnate Natiu-e 
of the Word, needs must one say that 
there is commingling and commixture, 
the human nature minished as it were 
and being lost (uiro/cAeTrTOyueVTjs) in 
Him:,, S. Cyril replies, "They who 
pervert right things know not that there 
is in trutli One Incarnate Nature of the 
Word. For if He 'Who is by Nature 
and truly, He Who was ineffably Be- 
gotten, be One Son, and then by as- 
sumption of flesh, not without soul but 
ensouled with reasonable soul, proceed- 
ed man of a woman, He will not there- 
fore be severed into two persons and 
sons, but hath remained One yet not 
without flesh nor without body, but hav- 
ing the body as His own by Union 
which may not be plucked asunder. 
And he who says this, full surely he 
indicates no commingling, no confusion 
nor ought of the kind, nor will this as 
of necessity ensue, whence should it? 
For even though the Only-Begotten &c" 
as above p. 41, note e. Epp. 142 e 143 a. 

266 nor consumjjtion of the manJioocl. Bush type of this. 

Christ the nature of man being lost ^ as it were within Him. For 
what is the nature of man unto the excellency of God- 
head ? 

STTspiTTo- A. In highest degree, my friend, is he an idle talker^ 

^^^" who says that confusion and commixture have place, if one 
Nature of the Son Incarnate and made man, is confessed 
by us : for one will not be able to make proof thereof by 
needful and true deductions. But if they set their own 

Ps. xxi. will as a law to us, they devised, a counsel luhieh they cannot 
establish., for we must give heed, not to them but to the 
God-inspired Scripture : if they think that needs, on ac- 
count of the nature of man being nothing compared to the 
Divine Excellency, must it be lost and consumed as they 

S. Matth. say, we again will say. Ye do err not Imowing the Scrip- 
tures nor the power of God : for it were not impossible for 
God Who loves man to make Himself endurable to the 
measures of the manhood. And this He foresignified to us 
darkly, when initiating Moses and limning the mode of 
the Incarnation as yet in types, for He came in likeness of 
fire on the bush in the wilderness, and the fire kept play- 

4 ivriarp- ing "^ ou the shrub yet was it not consumed. And Moses 
seePasch. marvelled at the sight. Yet how is not a tree a thing that 
p?23iVc ^^^ ^o alliance ^ with fire ? and how is the readily con- 

5 a(rvfj.0a- gumcd wood patient of the onslaught of flame ? But this 

matter was (as I said) a type of a mystery, which exhibited 
endurable to the measures of the human nature, the Di- 
vine Nature of the Word s, at His Will, for to Him is no- 
thing impossible. 

B. Know well that they will not choose so to think. 

A. Their speech will be caught setting forth to us most 
undoubtedly two sons and two christs. 

B. Not two : they say that the Son by Nature, the Word 
from forth God the Father is One ; he that is assumed is 

f viroKXeTTTOfiePTts. S. Cyril takes S. Cyril that some thought would be a 

up the word a little below by inronXf- consequence of holding One Nature : see 

■KreffOaire KaiSaTrauacrOai. This latter above note e. Succensus uses the words 

word together with the illustration of the fiewvixivris tlxrivep koX inroK\fTrTo/j.4vris. 
bush which burned with fire and was not s " For as the fire was made endurable 

consumed, point to the sense of being to the bush, so to our nature too the 

absorbed and lost, which Succensus, bi- Excellency of the Godhead." Pasch. 

shop of Diocaesarea in Isauria, told hom. 16 p.231 c. 

Fallacy that son of David was assumed. 267 

a man by nature son of David ^, but is son of God by reason is One 
of his having been assumed by God the Word, and that by 
reason of God the Word dwelling in him hath he come to 
this dignity and hath by grace the sonship. 

A. Then wherever will they go as regards mind and un- 
derstanding who thus think ? or how do they say ' not a 
pair of sons/ when they are severing one from another 
man and God, if (according to them) the One has the son- 
ship by Nature and truly, the other „ by grace and came 
,, to this dignity, God the Word indwelling him?,. Hath 
he then ought greater than we ? for He indwelleth in us 
too. And the most holy Paul confirms us in this, saying, 

Fo7' this cause hand I my Jcaees to the Father from Whovi Eph. Hi. 
every family in heaven and on earth is named, that He ivould 
(jive you according to the riches of His glory to he strengthened 
ivith might through His Spirit that Christ may dwell in your 
hearts : for He is in us through the Spirit wherein we cry Rom.viii. 
Ahha Father. Hence our position is in no wise inferior, 
if we have been vouchsafed the equal by God the Father 
(for by grace we too are sons and gods) : we have been 
surely brought unto this supernatural and marvellous dig- 
nity as having the Only-Begotten Word of God in-dwell- 

But profane and distraught altogether is it that they 
should say that Jesus has been vouchsafed the sonship and 
has won the glory thereof as a matter of favour. 

B. Would you say how ? 

A. Certainly. For first (as I said) He will be thus con- 
ceived of as separately another son and christ and lord from 
Him Who is so truly and by Nature : besides this, another 
impossibility is brought in and which not unreasonably mili- 
tates against right reasoning. 

B. What is that ? 
A. The all-wise John says of Christ, He came unto His s. John i. 

loum and His own received Him not, hut as many as received ' 
lim He gave them authority to become God's children. Will 

t See the fragments of S. Cyril's two Books against Theodore of Mopsuestia, 
;o be given below. 

268 Tlte gained can he lost, the Free alone give adoption : 

Christ then lie wlio lias the sonship of grace aud has it as an ad- 
ventitious dignity that he won the being what he is ; will 
such an one bestow freely on others also what he has with 
difficulty grown rich in ? does not this appear to you in- 
congruous ? 
B. Very. 

A. That which accrues not by nature but has been in- 
troduced from without, will it not be to be lost, as far as 
possibility goes ? 

B. How should it be otherwise ? 

A. Hence it will be a possible contingency that the son 
should some time be able to fall from his sonship : for what 
is not based on laws of nature is not free from a suspicion 
of being lost. 

B. It is so. 

A. In another way too one may see that their dogma is 
both uncomely and of a truth replete with the supremest 
ill-counsel : for if it is true that that which is by adoption 
and grace is ever in the likeness of that which is by nature 

6 tV ava- and in truth, how are WE sons by adoption, having reference^ 

''"''""' to Him Who is truly Son if He too along with us is among 

them who are so by grace ? how too in the Gospel-parables 

is He sent as Son after the servants [had been sent] ? 

whom when the guardians of the vineyard saw they said, 

S. Matt. Tliis man is the heir, come let us Mil Him. 

He therefore Who hath appeared in flesh and Who made 
trial of the crooked ways of the Jews is Son in truth and 
Free, as born of the Nature that is Free and is not among 
those who are under the yoke, in that He is conceived of 
as God, even though He hath been made, as we who are 
under the yoke, son of bondage, He the Son (as I said) by 
Nature and truly. Who is beyond the yoke and above the 
creation : after Whom we too who are sons by adoption and 
grace have been formed. 

B. We do not say (say they) that the man is Son of God, 
lest we should speak of two sons by Nature. For as the 
Word Who came down from Heaven is not by nature son 

He God of God and David's Son. 269 

of David, thus neither is he who is forth of the seed of is One 
Davidj Sou of God by Nature '. 

A. They will therefore sever into two sons, and both of 
them will be proved to be falsely so called, and I think one 

may say that the mystery of Christ is idle trickery '^ if it is 'j''Ka7oy 
thus as our opponents foolishly say. Where then is the yaKKT/xby 
Union and in regard to what do they say that it has been 
wrought ? or haply this that the Word was made flesh is 
found to be untrue and to have been superfluously brought 
in, if the Word from forth God the Father have not been 
called son of David by reason of His being made from 
forth his seed after the flesh. But I think that they ought 
to hear from us too what was said by Christ Himself to the 
chiefs of the Jews, What thinh ye of Christ ? whose son is S. Matt. 
Be ? and should they say, David^s, they will hear from us, 
Sow therefore does David in spirit call Him Lord saying, lb. 43-45. 
i The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My Right Hand 
until L put Thine enemies the footstool of Thy Feet ? if there- 
fore David in spirit^ call Him Lord, hoiv is He his Son? 
does he who is not by Nature and truly Son (as our oppo- 
nents say) co-sit with God, and is he co-Throned (tell me) 
with Him Who ruleth all things ? albeit, as saith the all- 
wise Paul, to no one of the angels hath the Father at any 
time said, My Son art thou, nor yet, Sit on My Eight 
Hand. How then is he who is forth of a woman in su- 
premest dignity and on the seat of the Godhead and be- 
yond all Rule and Lordship, Thrones and Authority and Eph. i. 
every name that is named ? 

And note how the Lord saying, If therefore David in s. Matt. 
spirit call Him Lord how is He his Son, induces those who ^^"■'*^* 
would be searchers of the truth, to hold that the Word 
when in participation of flesh and blood hath remained even 
thus One Son : witnessed to that He is God from God-be- 
fitting Excellency and Lordship, while His being called 
also Son of David signifieth full well that He is Man. 

B. Perhaps they will say to this (for I am pointing out 

i Compare the fragments of Theodore ^ The syriac translation ofthistrea- 
as cited before tlie fifth general coimcil, tise has also the words in spirit here. 
a.t the end of this volume. 

270 David's Son God Incarnate : 

Christ [their reply]), „ Are we then to admit that he too who is 
„ forth of the seed of David is forth of the Essence of 
,, God the Father?,, 

A. Yet how hath not such a question exceeding worth- 
lessness ? and it is incongruous to the might of the mys- 
tery and to them who delight in the truth. 

B. Tell me how. 

A. Do not divide, saying that he who is forth of the seed 
of David is other than the One Christ and Son and Lonl : 
for right utterance wills that the Only-Begotten Son WIio 
hath His Being forth of God the Father is Himself, and 
none other, him who is forth of David after the flesh. Let 

8 ffxfipov- them not therefore of their boundless stupidity ^ say that 
as the Word Who came down out of heaven is not by nature 
David's Son, thus neither is he who is forth of the seed of 
David Son of God by Nature. For the Word Who by 
Nature and in truth beamed forth of the Father, having 
assumed flesh and blood, as I just now said, hath remained 
the Same, that is, by Nature and truly Son of the Father, 
being One Only and not as if one with another, that His 
Person may be conceived of as One. For thus gathering 
unto union true and above mind and speech things which by 
the count of their nature had been sundered unto unlike- 
ness, we shall advance on the unerring path of the faith. 
For we say that One and the Same Christ Jesus is forth of 
God the Father as God the Word, forth of the seed of Di- 
vine David after the flesh. Do not I seem to you to have 
most rightly considered these things ? 

B. Surely. 

A. I will ask the opponents something else too. 

B. What is that ? 

A. Are they not assured that the Only-Begotten God 
the Word hath His Being from forth God the Father and 
do they not afiirm that the man taken (as they say) by 
connection is made from forth the seed of Divine David ? 

B. So they say. 

A. The Word therefore being God will most assuredly 
surpass both in Nature and in glory him who is forth of 

else a man over all, God blessed for ever, 271 

the seed of David and will overpass to the extent of the is One 
difference of the natures. Or if it be not as I say, why do 
they sever and allot to the one the right to the glory, and 
bring in the other as recipient, and as gaining what he is 
by way of a prize and in the light of a largess ? bat less 
full surely and inferior is the receiver to the giver and to 
him who gives the glory that which is participant of the 
glory from him. 

B. I suppose that they too would say that most vast is 
the difference between God and men. 

A. Then how does the all-wise Paul, the priest of the 
Divine mysteries, he that hath indwelling Him Who is 
preached, and who speaketh in the Spirit : how does he both 
call Him that after the flesh is of the Jews, God and say 

that He is blessed for ever, amen ? what is there above God ^°'"- ^^^ 
Who is over all ? what will a man behold in the Word Who 
is forth of the Father greater than he is who after the flesh 
is of the Jews if he be a son other than He and separate 
and not truly so ? 

B. But he who is forth of the seed of David was admitted 
(they say) by connection and, seeing that the Word being 
God indwelt him, he shares His Dignity and His Honour : 
and this the most holy Paul will teach writing of him that 

he tuas made subject to the Father unto death, yea the death of Pl^il- "• 
the cross, ivherefore God also super-exalted him and gave him 
a name ivhich is above every name : and this name is God, 

A. Do they then say that to him that is of the seed of 
David sejoarately and as to another son apart by himself 
has been given by God the name which is above every name ? 

B. Yea (they say), for to the Only-Begotten Who is God 
and forth of God by Nature, how could that be given which 
He hath ? 

A. Therefore, if the receiving is not put respecting Him, 
let accurate investigation be made from what the Divine 
Paul himself hath written : For let each one of yourselves be lb. 5—9. 
of the mind ivhich ivas also in Christ Jesus Who being in the 
form of God held not the being Equal to God a thing to seize ^, 

1 See above p. 165 note j. 

272 and a man the Form of God. The emiotyinrj, lohat. 

Christ yet did He empty Himself tali'ing bondman's form, made 
in liheness of men, and found in fashion as a man He abased 
Himself made suljed unto death, yea tJie death of the cross : 
wherefore God also super-exalted Him and gave Him the "* 
name which is above every name. If ° therefore it is, ac- 
cording to them, the man that is forth of the seed of David 
conceived of separately and by himself who received the 
name that is above all, let them shew him pre-existing in 
the Form of God, and not holding the being equal to God 
a matter for robbery and moreover taking bondman's form, 
as though that is he had it not and was not so ere he took 
it : albeit as themselves say and choose to think, himself 
is the bondman's form. Then how can he take it as though 
he had it not ? how too will a man be conceived of as made 
in lil-eness of men, and be ^onndi in fashion as a man? The 
force of the ideas then will turn them round even against 
their will to know the truth, 
B. What truth ? 

A. God the Word Who is in the Form of God the Father, 
the Impress of His Person, Who is in all Equal to Him 
Who begat Him, hath emptied Himself. 

B. And what is the emptying ° ? 

A. The being in assumption of flesh and in bondman's 
form, the likeness to us of Him Who is not as we in His 
own Nature but is over the whole creation. Thus hath 

™ The codices A.B.C. of the New He is seen assuming what is alien to 

Testament insert the article, tlie Name. Him, through which also He became 

Among the different quotations of this poor?" Dial. 4 p. 519 cd. Against the 

text by S. Cyril there is variation of Arians who argued from the name above 

MSS., but the article frequently occurs: every name that the Son was exalted in 

and in the Thesaurus the very good xtli consequence of His humiliation S. Cyril 

century Ms. Cod. Monac. 331 has it. writes, " Therefore (for I will say some- 

n See this passage carefully explained thing) deeming for the moment below 

in S. Cyril's Treatise to the Empresses what is fitting for need sake: let the 

Pulcheria and Eudocia on the right Only- Begotten have the greatest thank 

Faith, cap. 13 pp. 141 e 142. to the falls of those on the earth and to 

o " He was God forth of God, Only our sins, let Him know that the sins of 

Out of Only, and Ineffably Begotten : human nature are to Him the cause of 

but when He was made as we, then then God-making glory. For had we not 

will He at last be classed with His bre- sinned He had not been made as we, had 

thren through being called First-born. He not been made as we, neither had He 

For where is the emptying, except in His endured the cross, and had He not died 

being made First-born out of Only-Be- neither had He obtained the obligation of 

gotten, and among creatures with us as being worshipped by ourselves and tlie 

man Who is above all creation ? where holy angels." Dial. 5 p. 5G7 fin. See 

at all became He^oor being Rich, except also above p. 57 note y. 

Ao^a TrpoKoa/xio';. One Lord Jesus Clii'ist. 273 

He abased Himself, lowering Himself economically into is One 
the measures of the human nature ; yet was He even so 
God, as having not by gift That which comes to Him by 
Nature. Therefore He also said to God the Father Which 
is in Heaven, Father glorify Me with the glory which I had S. John 
before the luorld luas, ivith Thee. For I do not suppose that ^^"' 
they will say that Jie is asking for the glory which was be- 
fore the world as being his own, he [I mean] who in the 
last times of the world was born of the seed of David, if so 
be he is son by himself other than He Who is so by Nature 
and truly : but this utterance will rather be a most God- 
befitting one. For it needed, it needed that He should be 
co-fashioned ^ in the measures of the manhood and should ^ i-^- "«"it^^ 
have the Excellence of the God-befitting Dignity Unim- 
paired and Essentially in Himself just as it is in the Father 

too. For how will that be true, There shall he in thee no Ps. Ixxxi. 

')'iew god, if according to them a man is made god by connec- 
tion with the Word and is declared co-enthroned and sharer 
of the Father^ s Dignity ? 
B. You say well. 

A. How is one to conceive of that which is wisely spoken 

by voice of Paul, Fo7' even though there be many gods both in iCor.viii. 
heaven and on earth yet to us is One God the Father from ' 
Whom are all things and we from Him, and One Lord Jesus 
Christ through Whom are all things and we through Him ? 
For there being One Lord Jesus Christ and Paul having 
full well affirmed that through Him all things have been 
brought to their birth, what shall we do, noble sirs, when 
ye distinguish from the assumed man as ye call him, the 
Word from forth God the Father ? which are we to say 
was the Creator of all ? 

B. The Son by Nature from forth God the Father, i. e., 
the Only-Begotten. 

A. Yet does the priest to us of the Divine Mysteries 
say that through Jesus Christ were all things brought to 
being, and that He is One and Only. I will recall that when 
investigating the name Christ we said that it introduces to above p. 
us the declaration of anointing : for on account of having ^^' 

274 One, God i)iade man, anointed, seen, come in 

Christ been anointed would any be called christ^. Eitber tbere- 
fore let them say that the Word from forth God the Father 
has been anointed in His proper Nature and that He was in 
need of sanctification through the Spirit and of participa- 
tion from Him, or let them teach how He is to be conceived 
of as Christ Who has never been anointed, and how the 
Only-Begotten Word of God will be called separately Jesus, 
S.Lukei. although blessed Gabriel says to the holy Virgin, Fear not 
Mary, for Jo Own shalt conceive in thy luomb and shalt hear a, 

S. Matth. gon and shalt call His Name Jesus, for He shall save His 
1-21. ,/.,.. 

jjeople from their sins. 

B. Do we then say that all things have been made through 
a man and that he who in the last times of the world hath 
birth of a woman is Creator of heaven and earth and in 
short of all things that are in them ? 

A. Do thou too say, for I will ask : Has not the Word 
been made flesh ? has He not been called son of man? took 
He not bondman's form? emptied He not Himself, made 
in likeness of men and found in fashion as man ? If there- 
fore they deny the Economy, the Divine Disciples will 

IS. John withstand them saying, And we saw and testify that the 

' ' Father liath sent the Son Saviour of the ivorld : ivhoso shall 

confess that Jesus is the Son of God God ahideth in him and 

lb. 2, 3. Jie in God, and again, Herein is Icnown '^ the Spirit of God, 
every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ has come in 
the flesh is from God and every spirit luhich does not confess 
Jesus is not from God. Besides what sense has it, to con- 
ceive of a man that he has come in flesh ? to one who is 
external to flesh and who is of Nature not ours, will rather 

P See above p. 252 and Scholia § 1 yLvcLffuere, while in S. Cyril's second 

above p. 185, JVhat is Christ. In both publication of it as the seventh of these 

passages are mentioned those who were Dialogues yii/aiaKerai remains. In S. 

called f Arises from having been anointed : Cyril's Treatise de recta fide (p. 94 c) 

we have translated, anointed, reserving to the Princesses Arcadia and Marina, 

the Greek word Christ, for the Name of yivwa-Kerai is read, and in this place not 

our Master. only does the one MS. which has pre- 

<i yivclxTKeTai, is linown, instead of served us the treatise give yivwffKeTai 
yivtiffKire, ye knoiv. The interchange but also it was so translated in the Syriac 
of the vowels e and ai, having the same version of this treatise, the British Mu- 
sound, is so common, that it does not in seum MS. Add. 17149 fol. 58 init. writ- 
general amount to a difference of read- ten in the sixth century, i. e. in the 
ing. In the treatise de recta fide to the century immediately following S. Cyril. 
Emperor Theodosius, both MSS. give 


flesh, saved His oivn peojAe, God in our liheness. 275 

belong tlie being made in flesh also and therewith coming is One 
into this world together with remaining what He is. Hence 
even though He have been made man, there is nothing to 
hinder our conceiving that through Him were all things 
brought into being, in that He is conceived of as God and 
co-eternal with the Father. For the Word being God has 
not been changed, even though He have assumed flesh en- 
souled with a reasonable soul, not connecting a man with 
Himself, as they say who innovate the Faith, but Himself 
made flesh as I said, i. e., man : for thus will the having 
been anointed befit Him nor meet with any objection; and 
He will be called Jesus too, being Himself in truth He 
Who underwent birth in the flesh from forth a woman. 
For thus hath He saved His own people, not as a man con- above p. 
uected with God but as God made in the likeness of the im- 
perilled, in order that in Him first the human race might 
be re-formed to what it was in the beginning : for all 2 Cor. 
things were new in Him. ^* ^'' 

B. Hence we must refuse to think or to say that a man 
has been connected with God the Word and been made 
partaker of His Dignity and that he possesses the sonship 
as a grace. 

A. Most entirely : for the sense of the sacred Scriptures 
acknowledges it not, but it is the invention rather of a 
mind loving novelty "^ and feeble and weak and unable to 
see the depth of the mystery : for where has anything of 
this kind been said by the holy Scripture ? for the Divine 
Paul stating full clearly the Mystery of the Incarnation of 
the Only-Begotten, says. For since the little ones have ])ar- Heb. ii. 
taken of blood and flesh, He too likewise partooJc of the same ' 
in order that through death He might bring to nought him 
that has the ^ower of death, i. e. the devil, and elsewhere, 
For the imijossibilitg of the law wherein it loas loealc through Rom.viii. 
the flesh God se7iding His own Son in liheness of flesh of sin ^> ■*• 
and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh, in order that the 
oi'dinance of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not ac- 

' The Greek h&s <I>iKok4vov, loving ty-lov'mg: and the two words «ej/bs and 
empty show, but the syriac translation Kaivhs are put one for the other : see last 
appears to have read <pi\oKaiuov, novel- note as to tne interchange of e and ai. 


276 If Christ not God, a redeemed redeemer, 


p. 248 
note g, p. 
254 note 

Kws, non- 



Tit. ii. 

Rom. i. 

1 Cor. 
iv. 7. 

cording to the flesh hut according to the Spirit. Bat we say 
tliat there lias partaken of blood and flesli according to 
tlie mind befitting the inspired writers — not he who is in 
flesh and blood of his proper nature and cannot be other- 
wise but — He Who is not so and is of other Nature than 
ours ; and that He has been made both from forth a 
tvoman and in liliencss of flesh of sin Who is for our sakes 
as we together with being above ns too in that He is con- 
ceived of as God. For the Word has been made fleshy yet 
not flesh of sin : but in likeness of flesh of sin did He con- 
verse with them on the earth as man and has been made 
in likeness as we, yet not along with us under sin but re- 
moved from knowing transgression (for the Same was God 
alike and Man) : but they who bear away (I know not how) 
from the Only-Begotten the so august and admii'able Eco- 
nomy, connect with Him a man by way of accident^, 
embellished with honours from without and adorned with 
glory not his ; and no true God but partner and partaker 
with God, and son falsely so named, saviour that is himself 
saved, redeemer who is redeemed : albeit the blessed Paul 
has written thus. For the saving grace of God cvpjpear- 
ed to all men, in order that denying impiety and worldly 
lusts we might live soberly and religiously in the present life, 
awaiting the blessed hope and manifestation of the glory of 
our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

B. Yea, they say : for seeing that He was altogether 
vouchsafed connection with God the Word, he too was 
called gi'eat God albeit made of the seed of David. 

A. For shame, what madness : aflirming that they are 
ivise they became foolish, as it is written. For they trans- 
form {as I said) the force of the mystery of Christ into all 
that is opposite ; and their saying that he has been vouch' 
safed will be nought else than declaring that he is mere 
man and in ill counsel severing him into an utter diversity, 
so that a pair of sons be conceived of, to be worshipped, 
whereof One is so by Nature and truly, the other adopted 
and bastard and having nothing that is his own, that to 
him too along with ourselves it may be said. For ivhat hast 


ayes and uo, a filled full, not emptied, two not one, 277 

thou that thou receivedst not : and then whitlier will the all- is One 
wise Paul go who says, For the Son of God Christ Jesus 2 Cor. 
Who loas preached among you through me and Silvanus and '' ^^' 
Timothy ivas not Yes and No but in Him ivas Yes? For how 
was He not Yes and No, if He is said to be God and is not 
God ? if the names Son and Lord are falsely attributed to 
Him ? and if He be thus as they say, it will belong to Him 
to have to say, But hy the grace of God I am what I am. i Cor. 
For that which belongs not by nature but is from without ^^' ^^' 
and introduced and given by another, will not belong to 
the recipient but to Him who imparts it and bestows it. 
And how did He also say, I am the Truth, if there is no- s. John 
thing true about Him ? haply too He was comprehended hy i^'-^'^ 
the darkness, if He lies. But He did not sin neither ivas Isa. liii. 
guile found in His mouth, as it is written. 
B. No surely. 

A. And where is the emptiness ? and of whom will it be 
conceived to have happened ? for one cannot see any one 
emptied but on the contrary being filled albeit he has 
not fulness in his own nature : for he would not have 
needed what was another's and it would have been super- 
fluous to him to have received, if he had had, of his own, 
self-completeness ^ and sufficiency unto every thing, but o/""^A''"^*'" 
(\j'& fulness did all we receive, and the preaching of the S. John 
inspired will not lie. For full is Christ and nothing what- ^* ' 
ever is given to Him so far as He is conceived of as, and 

is, God, even though to receive have been made His by 
reason of the measure of the manhood and in that He be- ^ '^*'^''''^» 


came ^ as we, to whom it will be said full rightly. For what i Cor. iv. 
hast thou that thou receivedst not ? 

B. Yea, he says, the Word from forth God the Father is 
One Christ and Son and Lord, he who is forth of David's 
seed being connected with Him. 

A. But, most excellent sirs, may one say to them, he who 
has another connected with him willnot be conceived of as 
one, how could he ? but as one with one, i. e. with another, 
and these are full surely two. But He will be conceived 
to be in truth One Son, if we say that the Same is God thp 

278 3i,s\]& Cb.eibt before tbtne. Yesterday to-day and for 

Christ Word Divinely begotten from God^ and in marvellous 
manner man and from a woman after the flesh. 

But if setting apart and severing him that is from the 
seed of David, they dismiss him from being in truth God 
and Son and say rather that he is partner in sonship and 
partaker of glory not his own, not idly (as I suppose) shall 
we find the accusations against Him by the Jews to have 
S.John been made. For they said, Fw a good ivwli ive stogie Thee 
not hut for hlasphowj hecause Thou being man malccst Thy- 
self God. 

B. And indeed they do say that both Very God and Sou 
is the One Christ, i. e., the Word out of God taking by con- 
nection him who is of David's seed. 

A. But if the Word out of God the Father is not He Who 
is also according to the flesh from a woman, but is Other 

above p. with Other % how will he be called Christ who has not been 
^^^* anointed as we already said ? 

B. Therefore if he who is of the seed of David is none 
other than the Word from forth God the Father, let him 

•npoaiw- be called also before time : then how does the all-wise Paul, 
^'"^ repelling the opinion, demand as it were with a question, 

Heb. xiii. and say, Jesus Christ yesterday and to-day, is he the same for 
ever too ? Or in another way too : for Jesus, he says, who 
is yesterday and to-day, will be the same for ever too, i. e., 
recent and yesterday and to-day, albeit God the Word co- 
existeth with His own Father. 

A. They do wrong exceedingly, turning aside the truth 
unta that which in their unwisdom seems good to them 
and corrupting the accuracy of the sacred Scriptures. If 
now one say that Christ Jesus is also before time, he will 
not miss of the truth, if the Word which is before time is 
One Son and Lord, Who in the last times underwent birth 
after the flesh of a woman. And that the Word made man 

» erepos ^60' erepou is untrue because baptizingandbeingbaptized, quickening 

God and Man is One Christ ; the things and being quickened belong not erepif; 

we are taught regarding the One Christ Kal er4pcv, not to one person and another, 

(see Scholia§36, above p. 228), His being but to Christ, kut' &\\o nal &Wo, in 

born and calling into being. His growth o?ie way and another, the one to Him as 

in wisdom and being the Giver of Wis- God, the other to Him as man, yet all 

dom. His hallowing and being hallowed, to One. 

ever. Thus Himself says. The Word God and man. 279 

as we has not been clianged, the Spirit-clad has shewn is One 
saying, Jesus Christ yesterdaij and to-day, the 8ame too for lb. 
ever. And yesterday indicates past time, to-day present 
time, for ever that which is future and to come. 

But if they think that they have thought out something 
clever, in taking yesterday and to-day to mean recent, as- 
serting and saying, He that is yesterday and to-day how 
will he be also for ever, we too will transfer the force of the 
question unto the direct opposite : The Word which is for 
ever how will He take to Himself Yesterday and to-day, 
if Christ is One and has not been divided, as says the Divine l Cor. i. 
Paul ? For that thus He would be known by us, you will 
know hence also. For although seen in the flesh and hav- 
ing entered on the measures of the human nature. He has „^fj"^^"' 
testified to Himself His Eternal ^ Being saying. Verily I S.John 
say to you, Before Abraham was I am, and again. If I told ib. iii. i.2, 
you the things of earth and ye believe not, how will ye believe 
if I tell you those of Heaven ? and no one hath gone up into 
Heaven except He which descended from heaven, the Sou of 
man. For as Word Which ever is and before the ages, 
come down from heaven, and then the Same appearing man 
as we ; as One Christ and Lord even when He was made 
flesh, does He say these things. 

B. Another argument too has been discovered by them, 
it is this : they say that he which is of the seed of David 
ought so to be called son of God as the Word Which is forth 
of God the Father is said to be son of David : for neither 
is so by nature *. 

A. Now let the mode of the true Union come in, that so 

the Word be believed to have been made flesh, i. e. man, 

and therefore son of David not falsely but as from forth 

him according to the flesh, having remained too what He 

was, i. e. God out of God. And verily the priests of the 

gospel preachings, knowing that the Same is God alike 

and man, have told us of Him. It is written of the blessed 

Baptist that, On the morrow he seeth Jesus coming to him and ib. i. 


' Compare the fragments cited before the fifth council from S. Cyril's first 
bpok against Theodore of Mopsuestia. 

280 The B. Baptist, S. Peter, Apostles lyreacU Christ God, 

Christ saitk, Behold the Lamb of God which taketJi away the sin of 
the ivorld : this it is of ivhom I said, After me cometh a Man 
tvhich has been made before me because He is prior to me, 
and I knew Him not, but in order that He should be mani- 
fested to Israel, therefore came I bapitizing in water. Under- 
stand therefore how he saying, a Man, and calling Him a 
Lamb, says that none other is He who taketh away the sin 
of the world, and hath allotted to Him this great and truly 
vast and G-od-befitting Dignity. And he says that He is 

p. 100 before and prior to him, albeit made after him, I mean ac- 

an note (.Qj,(^jjjg ^q ^\^q time of the generation after the flesh. For 
if Emmanuel is late-born " as man, yet was He before every 
time as God. His therefore is both the recent humanly 
and the Eternal Divinely : hence the all-excellent Peter 
too, looking on the "Word not bare nor without flesh, but 
appearing in flesh and blood, clearly and unerringly^ made 

S. Matt, his tribute of faith in Him, saying. Thou art the Christ, the 

lb. 17. Son of the Living God, and heard in reply, Blessed art thou, 
Simon Bar-Jona, because flesh and blood revealed it not to 
thee, but My Father which is in Heaven. But were not the 
Mystery deep, and God in the flesh, but [only] a man hav- 
ing according to them the sonship by grace, how should he 
have needed an Initiator ^ so great, that no one of them on 
the earth revealed it to the disciple, but that he had the 
Father Himself as his Instructor in this ? 

And the Divine Disciples too, seeing Him once travers- 
ing ^ the expanse of the sea, were astonished at the miracle 

lb. XIV. g^j^jj confessed the Faith, saying. Truly Thou art the Son of 
God. Yet if he is bastard and falsely-called and has from 
adoption that he is son,let them accuse the disciples of false- 

^%30°^d ^^^^> ^^^ ^^^^ when they sware it. For they have added 
Truly, affirming that He is the Son of God the Father. 
B. You speak most excellently. 

u oypiyevT^s. compare p. 20 c. 

" Late in time behold Him come " S. Cyril uses the same ai-g:ument in 

Meek offspring of a Virgin's womb." his Treatise de recta fide to the Princesses 

V oiTrAafcos. Eutliymius Zigabenus in Arcadia and Marijia, p. 82 b. comp. too 

liis extract from this treatise has aTrAws, Schol. § .'0, above p. 209. 

simphj, which is a far more usual ex- y See Schol. § 36, and the Treatise de 

pression with S. Cyril: a-rrAavrj however Recta fide to the Emperor Theodosius, 

occurs in de recta fide to the Emperor, p. 28 e. 

8. Paul too. A man has not angels of his own. 281 

A. How too has tlie Son of man His own angels % and is One 
shines forth in the gloiy of His Father ? for He says, The S. Matth. 
Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father ^' ' 
luith His angels, and again, And the Son of Man luill send lb. xiii. 
His Angels. And if they disbelieve yet, even seeing Him 
crowned in God-befitting glory and dignities so splendid 

and supreme, they shall hear Him say. If ye believe Me not S. John 
believe My ivorJis, and again. If I do not the tuorJcs of My ib. 37. 
Father, believe Me not^\ For the beholding in a man the 
excellency of the unspeakable glory, supplied not as Ano- 
ther's nor in the light of a favour, but His very own : how 
will it not persuade us that He was God in likeness as we 
and truly Son of God Who is over all ? 

B. He affirmed (he says) that His were the angels, and 

He was made the worker of these signs, the Word indwell- see chap- 

. . ter 9. 

ing Him and having imparted to Him His own glory and 

operation: for it is written, Jesus of Nazareth how God^^^^^' 

anointed Him ivith the Holy Ghost and power, Who luent 

about doing good and healing all that are oppressed by the 

devil. Anointed therefore both with power and with the 

Spirit, was He a wonder-worker ^. 

A. Then, since the Word being God, both Holy and 
having Essentially and by Nature All-Might, will never 
need either power from another or an imparted holiness : 
who now is He Who has been anointed with power and 
the Holy Ghost ? 

B. They will perhaps say. The man who is assumed by 

A. He therefore is Jesus Christ by himself and separate- 

Iv, of Whom too the all- wise Paul says. Yet to us One God l Cor. 
•^ ' viii. 6. , 

" 2 Lo a^ain He says that the spirits by Euthymius, from the eye of the copy- 
above are His angels, albeit He is call- ist wandering from one, i7i the glory of 
ed son of man." de recta fide to the His Father, to the other. 
Princesses, p. 82 c. " We believe that ^ I have followed in this the Syriac 
He is both Very God and hath been translation, it being very much S. Cy- 
made son of man economically for our ril's habit to cite fii-st one verse, and 
sakes while remaining God, and is One then a verse or two a little preceding it ; 
Lord Jesus Christ." de Recta fide to the Greek MS. here adds, but if I do, 
the Empresses, fin. p. 180 b. though ye believe not Me, believe My 

a The words, For He says—oi His Fa- works. But it looks like only an attempt 
ther, are added from the Syriac transla- to make the citation seem neater, 
tion'of this treatise. They may have « See Theodoret's objection to chap- 
been omitted by the one Greek MS. ter 9, where he quotes the same text, in 
which has preserved as this treatise and S. Cyril's Def. xii. capp. p. 227 d. 

282 IfindivolUng makes man, Father and Spirit are men. 

Christ the Father from Whom all tilings and WE from Him and 
One Lord Jesus Christ through Whom all things and we 
through Him. How then (tell me) are all things through 
a man ? why is he ranked as Son with the Father and 

5 Kol afMe- that immediately ^, no one intervening ? and wherever 

shall we put the Only-Begotten when we have brought in- 

6 the op- to His place the man ; and that (as he ^ says) inwrought 

by Him and honoured because of Him ? 

Has not their argument outstepped what is reasonable, 
is it not borne beyond bound, and as having utterly missed 
of the truth, will it not reasonably incur laughter ? 

B. The Word of God (he says) has been called man in 
some such way as this : as the man who was assumed by 
Him was born in Bethlehem of Judeea, but is called a Na- 
zarene because he dwelt at Nazareth '^, so too God the Word 
is called man because He dwelt in man. 

A. understanding senile and mind unstrung and know- 
Joel i. 5. ing how to stutter and nought else ! Bouse ye, ye drun- 
Icards, from their ivine, let one say to the opponents ; why 
do ye violence to the truth and, turning aside the force of 
the Divine doctrines, are borne forth of the King's way ? 
The Word (as it seems) has no longer heen made flesh, ac- 
^avepwno- cording to the Scriptures, but rather a dweller in man '^, 
^ avdpwTT. and it were meet that He should be called, of-man^, not 
^vaCoipat- man, just as he who dwelt at Nazareth was called, of- Naza- 
reth^, not Nazareth. And I think that there is nothing 
at all to hinder, if they think that their foolish invention is 
right, that together with the Son. the Father and also the 
Holy Ghost should be called man : for the fulness of the 
Holy and Consubstantial Trinity dwelleth in us through 
1 Cor. iii. the Spirit. And verily Paul saith. Bo ye not hiow that ye 
are God's Temple and the Spirit of God dwelleth in you, yea, 

<> Severus of Antiocli, who lived about because He dwelt in man :,, and S. Cyril 

70 years after S. Cyril's death, quoting replies to these things thus, " Madness 

from S. Cyril's books against Diodore therefore and childishness and worthy 

and Theodore,givesthispassage(S. Cyril of old women is the word: for not as 

cites Theodorus Archbishop of Mopsu- from a city one is called a citizen or of 

estia), „ But, says he, for as, although the place, so on account of indwellmg a 

He was of Bethlehem, He was called a man is the Word Who is God called 

Nazarene on account of His living and man." 
His bringing up there ; so too a man 

The Son Prophet Apostle Priest when emptied. 283 

and Christ Himself, If a man love Me he ivill keep My u'ord, is Oke 
and Ml/ Father will love him and we will come to him and xiv.Vi. 
malce Our Abode ivith him. Yet the Father has never been 
called man^ nor jet has the Holy Ghost, by reason of in- 
dwelling in us : but those men laugh at the Mystery of the 
Incarnation and twist round unto what is discordant, the 
doctrines of the Church which are so right and worthy of 
being heard. 

But let our argument proceed again on its course, bid- 
ding farewell to their vomit. For if, because of the Word 
being in him, he have been made a worker of signs, they 
perchance say that he is one of the holy Prophets, for [the 
Word] has wrought Divine signs through the hands of the 
saints too : but if they say that the Son is in these, they 
lower Him into the measure of Prophets or Apostles. 

B. Yea, they say, for has He not been called Prophet ^ 
and Apostle ? 

A. You are not wrousf : for Moses said to them of the 

race of Israel, A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up ^^^^ '"' 
to you out of yo2ir brethren, as ine : the Divine Paul too has Deut. 
written. Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly Heb. iii. 
calling, consider the Apostle and High priest of our confession 

Let them tell then, for I will ask : Would the grace of 
Prophecy or the being vouchsafed apostolic prerogative, 1^. 85°^^ 
and being: called His'h Priest too, be an honour to a man ? ^*'» ^ 

B. Yes. 

A. Yet they would say that to Christ in that He is con- 
ceived of as God these things are petty and not worthy of 
receiving, even tbougb through these very things He is 
seen emptied and receiving them with the manhood. But 
as being God by Nature and Lord in truth, He took bond- 
man^s form, made therein and assuming our estate, so, both j , 
giving the Spirit of Prophecy and ordaining Apostles and yols 
estabhshing Priests ^, He was made like in all things to His lb. ii.i7. 
brethren : for thus was He named, Propliet, Apostle, High 

E See below fragment 5 against Diodore. 



3 rh fffiiK- 
icTTiv av- 


S. Luke 
i. 15. 

S. John 
iii. 31. 

284 No dishonour to the Son in confessing these titles. 

B. But even tliougli tliey grant that He was a Propliet, 
they say that He was not so as one of the Prophets, but 
that He was placed far above their measured For they had 
the grace meted to them and accruing to them in time^ He 
was full of the Godhead even straightway from His very 
Birth, for the Word being God was with Him. 

A. It was then in the amount of grace and in length of 
time that Christ has surpassed the holy Prophets which 
were before Him, and it is this which is His special pri- 
vilege^. The point for investigation is whether He was a 
Prophet at all, and not His having more or less or even 
excelling, seeing that in His being a Prophet and in His not 
- passing beyond our measure does His low estate consist ^, 
even though He be conceived of as this from the begin- 
ning, just as was the holy Baptist too, of whom the blessed 
angel says, And he shall he filled ivith the Holy Ghost even 
from his mother's ivomh. How then was the one a servant, 
the Other All-glorious in the dignity of Lord ? And of 
himself blessed John says, He that is of the earth of the earth 
he speaketh, but of Emmanuel, Se that cometh from above 
is superior to all. 

B. Yet (will they perchance say) the Word which hath 
beamed forth of God the Father is above, yea and superior 
to all ; and they are afraid to allot to Him what belong to 
man, lest haply He be wronged thereby and brought down 
to dishonour. Therefore they affirm that He took a man and 
connected with Himself this person in regard to whom 
what belong to man might have place and be spoken of, 
and no damage should accrue to the Nature of the Word 

A. Hence he who is assumed will confessedly be conceived 
of and said to be other than He. But we will not follow 
their fatuity nor make them definers and innovators § of 
our Faith, neglecting the sacred Scripture and dishonour- 

f See below fragments 14 and 18, tions of houndary between public and 

against Diodore. private lands (Liddell and Scott) : Kai- 

g bpKTTas KoX Kaivordixovs. The 6 pi- voti^/xoi would of course involve that the 

cTTtti aie officials appoi?Ued to settle qiies- former boundary would be altered. 

Holij Scripture our Eide. Sanctifier and Sanctified. 285 

ing the Tradition from forth the holy Apostles and Evan- is One 
gelists : nor, for that a mind weak and most empty of 
learning has taken up its abode in them, and one that can- 
not look into the depth of the mystery, let us also go astray, 
sharing their unlearning and refusing to go the straight 
Avay of the truth. But we know that the most holy Paul 
hath written that we ought to throw clown reasonings and 2 Cor. x. 
everij height ivhich reareth itself against the hiowledge of God ^* 
and to reduce cajjtive evert/ thougld unto the obedience of 

Bat now, can you tell whereat they are offended and in 
Jewish wise stumble at the stone of offence ? Is. viii. 

B. I can, for how should I not ? they are very many, but ^"*' 
they shall be told one by one. 

They say therefore that Christ has been sanctified by 
the Father : for it has been written. And John witnessed s. John 
saying, I have seen the Spirit descending out of heaven and ^-^^— 34. 
It abode on Sim and I did not Jcnoiv Him hut He ivho sent 
me to baptize in ivater, Ke said to me, Upon Whom thou shalt 
see the Spirit descending and abiding upon Him, This is He 
Who baptizes with the Holy Ghost; and I have seen and 
have witnessed that this is the Son of God : Paul too hath 
written of Him, For He Who sanctifieth and the sanctified Heb. ii. 
are all out of One. For the Word being God and Holy by ' 
Nature will by no means be sanctified ; it remains there- 
fore to say that the man assumed by Him in the way of 
connection has been sanctified. 

A. How then does He Who has been baptized and Who 
received the open Descent of the Spirit, baptize with the S. John 
Holy Ghost and perform what belong to and beseem the ^' 
Divine Nature alone ?■ for He is the Bestower of holiness. 
And in proof of this the Incarnate Word breathed, as a 
bodily act, His own proper good, upon the holy Apostles 
saying. Receive ye the Holy Ghost, ivhosesoever sins ye remit lb. xx. 
-they have heew remitted, whosesoever ye retain they have been ' 
retained. And how has the divine Baptist, most clearly 
indicating Him Who has been sanctified, borne witness 

286 Di-fficulties : sanctifies and sanctified, Giver and receives, 

Christ that This is the Son of God, alone and with the article ^ ? 
For the initiator of the world should^ if he knew that it 
was another son beside Him Who is truly Son, have signi- 
fied the Truth, saying clearly, This is he who by connection 
with the Son Who is by Nature and in truth has been made 
son by gift and grace : but he said nothing of the kind but, 
knowing that He is One and the Same, both Word from 
forth of Grodthe Father, and from forth the seed of David 
according to the flesh, says that He was sanctified, as man, 
and again sanctifies, in that He is conceived of as God : for 
He was (as I said) this and that in the Same. If therefore 
He have not been made man, if He have not been born 
after the flesh from a woman, let us di'ive away from Him 
what belong to man : but if it is true that lowering Him- 
self unto emptiness He hath been made as we, why do they 
part from Him the things through which He will be con- 
ceived of as emptied, with utter ill-counsel undoing the 
fair scheme of the Economy with flesh ? 

B, If therefore He be said both to have received glory 
and been made Lord and to be exalted by the Father, to be 
set King also, shall you attribute these too to God the 
Word and will you not full surely be damaging His glory ? 
A. That the Nature of God the Word has been filled with 
true glory, Royalty and Lordship, how can one doubt ? and 
that He is firmly to be conceived of as being in heights the 
most God-befitting? but since He appeared as man to whom 
all things are a gift and imparted : therefore He, Full and 
S. John giving to all from out His oivn fulness, in human wise re- 
^* ■ ceives, making our poverty His own : and in Christ was 
an unwonted and strange marvel, in servant^s form Lord- 
ship, in human mean estate God-befitting glory, that which 
is under the yoke (as to the measure of manhood) crowned 
with the dignities of Royalty, and in Supremest Excellen- 
ces that which is low. For the Only-Begotten hath been 
made man, not in order that He might remain in the raea- 

^ ivdpOpws, like crvvdpBpuis, S, Cyril mentary on S. John 39 c d 64 b (pp. 
on S. John 1109 c. dpOpov is the article, 45, 74 O.T.), and among the fragments 
and is so used by S. Cyril, in his com- of the lost Book 7, 683 init. 


set King, ivept, feared, learned obedience. 287 

sure of the emptying, but in order that taking along there- is One 
with what is its. He might thus too be known to be God 
by Nature and might ennoble because of Himself the na- 
ture of man, rendering it participate of holy and Divine 
dignities. And we shall find the saints themselves too 
calling the Son even when He was made man, the glory 
of God the Father, and King and Lord. For Esaias some- 
where says. As if a 7iian gleaneth an olive-tree, thus shall Is.xxiv. 
they glean them, and when the vintage ceaseth, these shall lxx.* 
shout ivith their voice, and theij that are left in the earth shall 
rejoice together with the glory of the Lord, and again ano- 
ther of the saints says. Shine o Jerusalem for thy light i6' lb. ix. i, 
come and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee : lo darlc- "" 
ness and gloom shall cover the earth but upon thee shall the 
Lord appear and the glory of the Lord shall he seen on thee : 
and James His disciple says, Brethren, have not in respect S.James 
of persons the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory, the 
Divine Peter again. If ye are reproached for Christ ', ye are } S. Pet. 
blessed, because the Spirit of glory and of God hath rested 
upon you. 

B. Enough, good sir, of such testimonies : but tell us 
how we ought to understand what is written of Christ, 
Who in the days of His flesh having offered supplications and Heb. v. 
entreaties with mighty cry and tears to Him that is able to 
save Him from death and, heard for His fear *, although Son, " «"^a^"'- 
learned obedience from the tilings which He suffered and, per- fear 
fected, became author to them that obey Him of salvation in- 
dissoluble ; I will add to what I said, this too. My God, My S. Matth. 
God, why forsookest Thou Me ? for they say that such things 
are incongruous to God the Word and I would say that 
they come very far short of His inherent Excellence. 

A. I myself too know that these things would not befit 
the Word which is sprung forth of God the Father, if the 
mode of the Economy be put aside ^ and if we do not admit 

> €«/ 6v6fjiari xpiCToCjall known MSS, see too S. Cyril's Epistles, p. 79 fin. 

of S. Peter's Epistle, but Euthymius « So too "had S. Cyril written in his 

and the Syriac translation of this Trea- Dialogues to Hermias, " If one write of 

tise agree with the MS. from which it Him, Jf'lio in the days of His flesh of- 

was printed, in having iv xP'O'T'?, for fered supplications and entreaties to Him 

Christ, instead of for the name of Christ : That can save Him from death &c, de- 

288 Suiiplication and tveeping to teach us. 

Christ tliat He have been made flesli according- to the Scriptures: 
but since we rest firmly on tliisj and the doubting one whit 
about it involves a charge of impiety, come let us view 
closely, as far as we may, the depth of the economy. 

The Word therefore from forth of God the Father ap- 
peared in likeness of us, to aid in countless wa3^s our human 
condition and to shew full well the path that leads us to 
everything" that is admirable. It was then necessary that 
we should leai-n, when temptation attacks them who are in 
peril for the love of Grod, what sort of people they ought 
to be who have chosen to live a life and conversation noble 
and excellent ; whether they should be seen by their Sa- 
viour remiss and falling back into negligence and out of 
due season revelling and spreading themselves out for de- 
light : or intent unto prayer and bathed in tears and thirst- 

5 evaySpi- ing for aid from Him and for manliness ^, if He should be 
pleased that we should, also suffer. It needed besides what 
we should know to our profit, whither the goal of obedience 
ends and through what prizes it goes, what and how great 
the reward of endurance. Christ therefore became a pat- 
tern of such things, and hereto the divine Peter confirms 

1 S. Pet. us saying. For what renown if sinning and huffeted ye en- 
' ' dure? hut if well-doing ye endure, this is thank from God, 
because Christ too died for us, leaving us^ an ensamjple that 
ye should follow His steps. Hence the Word of God no 
longer bare '" and imparticipate in the measures of the emp- 
tying but in the clays of His flesh has been made a pattern 
to us ; in that then without any blame He could use the 
measures of the human nature and prolong His prayer 
and shed the tear " and seem now both to need a Saviour and 

scend a little and take account of the truly God even before the times of the 

measureof the human nature. For the emptying." Dial. 5 p. 571 e. 

Impress of the Father would not have ' Here the manuscript has you : I 

died ; but since the supplication has been have translated us with Luthymius and 

made in the chys of His flesh, the fear the Syriac translation, 

will be tliat of the flesh and the dread of >" yvfivus, unclothed in the human 

death of the human nature in itself (i'Si- nature : so S. Proclus in his great horn- 

Kcos). Hence even though He be said to ily, " Yet was He born of a woman, God 

receive the Name which is above every not bare (yvfiyhs) and man not mere 

Name, do not drive away the Son from (xf/iXds)." Serm. lin Migne, Patrologia 

the bounds of Godhead in that He is t. Ixv. G81. 

Word and hath beamed forth from God " See the magnificent passage in S. 

the Father ; for He was by Nature and Cyril's Defence against Theodoret's ob- 

Intenscst prayers, manly striving. 


to learn obedience^ albeit Son. For the Spirit-clad was 
as it were astonished at the Mystery, that being by Nature 
and truly Son and Eminent in the glories of the Godhead 
He let Himself down unto low estate, so as to undergo the 
meanness of our human poverty. Yet was the pattern ^ (as I 
said) comely and helpful, so as one might learn hence, and 
that full easily, that we ought not to hasten another road, 
when the season calls us to manliness. And indeed Christ 
said at one time. And fear not them that slay the body hut 
cannot slay the soul, hut rather fear Him Who can destroy 
hoth soul and hody in Hell, at another again, If any man 
IV ill come after Me let him deny himself and take ^ip his cross 
and follow Me. The duty of following Him, what else is it 
than that we must be all-manly against temptations, and 
with that, ask the aid that is from above not negligently 
nor remissly but using rather intensest prayers " and letting 
fall from our eyes the tear of godly fear ? 
B. You say well. 

A. If moreover He say. My God My God ivhy forsoohest 
Thou Me, how will they understand it ? 

B. They would deem, as I suppose, that these are the 
words of the man who is assumed. 

A. Of one who has broken down p and who considers the 

IS One 

6 S TOV 



S. Matth. 

lb. xvi. 

lb. xxvii. 


jection to his tenth chapter (quoted also been rid of sorrowing : except He had 

by Dr. Bright in his article on S. Cyril been troubled and dismayed, it would 

in the Dictionary of Christian Biogra- never have been in case external to these, 

phy): " He wept as man that He might Ajid in each several thing that befals 

stay thy tear, He feared, economically humanly, applying the same reasoning, 

committing to His flesh to suffer what be- jou will find that the passions of the 

longed to it, that He might make us of flesh had motions in Christ, not in order 

fairest courage, He refused the Cup that that they should prevail as in us, but in 

the Cross might reveal the impiety of the order that when moved, they should be 

Jews, He is said to be weak in His human annulled by the might of the Word 

nature that He might end thy weakness, which indwelt the flesh, the nature being 

Heprolonged prayers and supplications transformed to the better." Thes. cap. 

in order that He might render the Fa- 24. p. 233 d e. " Seest thou that what 

ther's Ear open to thy prayers, in order thou deemestto be Christ's weaknesses 

that thoii mightest learn not to slumber is thy might ? . . . Those tears wash us, 

in temptations but rather to be all-intense that weeping cleanses us." S. Ambrose 

unto prayers (Def. xii capp. adv. Theod. de fide, ii. 95. t. ii. 489. 
p. 234 a b)." And in his earlier work, o Kirais toTs fKrevecTTdrais. The 

the Thesaurus, " By His own death the Greek Liturgy has a collect beginning. 

Saviour amiulled death. As then death " O Lord our God, receive this intense 

had not been annulled, except He had supplication (t^v iKrevri ravT-qv iKeal- 

died, so in regard to each passion of the av) at the hands of Thy servants." 
I flesh. For except He had feared, our p d/crjSiwj/Tos, cf. Liddell and Scott on 

nature had not become free from fearing; the substantive aKrjSia, "torpor from 

I except He had sorrowed, it had never grief or exhaustion." 


290 Strange misappreliension of those ivho sever. 

Christ onslauglit of the trial as not to be borne^ as intolerable^ or 

how ? 

B. Of one who is distraught (as appears) out of human 

S. Matth. faint-heartedness : since to the disciples too He said, Ex- 
XXVI. 38. , , ^ 

ceeding sorrowful is My Soul unto death, and fell down be- 

Ib. 39. fore the Father Himself saying, Father, if it he possible, let 

this Cup pass from Me, yet not as I xvill hut as Thou. 

A. And verily this is nothing else than Avhat we said 
Heb.v. 7. just now, Who in the days of His flesh having offered hoth 

supplications and entreaties to Him Who could save Him 
from death with a mighty cry and tears. If any think that 
Christ had come down to this point of faint-heartedness 
S. Matth. and that He was sorrowful and very heavy, holding it in- 
^''^^" '■ tolerable to suffer, overcome with fear and mastered by 
weakness, he clearly accuses Him of not being God, and 
shews that to no purpose, as it seems, did He rebuke 

B. How do you say ? 

lb. XX. A. For Christ said. See ive are going up to Jerusalem and 

the Son of man will he betrayed into the hands of sinners, 
S.Mark and they shall moch Him and crucify Him, and the third 
S. Matth. ^^y -^^ shall rise. He being pious '^, says, \_God &e] pro- 
XVI. 22. pitioiis to Thee, Lord, tJiis shall not be to Thee. And what 
lb. 23. said Christ to him ? Get thee behind Me satan, thou art an 
offence to Me, because thou dost not thinh the things of God 
but the things of men. And yet how did the disciple miss 
of what is fitting, in wanting the trial to be taken away 
from his Master, if it were insufferable to Him and by no 
means tolerable but rather lowering unto impotence and 
apt to shiver in pieces Him Who charged His disciples to 
be stout against the fear of death and to count suffering 
nothing, so that the good-pleasure of God should be ac- 
complished by them ? 

And I wonder that they, saying that he has been con- 
nected with the Only-Begotten, and declaring him par- 
taker of the Divine dignities, subject him to the fear of 
death, that so he may be seen to be bare man as we are j 
and to have gained nothing from the Divine Dignities 



The ForsaJiing malies us unforsaJicn. 291 

B. What then is the plan of the Economy herein ? is One 

A. Clearly mystical and deep and to be marvelled at by 
them who know aright the mystery of Christ. For view 
I pray^ the words which beseem the emptying and are not 
incongruous to the measures of the manhood, how they 
were uttered in due and needful season, that He Who is 
over all creation might be seen to have been made in every 
respect as we. Hereto will follow again this also. 

B. What? 

A. Seeing that we have been made accursed because of 
the transgression in Adam and forsaken of God have fallen 
under the snare of death, and that all tilings have heen made 2 Cor. v. 
neiv in CJirist, and a return of our condition to what it was 
in the beginning [has taken place] ; need was it that tlie i Cor. xv. 
second Adam which is oitt of Heaven, He Who is superior 
to all sin, the All-holy and Undefiled second first-fruits of 
our race, Christ, should free from sentence ^ the nature of s SiVt)? 
men and call again upon it the good favour that is from 
above and from the Father and undo the forsaking i 
through His Obedience and entire subjection. For He did 
no sin, and the race of man in Him has gained the riches 
of spotlessness and entire blamelessness, so that it at length 
may with boldness cry out, Mij God my God ivhi/ forsoohest S. Matth. 

m o xxvii. 46. 

Tliou me f 

For consider that the Only-Begotten having been made 
man, gave forth such words as one of us and in behalf of 
our whole nature, as though He said '', The first man hath 

1 r7)v iyKcirdXeiipii/, the withdrawal ■■" Wherefore of necessity when He 

of the Spirit from our race, as God said, was in a body suffering and weeping and 

Ml/ Spirit shall not alivays strive ivith toiling, these things which are proper to 

man. Although the Holy Ghost was the flesh are ascribed to Him together 

still given to individuals as God willed, with the body. If then He wept and was 

yet the "forsaking" was undone in troubled,itwas^not the Word considered 

the great Pentecostal outpour. S.Cyril as the Word (jT ^i'yos) Who wept and 

eleswhere says, " As one therefore of the was troubled but it was proper to the 

forsaken, in that He too like us partook flesh ; and if too He besought that the 

of blood and flesh. He says. Why for- cup might pass away, it was not the God- 

sookest Thou Me ? which was [the ut- head tliat was in terror but tliis affection 

terance] of one who was undoing the too was proper to the manhood. And 

forsaking that had come upon us and as that the words. Why hast Thou forsaken 

it were winning the Father to Himself and Me, are His according to the foregoing 

calling Him to good favour to us as to explanations, though He suffered no- 

Himself first." De recta fide to the Em- thing (for the Word was impassible), is 

presses Pulcheria and Eudocia § 12 tin. notwithstanding declared by the Evan- 

p. 141 a. gelists ; since the Lord became man and 


292 Christ calls bach on us tJie Pity of the Father. 

Chuist transgressed^ lie slipped down into disobedience, he heeded 
not the command given him, by the wiles of the dragon he 
was carried off into wilfulness : therefore full rightly has 
he been subjected unto decay and has become subject 
to doom, but Thou didst plant Me a second beginning to 
them on the earth, I am called, Second Adam. In Me 
Thou seest the race of man purged, achieving sinless- 
ness, holy, all- pure. Give now the good things of Thy 
Clemency, undo the forsaking, rebuke decay and let wrath 
reach its period. I have conquered Satan himself too who 
of old prevailed, for he found in Me no whit of what was 

Such then, as I think, is the meaning of the Saviour^s 
words; for He was inviting the good favour of the Father 
not on Himself but on us rather. For as the [fruits] of 
wrath passed through as from the first root, I mean Adam, 
Rom. V. unto the whole nature of man (for death hath reigned from 
Adam unto Moses over them too which sinned not after the 
lilieness of Adam's transgression) : thus too will the [fruits] 
from our second first-fruits, Christ, pass through unto the 
whole human race. And the all-wise Paul will be our war- 
lb. 15. rant, saying, For if by the transgression of one man the many 
died, much more by the righteousness of the One shall the 
1 Cor. many live, and again. For as in Adam all die so too in 
CJtrist shall all be quichened. 

B. Unwise therefore and utterly incongruous to the holy 
Scriptures is it both to deem and to say that the man as- 
sumed used human expressions as forsaken by the Word 
which was connected with him. 

A. Blasphemy, my friend, and a proof of the uttermost 

these things are done and said as from a veil was rent, and the sun was hidden, 

man, that He might Himself lighten and the rocks were torn asunder, and the 

these very sufferings of the flesh and free graves, as I have said, did gape and the 

it from them. Whence neither can the dead in them arose." S. Athan. against 

•Lord be forsaken by the Father Who is Ariansiii. 5Gpp.478, 1790.T. "When 

ever in the Father, both before He spoke then He is said to hunger and weep and 

and when He uttered these words weary, and tocry Eloi, Eloi, whicn are 

For behold when He says, Why hast our human affections, He receives them 
Thou forsaken Me, the Father shewed from us and offers to the Father, inter- 
that He was ever and even then in Him; ceding for us that in Him they may be 
for the earth knowing its Lord Who annulled." S. Ath. against Arians, iv, 
spoke, straightway trembled and the 6 p. 520 O.T. See too note q. 

To God the Son belona both Divine and human. 293 

stupefaction, and that full clear, will this be, yet is it not in- is One 
congruous to those who understand not to think arisfht. 
For since they sever and divide utterly both words and facts chapter 4. 
and have allotted the one to the Only-Begotten alone and 
by Himself, the other as it were to a son other than He 
and from a woman, therefore have they missed of the 
straight and most unerring way and of clearly knowing the 
mysteiy of Christ. 

B. We must not then divide either words or facts, when 
the Gospel and Apostolic preachings are brought forward ? 

A. By no means, as far as pertains to two persons and 
hypostases ^ severed from one another and diverging alto- ^JP'^*^»'^» 
gether apart and separately : for in that there is One Son, y-^oari- 
the Word made Man for our sakes, I would say that all 

are His, both words and facts, both the God-befitting and 
besides the human. 

B. Hence even if He be said to be weary from the jour- S. John 
ney % to be hungry and to share ia sleep : will it be fit (tell 

me) to allot to God the Word things thus mean and abased ? 

A. The Word still bare ^ and not yet Incarnate and ere ' "^^^^ 
He descended unto the emptying, it will by no means befit note m. 
(for you deem aright), but to Him made man and emp- 
tied what h.urt can this inflict on Him ? for as we say that 
His flesh was made His own ', so again His are the weak- 
nesses of the flesh through the Economic appropriation of 
them and after tlie mode of the emptying, for He ivas made Heb, ii. 
nice in all things to His brethren, without sin alone. And 
marvel not that we say that He has made the weaknesses 

8 "We know, brethren, that One and thority rebukes the sea and the winds: 

the Same is He Who through the holy the Same Who was wearied with the 

Virgin, Mary Mother ofGod, was born, journey, the Same Who walked on the 

Perfect God and Perfect Man, ensouled, sea as on solid ground by His own Pow- 

rational. Therefore do we both say that er ; the Same therefore God, the Same 

the holy Virgin is Mother of God and man undoubtedly." From a short ser- 

that God the Word indwelt her, not in mon printed after the Scholia, t. v. i. pp. 

semblance but in operation; the Same 801, 802 Aub. See too from S. Gre- 

when two-months old and three-months gory Nyssa, " Human poverty doth not 

old, [do we confess] Son of God alike and feed the thousands nor doth Almighty 

Son of man. Yea and the words both of power run to the fig tree," in Dr. New- 

the human nature and those uttered in man's translation of S. Athanasius a- 

God-befittingauthoritywhichtheDivine gainst Arians, p. 479 O.T. note b. 
Scriptures recount to us of Him, we say « See above pp. 8, 142, 194, 249, 251, 

are gathered into One Person. For we 261, and 3 Ecumenical Epistles, pp. 57, 

know that the Same is He Who sleeps on 64 and note d. 
the pillow, the Same He Who mm au- 

294 Christ God the Son Incaniate yet still 

Christ of tlie flesh His owu along with the flesh : whence to Him- 
self again hath He allotted the contumelies too from with- 
out, which were put upon Him by the frowardness of the 

Ps. xxii. Jews, saying through the voice of the Psalmist, They parted 
My garments among themselves and upon My vesture they 

lb. 7. cast the lot, and again, All that see Me sneered at Me, they 
spake 'with their lips, they wagged the head. 

S. John B, Hence though He say for example. Me that hath seen 

Ib.x.30. -^^'3 hath seen the Father, I and the Father are One, and to 

lb. viii. the Jews, Why are ye seeking to Mil Me, a man Who hare 

told you the truth ■which I heard of God, shall we allow that 

the words both one and other belong to One and the Same V 

A. Most certainl}^, for Christ has never been divided, but 

is believed to be One and Only and Very Son by all who 

Col. i. 15, worship Him. For the Image of the Invisible God, the 
Brightness of the glory of the Person of the Father, the 
Impress of His Essence, took bondman's form, not as though 
connecting a man to Himself, as they say, but rather Him- 
self made in that form, yet even so abiding in likeness to 

2 Cor. iv. Grod the Father. And the all-wise Paul hath written, For 
it is God Who said that the light shoidd shine forth of dark- 
ness, Who shone in our hearts unto the illumining of the 
knowledge of His glory in the Face of Christ Jesus. For 
view how it is in the Person of Christ ^ that the illumining " 
of the Divine and Inefiable glory of God the Father shines 
forth : for the Only-Begotten albeit made man shews in 
Himself the glory of the Father, for This Alone and none 
other is conceived of and called Christ '^. Else let our op- 
ponents teach us how one can behold in a mere man the 
illumining or the knowledge of the Divine glory ? for not in 
the form of man shall we see God : yet in the Word Alone 
Which has been made as we and made Man and hath even 

^ iv TrpoauTTcfi xp^'^'^ov, in the face (or and (in its later form) Dial, ad Herm. 

in the person, as 2 Cor. ii. 10) of Christ, Book 7, p- 702 d. 

Compare, See I have accepted thy face, " " Christ is no single term, but in 

in the Old Testament- that name which is one, is the significa- 

' " Lo clearly and evidently the illii- tion of both, of Godhead and of man- 

mining of the knowledge of God the Fa- hood. Wherefore Christ is called man 

ther shone forth in the Face [or Perso?!^ and Christ is called God and Christ is 

of Christ. Wherefore He also said, He both God and man and Christ is One." 

that hath seen Me hath seen the Father, S.Athanasius against ApoUmarius, i. 

I and the Father are One." De recta 13, t. i. 932 f. 
fide to the Emperor Theodosius 30 a, 

God. Increased in stature and wisdom and grace. 295 

thus remained by Nature and truly Son^ miglit one in won- is One 
drous wise see this too, in that He is conceived of as God. 
And verily the steward of His Mysteries, having called Him 
Christ Jesus as having been made as we and Incarnate, 
knows that He is so together with being God by Nature and 
in truth : for he writes after this wise. More boldly in part I Rom. xv. 
have written to you, as reminding you because of the gracegiveii ' 
me by God that I should be a minister of Christ Jesus, minis- 
tering the Gospel of God ^, Zacharias too prophesieth to his 
own child, I mea,n the Baptist, And thou, little one, shalt be S. Luke 
called the prophet of the Most High, for thou shalt go before ^' ' 
the face of the Lord to prepare a people for Him : and lb. 17. 
the Divine Baptist pointed out the Most High and Lord 
saying. See the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin q/" S.John i. 
the world : This is He of Whom I said, After me cometh a ' 
Man who has been made before me because He was prior to 
me. Is it then lawful to doubt that One and Only and 
Truly Son is the Word forth of God the Father together 
with the flesh united to Him and that not without soul, as 
some say, but ensouled with reasonable soul and in all re- ^'"p°'^"- 
spects One Person- with it^? ^aurvie. 

B. I would not doubt it in the least, for One Lord, One Eph. iv. 
faith, One Baptism. But if Jesus be said to advance in s'. Luke 
stature and wisdom and grace, who is it that has been made ""^ ' 
in these ? for the Word Who is forth of God the Father 
being full and Perfect in Himself*, what and whereunto " «vto- 
will He take accession or advance ? being Himself Wisdom, 
He will not be said to be recipient of wisdom ^ We must 
enquire then, they say, to whom these things belong. 

A. We must then (it is like) bring in another son and lord, 
because some cannot I'each the depth of the holy Scriptures. 
The wise Evangelist therefore, having first brought in that 
The Word has been made flesh, sets Him forth Economically 

y " They who are entrusted with the Christ to the Gentiles, he says that he 

priesthood minister to God alone, for ministers to them God's Gospel, that 

priests stand not before men. See there- they may be accepted as sanctified in 

fore the Divine Paul says that grace has the Spirit." De recta fide to the prin- 

been given him of God, to be a minister cesses Arcadia and Marina, p. GO a. 

of Christ Jesus, and to minister among ^ The syriac translation adds, "Who 

the Gentiles the Gospel of Christ, is the Giver of wisdom to them who are 

Christ therefore is God, if preaching recipient of wisdom." 

296 TJie Incarnate Son malces His even the dailij growth; 
Christ charffinff His own flesh, to proceed by tlie paths of its own 

comp.p.8. ,-,■-,. I T 

nature; and it belongs to human nature to advance m 
stature and wisdom, I may say in grace also, in that the 
understanding too that is in each springs upward conjointly 
with the measures of the body : for it is one in babes, other 
again in those that are now children and upwards. For 
it were not impossible or impracticable to the Word from 
forth of the Father as God, to rear on high even from the 
very swaddling-clothes tbe body which was united to Him 
and to bring it up to the measure of perfect stature ; I will 
say too that to shew forth admirable wisdom even in His 
baby-state would have been both easy and without ob- 
Tot'^'used stacle ^ to Him, yet would it have savoured of wonder- 
of good, "working and been incongruous to the plan of the Economy ; 

easy rid- " ° ^ . 

ing for the Mystery was performed noiselessly. He permitted 

therefore economically tlie measures of human nature to 

seep. 114 prevail in His own case, for this too will have been arranged 
and note h; tptti ii t 

\xi the meet order oi the likeness to usward, whose advance 

is by little and little to what is greater, as the season calls 

us to accession of stature and of understanding not out of 

harmony tlierewith. 

All- Perfect therefore, and un-lacking of ought whatever, 

and too of increase, is the Word from forth tbe Father 

as God : yet makes He His own what is ours seeing He has 

been made as we : yet we know that He is even so above 

us as God. And verily Paul dares, albeit knowing that 

He has been made flesh, looking at the Excellences of 

the Godhead, in places to say that He is not even man : 

Gal. i. 1. he vtrites to them of Galatia, Taiil an apostle not from men 
nor through, man hut through Jesus Christ, and elsewhere 

lb. 11,12. too, I declare to you the Gospel which ivas gospelled by 
me that it is not after man, for neither did I receive it from 
man nor was I taught it, hut through revelation of Jesus 

B, We must therefore adapt to Him both the being said 
to progress in wisdom and stature and grace, just as [we 
do] the hungering and being weary and the like : and 
perhaps even if He be said to suffer and to have been 

He redeemed us, His tlie flesli and blood. 297 

quickened by tlie Fatlier, we sliall allot to Him tliese is One 
things too. 

A. Yes, for we say that His are the human by an Eco- 
nomic appropriation ^, and along with the flesh that which ^ <"'««'- 
is its : seeing that no other son beside Him is conceived 
of by us, but the Lord Himself hath saved us, giving His Isa.lxiii. 
own Blood a ransom for the Hfe of all; for we were bought i Cor. vi. 
luith a price, not with things corruptible silver or gold but^^ p^^. 
ivith the Precious Blood as of a Lamb Immaculate and tvith- ^* i^» ^^^ 
out blemish, Christ, Who offered Himself in our behalf for 
an odour of a sweet smell to God the Father. And hereto 
will be our warrant Paul most learned in the law, who hath 
written, 5e therefore imitators of God as beloved children, Eph. v. 

. '' . .12 

and walk in love as CJirist too loved us and delivered Himself ' 

for us an offering and sacrifice to God for an odour of a sweet 

smell. But since Christ hath been made a su:eet smell for 

us shewing in Himself the nature of man in possession of 

sinlessness, we have had confidence ^ through Him and in ^ <"■. bold- 

Him with God the Father Which is in Heaven : for it is 

written. Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the Heb. x. 

holy in the blood of Christ, ivhich He inaugurated for us, a ' 

neiv and living way through the veil, that is, through His flesh. 

Understand therefore how he says that His is the Blood 

and His the flesh, which he also calls the veil and with good 

reason, in order that whatever in the temple the sacred 

veil used to eff'ect, concealing full well the holy of holies, 

somewhat of the same might the flesh too of the Lord be 

conceived of as doing, not permitting the marvellous and 

choice Excellence and glory of God the Word to it 

united, to be seen by any bare so to say and unhidden. 

And verily some imagined that Christ was Elias or one o/S.Matth. 

. . -1 xvi. 14. 

the Prophets, but the Jews, not a whit understanding the 

mystery respecting Him, railing said. Is not this the car- lb. xiii. 

penter' s son ^ ? how saith He noiv, I have come doivn from s,' John 

heaven ? for invisible by Nature is the Godhead, yet was "" ' 

He seen of those on earth in likeness with us Who in His 

own Nature is not visible, and the Lord God appeared to 

* Y ox the carpenter s soh, the Syriac Translation gives, Jesus the carpenter' s son. 

298 If Gob the Son Incarnate suffered not, 

Christ US. And this I tliink the Divine David teaches saying, 

Ps. 1.3. God shall come manifestly, our God, and shall not he 'passed 
LXX . .7 

over m silence. 

B. You think aright, bat they maintain that these things 

chapter are uot so, far from it. For in no wise do they choose to 

attribute the suffering on the cross to the Word Who 

above sprang from God, but they say that He prepared the man 

^' ' ' who was connected with Him in equal honoui', to undergo 

the contumelies of the Jews and the sufferings on the cross, 

yea and death itself and that he became the captain of our 

salvation, in the might of the Word Who was co-with him 

coming back to life and doing to nought the power of 


A. Will they then be able out of the Holy Scriptures to 
» Kaivo- prove to us that their account hereof is true ? or do they 

TOfJLOVffl _ ... .7 

Jer. xxiii. innovate ® the Faith, uttering things out of their heart and 
not out of the mouth of the Lord, as it is written, or haply 

Gal. vi. unable to say, God forbid that I should glory save in the 
cross of Christ through which the world hath been crucified 
to me and I to the world ? 

B. Yea, they say, for the all-wise Paul confirms us here- 

Heb. ii. to having^ written thus, For it became Him because of Whom 
10. . ... 

all things and through Whom all things, bringing many sons 

to glory, to perfect through sifferings the Captain of their 
salvation. For He (they say) in Whom are all things and 
through"^ Whom all things will be none other than the 
Word Which sprang from forth of God. He therefore 
perfected through sufferings the captain of our salvation, 
i. e. him from forth the seed of David. 

A. We have therefore been redeemed by God no more 
(for how or whence could we ?) but by another^s blood, and 
some counterfeit man and falsely-called son hath died for 
us, and the august and mighty mystery of the Only-Begot- 
ten was then idle talk and quackery, and neither hath He 
been made man, but we will register as our saviour and re- 
deemer, not Him but that other rather, who hath given his 
own blood for us. Yet the most holy Paul hath written to 

b The Syriac translation transposes in and through. 

ive are redeemed hy the blood of a ruau. 299 

some^ It was therefore necessary tJiat tlie ijatterns of the things is One 
in the heavens should he inirifiedivitli these, hut the heavenly 23—20^' 
things themselves luith better sacrifices than these ; for not 
into sanctuaries made with hands, figures of the true, entered 
Christ, but into Heaven itself, now to apijear in the presence 
of God for us, nor that oftentimesHe should offer Himself as 
the High Priest entersth into the sanctuary yearly ivith an- 
other's blood, since He must needs often have suffered from 
tlie foundation of the world; hut noiv once in the completion 
of the ages hath He been manifested for the abolition of sin 
through His sacrifice. Hence the type liatli, that certain 
make their entry with another's blood ^ and are cleansed : ^ {"ff/^""^' 
the reality, i. e. the Truth, will surely possess what is bet- Tph 
ter, i. e., that Jesus does this, entering with His own blood, 
not into any temporary tabernacle and made with hands, 
as it were in shadow and type, but into that which is above 
and true, into Heaven : for it was necessary that the pat- 
terns of the things in the heavens should bo purified luith these 
(i.e. with the typical and another's^) but the heavenly 
things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 

We must therefore necessarily seek for in Christ what 
is superior to the types, I mean the truth, which is in His 
own Blood. 

B. You say right. 

A. But since they set up against us the Apostle's saying, 
as though it were put forth of a common man, come lei us 
say, taking from the beginning of what is written unto a 
sufficient close of it. It is written therefore. But ive behold lb. ii, 9. 
Jesus Who has been some little abased below the angels be- 
cause of the suffering of death croivned with glory and hon- 
our : for it beseemed Him because of Whom all things and lb. 10— 
through Whom all things, bringing many sons to glory, to 
perfect the Captain of their salvation through sifferings : for 
the Sanctifier and the sanctified are out of one, all of them, for 
ivhich cause He is not ashamed to call them brothers saying, 
I will declare Thy Name to My brothers, and again. Behold 
I and the children ivhich God gave Me. Since therefore the 
children have partahen of blood and flesh, He too likewise 

1 oAXo- 

300 Heb. ii. 9 — 17 explained. His own Son. 

Christ shared the same, in order that through death He might do to 
nought him that hath the jpower of death, i.e., the devil, and 
might rid those ivho in fear of death through all their life 
were subject to bondage : for not I suj^pose of angels talceth 
He hold but of Abraham's seed He talceth hold, whence He 
ought in all things to be likened to His brothers. See, see 
and that most clearly^ saying that He has been abased be- 
low the Angels because of the suffering of death, yet has been 
crowned therefore with honour and glory, he makes evident 
Who it is of Whom he is discoursing^ the Only-Begotten : 
for he says that He has ])artahen of blood and flesh like 
us, and that He took hold not of angels but of Abraham' s 
seed. For it beseemed God the Father because of Whom all 
things and through Whom all things, to perfect the Son Who 
had descended to emptying and become man, having 
taken bondman^s form, through sufferings '^ in that He con- 
secrates His own flesh a Ransom for the life of all. For 
Christ hath been sacrificed for us, the spotless Victim, and 

Heb. X. by One offering hath 2yerfected for ever them that are sancti- 
fied, re-forming man^s nature into what it was in the be- 

2 Cor. V. ginning : for all things in Him are neiv. 

For that God the Father hath given His own Son for 
us, no less will the all- wise Paul be our warrant, writing of 

Rom.viii. Him, Who spared not His own Son, but gave Him up for us 
all, how ivill He not with Him too bestow on lis all things ? 

above p. and we say that the own Son of God is the Word Who 

b, beamed forth of His Essence, and that He has been given 

for us, not still bare and without flesh but when He was 
made flesh. And His being said to suffer is free from any 

above p. blame, for He suffered not in the nature of the Godhead 

q^ "° ^ but in His own flesh : for God the Father as I said above, 

2 Cor. V. made Him Who hieiv not sin sin for us, in order that we 
21. . . . . 

might be made the righteousness of God with ^ Him. 

above p. B. Do WO therefore conceive that He was made sin, or 

244. ' 

<= The Syriac translation adds, Who ^ with seems a mistake of the manu- 

needed not to be perfected, apparently a script for in, which the manuscript gives 

mere gloss of the translator, to guard when quoting the passage again just be- 

the language. low. 

The Word lived, overcame death in the death of His Body. 301 

rather because He was made like to tliem who are under is One 
sin, is He therefore said to be sin ? 

A. You say right : as therefore He made Him Who hieiv lb. 
not sin sin for us in order that we might be made the right- 
eousness of God in Him (for the nature of man has been 
justified in Him) : so Him Who knows not death (for the 
Word is Life and Kfegiving) He caused to suffer in the 
fleshj though He remained external to suffering in that He 

is conceived of as Grod, in order that ive might live through 
Him and in Him. Hence also the suffering of Christ has 
been named, ' the likeness of death.' It is written there- 
fore, ^or if we have been co -planted in the likeness of His Rom. vi. 
deafJi so shall we be too of His resurrection : for the Word was * • 
living, even while His holy flesh was tasting death in order 
that, death worsted and decay trodden down, the might of 
the resurrection might come unto the whole human race. 
For it is true, that as in Adam all die so too in Christ all i Cor. xv. 
shall be quichened. Since, how do we say that the Mys- "" 
tery of the Economy with flesh of the Only-Begotten aided 
man's nature, unless the Word being God has been made 
flesh ? unless He Who is above all the creation lowered 
Himself unto emptying and hath come down to be in our 
estate ? unless that have been made the body of Life which 
is subject to decay in order that it might become superior 
to death and decay ? 

B. We say therefore that the Word which is forth of God 
the Father Himself suffered in the flesh for us ? 

A. Surely, if Paul is true in saying of Him, Who is the col. i. 
Image of the Invisible God, the firstborn of all creation, be- ^^~ 
cause in Him luere created all things, visible and invisible, 
ivhether thrones or lordships or governments or authorities ; 
all things have been created through Him and unto Him : 
and He is before all things, and all things consist in Him, 
and He is the Head of the Body, the Church, Who is the be- 
ginning, the first-born from the dead, in order that He may 
become in all pre-eminent . For see, see, he says and that full 
clearly, that the Image of the Invisible God, the first-born of 
all creation, both visible and invisible, through Whom all 

302 Salvation from the Jews, Blood not common. 


Heb. xii. 

above pp. 

1G7, itsy. 

1 Cor. ii. 

Rom. ix. 

1 Tim. ii, 

2 Cor. 
xiii. 3. 

iv. 22. 

Isa. Ixiii, 
9. LXX. 

Heb. X. 

28, 29. 

tilings and in Whom all things^ has been given a Head to 
tJie Church, and that He is First-born from the dead too. 
For He makes His own, as I said, the properties of His 
own flesh, and endured the cross, despising the shame. For 
we do not say that a man simply, honoured (I know not 
how) by connection with Him, has been given for ns, but 
it is the Lord of glory Himself Which was crucified for us 
(for had then hnown, he says, they vjoidd not have crucified 
the Lord of Glory) : but He hath suffered for our sake and 
in our behalf in the flesh, according to the Scriptures, Who 
according to the flesh is of the Jews, Who is over all God 
and blessed, for ever Amen. For thus hath the most holy 
Paul written, His herald and apostle and who hath Christ 
in him. 

And tell me this besides, how they would understand 
what has been said by Christ to the woman out of Samaria, 
Ye ivorship ye Jcnow not what, we loorship lohat tve laioiv,for 
salvation is from forth the Jews ? albeit there hath saved us, 
not elder, not angel, but tJie Lord Himself, not with another's 
death and the mediation of a mere man but, with His own 
Blood. Hence, with good reason, said the all-wise Paul, 
One who disregards Moses' law dieth without compassion at 
the hands of two or three witnesses : of how much worser pu- 
nishment, suppose ye, shall he be accounted loorthy who tram- 
pled on the Son of God and accounted common the blood of 
the covenant and insidted the Spirit of grace in. Whom he 
was sanctified ^ ? But if it be not the precious Blood of the 
in truth Sou Incaimate but of some spurious one other than 
he and one that possesses the sonship of favour, how do 
they say that it is not common ? 

Therefore even though He be said to have suflered in 
the flesh, freedom from sufi'ering even thus is kept to 
Him ^ in that He is conceived of as God. Therefore the 

* The Codex Alexandrinus omits the 
words, ivherein he was sanctified; S.Cy- 
ril transposes them thus, both here and 
in his treatise, de recta fide to the Prin- 
cesses Arcadia and Marina, p. 74 a. 

f See Schol. § 36, above p. 228, and 
§ 37, patiebatur impassibiliter. He suffer- 
ed without suffering, above p. 232 : and 

Theodoret's Letter to the Monks of 
Constantinople, "that which is passible 
hath suflered and the impassible (t^ a- 
TToSes) hath remained impassible. For 
God the Word was made man, not in 
order that He should make passible the 
Impassible Nature, but in order that 
through suffering He might bestow on 

The Son suffers and docs not snffer. 303 

Divine Peter too says that Christ once for our sins died for is One 
us, the Rii/hteons for the unrighteous, in order that He miaht .^..^;F^^* 
hring us to God, ^ut to death in the flesh, qidclcened in the 
Spirit. For why, might one I suppose say, did the Spirit- 
clad say not simply or indefinitely that He suffered, but 
added, in the flesh ? for he knew, he knew that of Grod 
was he speaking. Therefore he hath allotted to Him im- 
passibility in that He is conceived of as God, most skilfully 
adding, in the flesh, in respect to which suffering exists. 

B. Yet they say that it savours of the marvellous" and 'J^p,°''^°- 
inclines much to the incredible, that we should have to say 
that the Same both suffers and does not suffer s. For either 
surely He hath as God not suffered or if He is said to have 
suffered, how will He be God ? hence he who suffered will 
be said to be only he which is from forth the seed of David. 

A. Yet how will it not be a most manifest proof of a 
feeble understanding, to choose so to say and to think ? 
for God the Father hath given for us, not a common man, 
taken aside to be in the rank of a mediator, and having a 
made-up ^ glory of sonship and honoured with an acciden- ^ Kard- 
tal* connection, but, made m likeness with us for our sakes, ■» axeriK^ 
Him Who is above the whole creation, the Word Which 
beamed forth of His Essence, in order that He might be 
seen an equivalent^ for the life of all. It is (I deem) of " ""'^"^'"^ 
all things most absurd, when the Only-Begotten has been 
made flesh according to the Scriptures (as I said) and dis- 
dained not the Economy, to find fault as it were with gg°j26'^' 
Him as though He had militated against His own glory 166, 239. 
and had chosen to suffer in the flesh apart from what was 
fit. Yet, good sir, the matter was salvation to the whole 
world : and since He for this cause willed to suffer Who 
is beyond the power of suffering because He is God by above p. 

the passible nature freedom from suffer- " Hence it is He Who suffered and did 
ing," Ep. 145 p. 1250 fin. not suffer; in His Divine Nature Un- 
s See last note. S.Cyril in his Trea- suffering, without change or turning, in 
tise rfe rec/a/f/t' to the Empresses Pul- His flesh suffering, as Peter says." 
cheria and Eudocia, § 26 fin., p. 163 d e, S. Ath. against Apollinarius, hb. i. 11, t. 
says, " Hence is Christ neither bare man i. 931 b. " For itwas God Who was set 
nor fleshless Word ; but united to our at nought, of God's flesh and soul was 
human nature, unsufferingly He will the suffering and the death and the re- 
suffer {wddoi 'hv airadics) what belongs surrection." lib. ii. 16, t. i. 953 a. See 
to the human nature in His own flesh." too next note and below p. 316. 


His Suffering and Resurrection. 

above p 


Christ Nature, He put about Him flesh recipient of suffering and 
made it His own, that His too might the suffering be 
called, because it was no one's else's but His own Body*' 
which hath suffered. Hence, for that the mode of the 
Economy gives Him without blame, both to be pleased to 
suffer in the flesh, and in the Godhead not to suffer (for He 
was God alike and Man in the Same') the opponents 
speak idly, and most unwisely debasing the force of the 
mystery haply deem that they have made a contention'^ 
replete with praise. For His being at all pleased to suffer 
in the flesh seemed to attach some blame to Him, yet it 
was glorious in another way : for the Resurrection has 
testified that He is superior to death and decay, being Life 
and Lifegiving as God, for He hath raised His own Tem- 
Therefore the Divine Paul says. For I am not a- 

out of Both" etc. p. 101 d. 

S. Cyril speaks of " as it were ming- 
ling the properties of the natures," in 
his Treatise de Inc. Unigeniti, p. 708 a 
(as above p. 144 note s), where he means 
that on account of the entirety of the 
Union, what belongs to the Godhead 
may be said of the manhood ; e. g. he is 
speaking there on the words, For the 
bread of God is He which comes down 
Body died Himself is said to suffer this, from Heaven and gives life to the ivorld, 

and says, " albeit how is it not true that 
the flesh hath not come down out ot hea- 
ven, but was of a Virgin according to the 
Scriptures ? And the Word is not eaten ; 
hut in countless expressions He is seen 
gathering both into One and mingling 
as it were one with another the proper- 
ties of the natures ; " he goes on to quote 
the words. He that came down from 
heaven (S. John iii. 13), and, If ye shall 
see the son of man ascending up where 
He toas before (ib. vi. 62), although the 
human nature came not down from 
Heaven, nor was it there before. To- 
wards the end of the treatise'(p. 712 init.), 
S. Cyril speaks of S.John, "ail-but ga- 
thering the natures and bringing into a 
concurrence [/uitr7d7K6iai', properly, the 
meeting of mountain-glens, henceforth 
to become one glen] the force of the pro- 
perties befitting each." Of the mingling 
to express His intimate union with us, 
see above p. 250 note i. 

' eV T<j) avTw. Thus the Syriac ver- 
sion: the Greek MS. has eV aiir^. 

^ contention. I have ventured to trans- 
late from the Syriac, the Edition has 
Union, the sense of which is less clear. 


^ "For not of any other man, but 
His, is the Body, wherefore Himself too 
has been accounted (for Christ is One) 
mingled {KiKepaajxlvos) as it were out 
of human nature and God the Word, not 
from having been turned into what He 
was not but from assuming the Temple 
from forth the Virgin." Thes. cap. 20 
p. 197 a. " Christ died for our sakes 
and for us. As therefore when His 

albeit He is immortal in His Nature, 
so since His Body is ci-eated. Himself 
is said to have been created albeit Un- 
create in Essence. For the Flesh being 
His and not another's, He makes all His 
own ((5io7roi€7Tai) what befalls it." Ib. 
cap. 15 p. 167 b. These belong to an 
earlier period of S. Cyril's Archiepisco- 
pate written while he could still follow 
the example of earlier Fathers in the 
expression mingled as it were. S. Cyril 
says nuich the same in cap. 24 p. 232 
d given above p. 192 note i : cap. 28 p. 
252 c. 

In his 7th Paschal homily (A.D. 
420), after saying, " Hence as also our 
all-famous Father and Bishop Atha- 
nasius, the miswerving rule of the ortho- 
dox Faith, said in his own writings, ' Of 
two things unlike in nature hath a con- 
currence taken place, to wit of Godhead 
and Manhood : for Christ is one out of 
Both,'" S. Cyril proceeds, "And un- 
speakable and utterly incomprehensible 
was the mode of the mingling." Pasch. 
Hom. pp 102 fin., 103. And further 
on, " They worship, not partingoff Him 
Alone That indwelt from the screen of 
His flesh, but One Ineffably mingled 

God the Word ahased weak as to the flesh. 305 

shamed of the Gospel, for it is the poiver of God for salvation is One 
to every one that helieveth, and again, For the ivord of the l Cor. i. 
cross is to them that perish folly, to us who are saved it is 
the Power of God, to them that are called both Jews and ^J- 24. 
Greehs, Christ God's Power and God's ivisdom : and indeed 
the Son too wlien about to ascend unto the saving Passion 
says, Noiu is the Son of man glorified and God is glorified S.JoIm 
in Sim, and God will glorify Sim in Himself and ivill 32.' 
straightway glorify Him. For He lived again, having 
spoiled Hades and this not after a long while but as it 
were straightway and on the very heels of the Passion. 

B. Albeit the all-wise Vanl sajs, Since^ ye seelc a proof 2 Cor. 
of Christ speaking in me, Who is not weak hut is mighty in' 
us : for verily Se was crucified out of ivcahiess yet lives out 
of the power of God. Then how will one say that the 
Word Himself is tvealc and moreover that He lives out of 
the piower of God ? 

A. Do we not over and over again say that the Word of 
God was Incarnate and made man ? 

B. Yes, for how should it be otherwise ? 

A. Therefore He Who is iveah in the flesh in that He 
appeared as man, This lived out of the power of God, a 
power not alien but inherent in Him, for He was God in 

B. And verily the Father is said to raise Him, for it is 
written. According to the imvorhing of the mastery of Sis Eph. i. 
might which Se hath inwrought " in Christ, having raised 

Um from the dead and set Sim on Sis Right Sand in the 

1 The syriactranslationhas//", in place though Another than He, be he ana- 

jf Since given by the Manuscript in this thema." Both Theodoret and Andrew 

alace. //"is also S. Cyril's reading else- in their reply, quote this text, Theodoret 

fhere, and four passages of Origen are apparently overlooking the vs^ords, as 

noted for the same : there is a trace of though Another than He, Andrew agree- 

lie reading i) in S. Cyril (in xii Proph. ing "with the Chapter, yet fearing that 

lO c, horn. 2 on Hebrews among frag- the words used by the Apostles of the 

lients, V. 431) and y\ and ei are often human nature, should haply be over- 

Ijonvertible. Just below the syriac trans- looked. The word in-wrought-in (eV- 

itiou gives is not weak in you hut is ijpYrjfrflai) is the same that S. Paul uses 

lighty , the Greek manuscript gives as vfhenhe says, For He that ivroughteffec- 

ere translated. tualli/ {4i/ep-yi)cras) in Peter to the apos- 

™S.Cyrirschapter7is,"Ifanyonesay tleship of the circumcision, the Same was 

at Jesus as man has been in-wrought- mighty (ivripyria-e) in me toward the 

by God the Word and hath put on Gentiles (Gal. ii. 8). 

im the glory of the Only- Begotten, as 

306 Equal honour means Tiool. xvliich of them is enthroned? 

Christ heavenly ];jlaces ahove all rule and authority and lordship 

and every name that is named. 

A. Yet we say tliat He is the life-givingvPower of the 

Father and it is like that He rejoices in the Dignities of 

Him Who begat Him even though He have been made 

flesh. And Himself will come in. His own witness, saying, 

S.John jj^Q^, ^i^g iji^Q Father quicheneih whom He ivill, so the Son too 
V. 21. -^ , . . 

quiclieneth ivhom He will. And able to accomplish this 

full well without toil, He hath addressed the people of the 

Ib.ii. 19. Jews saying. Undo this Temple and in three days Twill rear 

Epii- i- it. But He Who rose hath sat on the Bight Hand of the 
20, 21. . 

Father in the heavenly places ahove all rule and authority 

and throne^ and lordship and every name that is named. 

Is it therefore as being another son than the Word Which 

sprang from forth Him, honoured with mere connection, 

and receiving the Name of Godhead as a favour ; or rather 

He Who is by Nature and truly Son, made in liheness of 

man and found in fashion as a man economically? 

B. They would perhaps say that it was the man from 

forth the seed of David connected with Him by equality 

of honour, to whom the suffering death too would belong. 

A. But that which is said to be of equal honour with 
"^°^?, ought, will be not one in number (as I already said) but 

one with one ; this is I suppose two and they unequal in 
nature, if the honoured is in lower case than the honourer : 
but since one son hath sat down, let them instruct us who 
it is that hath been honoured with the seats on high and 
co-sitteth with the Father, if it be a thing most exceeding 
perilous to venture to bring up to equality of honour the 
bond with the Lord, the made with the Creator, with the 
King of all that which is under the yoke, with Him Who 
is above all that which is ranked among all. 

B. You will then clear this up to us still more. 

A. Albeit as I suppose a clear and sufficient discourse 
has already been worked out by me on these subjects, I"- 
will without any backwardness add to what I said other 
6 (rvva'^6. things also, and taking up a not ignoble advocacy ^ of the 
n The Syriac translation omits Throne, 

The Father gave His Sou^ some deny it. Impassible. 307 

Divine dogmas as a sort of full armour I will rear up the is One 
truth against them who think perverse things. 

For that the Only-Begotten Word of God, no other son 
than He mediating the Economy and connected with Him 
accidentally, hath made void the mastery of death; but 
that He by His own Self hath done it, He will prove say- 
ing, God so loved the ivorld that Se gave His Son the Only- s. John 
Begotten in order that every one ivho helieveth on Sim should "'' * 
not perish hut have life everlasting. When God the Father 
exalteth highly His Love for the world and says that it is 
exceeding great and vast, why do our opponents disparage above pp. 
it, saying that not the truly Son has been given for us, ^'^^' 
but bring up one of those who are as we, who has the 
grace of sonship from adoption, into the place of the Son 
by Nature, whereas it was the Only-Begotten Who was 
given for us ? and whereas John hath clearly written, Tlie lb. i. 18. 
Only-Begotten God which is in the Bosom of the Father, how 
will not one marvel at them for their unlearning who 
thi'ust out the Only-Begotten God the Word from the Eco- 
nomy and bring in in His place (as I said) a certain one 
embellished with glories from without him and having the 
name of Godhead put upon him ? and what great and wor- 
thy of admiration will there be any longer apparent in the 
Love of the Father if He hath given for it some piece of 
the world and that a small one ? or perhaps it would be 
even uublameable to say that the world hath been re- 
deemed, having nothing from God but, ministered to in 
this behalf by its own parts. 

B. They say that the Only-Begotten has been given by 
the Father, that He should administer our affairs, not in 
order that He should suffer ought of what is human Him- 
self in His own Nature, for it is impossible. 

A. He will sufier in His own Nature nothing at all (for 

being unembodied as God He will full surely be external 

o suffering), but since according to His own voice, I mean 

hat through the Psalmist's lyre, a body has been prepared Ps. xl. 6. 

'or Him by the Father, He came, embodied, to do His ib. 7, 8. 

ill. And this was the redemption through the Precious 



308 The Woed emptied Himself, receives, made man, 

CiuusT Cross and the summing np anew of all things, full well ac- 
complished through Him and in Him. And the most ex- 
cellent Paul will aid to what I said, having written on this 
Phil. ii. wise, Be ye thus minded each one of you as ivas also Christ 
Jesus Who being in the Form of God deemed not the leing 
equal with God a thing to seize°, yet emptied Himself talcing 
bondman's form, made in lilieness of men, and found in fashion 
as a man ahased Himself, made obedient to death, yea the 
death of the cross : wherefore God also highly exalted Him and 
gave Him a Name which is above every name, in order that 
at the Name of Jesus Christ every Icnee should bow of hea- 
venly and earthly and neath the earth and every tongue con- 
fess Lord Jesus Christ to tJte glory of God the Father. For 
whom dost thou say is He Who is in the Form of God 
the Father, and when He might have remained in Equality 
with Him deemed the so pre-eminent and God-befitting 
Dignity and the excellency above all to be not a thing to 
seize ? is it not God the Word Who beamed forth from 
Him ? how is this not obvious to all ? But this He Who 
was in the Form and Equality of the Father, talcing bond- 
man's form, not by au accidental connection, made in like- 
ness of men and found in fashion as a man (for He was to- 
gether herewith God too) abased Himself and became obedi- 
ent also tmto death, yea the death of the cross. 

B. But it is said (they say) of Him that God gave Him 
a Name ivhich is above every name, in order that at the name 
of Jesus Christ every Icnee should bow. That which the Word 
was, i. e., God, how will He be conceived as taking ? need 
therefore is it to say rather that to the assumed man has 
been given the Name which is above all, that we be not 
caught deeming ought incongruous respecting the Only- 

A. Then how were it not incomparably better to say 
that it has been given by the Father to the by Nature Son 
made man for our sakes, in order that He may be con- 
ceived of as God even in human nature and in supremest 
heights He Who endured abasement as we^ in order that 

" See above p. 105, note j. 

the Name, lost not His Eternal glory. 309 

no new and late-appearing god may be introduced to both is One 
angels and men, having the glory of the Godhead not es- 
sentially inexisting but come in from without and as it were 
at the mere Will of God the Father. 

B. To the Word Himself therefore which sprang from 
forth God the Father do we say that the Name luhich is 
above every name has been given. 

A. Full surely ; and our argument will not err from its 
course, if it is not false that He deemed the being Equal 
tuith God to be not a thing to seize, but hath descended unto 
the not being in glory in that He appeared as man. There- 
fore He also said, Tlte Father is greater than I, although He S. John 
had the right, in that He ever existeth in Him (as He is 
conceived of and is God) and hath been begotten from 
forth Him by Nature, to have exactness with Him in every 
thing and to rejoice in the glory of the Godhead. One 
must therefore not suppose that He Who for our sakes des- 
cended into the measure of the human nature, fell from 

His inherent Natural splendour and Excellence, but that 
in emptiness that belongs to us He has fullness Divinely 
and in abasement loftiness, and that which belongs to Him 
by Nature, to be worshipped by all, [He has] as a gift by 
reason of His human nature : for to Him boweth every 
knee of things both in Heaven and upon earth and every 
rank praiseth, for Christ Jesus is believed to be Lord unto 
the glory of God the Father. And verily He said to God 
the Father which is in Heaven, Father glorify Me with tJie ib. xvii. 
glory ivhich I had with Thee before the world ivas. Was 
then (tell me) the man prior to the world p, whom they say 
has been assumed by the Only-Begotten by a non-essential 
connection ? 

B. By no means. 

A. Who then is it who is asking for glory which He says 
was inexistent in Himself even before the very foundation 
of the world. He ever and continually being with God ? is 

P see above, in this treatise, p. 273; the Glory of God the Father that His 

also above p. 161, and the exegesis of Son is consubstantial with Him, above 

this verse against Arian objections in the pp. 74, 75, 139. See too de recta fide to 

short chapter 30 of the Thesaurus, pp. the Empresses § 33, p. IW d e, comment. 

258 sq. S. Cyril speaks of its being to on S. John, p. 674 O.T. 

310 The Incarnate Son out of Heaven^ and ivorsMiiiied. 

Christ it not God tlie Word Co-eternal with the Fathei^j Co- 
throned and Co-existent with Him^ of Whom the all-wise 

S. John Evansrelist John saith, Tlw Word was with God and the 
i, 1. ° 

Word ivas God ? 

B. How should it not be so ? 

A. As therefore being Lord of glory and then letting 
Himself down to the ill-repute of bondman's form, He asks 
for a recovery of His ever inherent glory, doing this too as 
beseemeth man : thus being always God He goes up from 
the measui'es of our estate to the excellence and glory of 
His Proper Godhead, in order that as to One Son hence- 
forth by Nature and Very, albeit made as we and Incarnate, 
every knee should bow, as I just said. For I think that so 
minded and thus believing, we shall rid heaven and earth 

S. Matth. from the charge of worshipping a man. For it is loritten, 
Thou slialt ivorshi]3 the Lord thy God and Him only shalt 
thou adore. 

B. The argument hereon will need very much support : 
proceed therefore I pray and elucidate the Mystery to us 
by means of other conceptions also. 

A. I will then proceed very gladly, but I would say that 
they have missed the truth in coupling, as though another 
son, him who is of the seed of David with Him Who is by 
Nature and truly, I mean the Only-Begotten, albeit holy 

xv^47 W^'it clearly cries aloud. The first man of earth earthy, the 
s. John second i out of Heaven, and moreover the Son Himself, I 

vi. 38 39 

* have come down from heaven not in order to do Mine Own 

Will hut the Will of Him that sent Me, and this is the will 

of Him that sent Me that everything which He hath given Me 

I should not lose ought from it hut shoidd raise it at the last 

Day. Whom then do they say is He Who hath come down 

out of Heaven ? for the body hath been born of a woman. 

B. The Word that is begotten from forth God the Father, 
for I suppose that they will not please to think anything 
else than this. 

q In this place hoth the Syriac trans- other places of S. Cyril : see Schol. 
lation and the Greek ms. omit o Kvpios, § 4, above p. 189 and note there, 
but there is considerable variation in 

The Passion ivilled and nilled. 311 

A. Right my friend, and tlie all-wise Jolin too hath some- is One 
where written. He that cometh from above is above all. Then S. John 
how, when it pleaseth the Father that all which is given 

Him should rise, and the thing is good and moreover God- 
befitting (for to save is like GTod), does He say that He 
came down not to do His own will but that of the Father ? 
will then any man among us suppose that the Son Who is 
born of Him comes behind the Clemency of God the Father 
and is in no wise good, but that raising up that which is 
given and ridding it of decay is a thing uncongenial to 

B. There is risk of it. 

A. Yet we should with reason deem that since He is the 
genuine Offspring of a Good Father, He will be conceived 

of as Himself also Good, or Goodness itself, For from the s. Matth. 

. xii 33 

fruit the tree is hioivn "■, according to His own voice, and He ' 

will be True, saying He that hath seen Me hath seen the S. John 

Father, I and the Father are One. Ib.'x.'so. 

B, You say well : clear up then yourself what seems to 
have been obscurely said. 

A. We say that annulling death and driving away decay 
from men's bodies was a thing not unwilled by the Son, 
for He delighteth not in the destruction of the living, and the Wisd. i. 
generations of the ivorld were healthful, as it is written, but ib! ii.'24. 
by envy of the devil death entered into the ivorld. But in no 
other way was it possible to shake off the cheerless mas- 
tery of death save by only the Incarnation of the Only- 
Begotten. Therefore hath He appeared as we and He 
made His own a body subject to decay according to the 
inherent plan of its nature, in order that since Himself is 
Life (for He hath been begotten of the Father Which is 
Life) He might implant therein His Proper Good, life. 
And when He had once chosen out of His Clemency and 
Loving-kindness to undergo Hkeness with us, needs must 
the Passion too befall Him, when the impiety of the Jews 
was raging against Him. But the disrepute in His Passion 

!• See the verse explained in the same S. John, pp. 643, 644, 675 O.T. : and 
way of the Son's Generation from the on xvii. 4, 5 p. 958 d, Greek. 
Father, in S. Cyril's commentary on 

312 His the Passion, He willed it all. The last Adam. 

Chkist was burdensome to Him. And in trutli when tlie time 
was coming on, Avherein He had to endure the cross for 
the life of all, in order that He might shew that the Passion 
was not willed % He made His approach as beseems man 

S, Matth. and in form of prayer, saying, Father if it he possible let 
this cujy loass from Me, yet not as I loill hut as Thou. He 
says that He came down out of Heaven, to make that which 
was grievous, not unwilled, in order that He might achieve 
resurrection for then on the earth, which He Alone hath 
new-wrouo'ht for the race of man. For He has been made 
First-horn from forth the dead according to the flesh and 
first-fruits of them that are fallen asleep. 

B. His therefore and not another's will be said to be the 
Passion in that He hath appeared as man, even though He 
hath remained Impassible as He is conceived of as God. 

A. Thus I say : call to mind the God-inspired Scripture 
1 Cor. XV. which says. The first man Adam was made a living soul, 

the last Adam a qwiclcening spirit. 

B. Do we then say that the Word from forth God, has 
been called the last Adam ? 

A. Not bare (as I said), but made in likeness with us. 
We say therefore that He is, if to quicken be no work of 
man but God-befitting. He has too the name of tlte last 

above, p. Adam, as made out of Adam according: to the flesh and a 

291. . . 

second beginning of those on earth, the nature of man be- 
ing transelemented in Him unto newness of Hfe, life in ho- 
liness and incorruption through the resurrection from the 
dead : for thus was death done to nought, in that the Life 
by Nature endureth not to submit its own body to decay, 

Acts ii. hecause it was not possible that Christ should he holden of it, 
according to the voice of the most wise Paul *, and thus 
passed through unto us too the good from this achieve- 

s On the Passion being willed and Joan. lib. x. 1 (xiv. 30, 31) pp. 853 e 854 

not willed by the Incarnate Son, see a b c, S. Cyril speaks of its being willed 

above pp. 170sqq: see especially that "outofreverenceto the Father and love 

very famous chapter of S. Cyril's com- to Him (aiSoI rij irpbs rhv yivv-qropa 

mentary on S.John, (pp.383 sqq. O.T.) Koi aydinj tj) irpbs aiirov)." 

which was so largely quoted in Act. 10 ' The Greek manuscript has Paul, 

of the sixth General Council holden at the Syriac translation Peter. 
Constantinople A. D. 680: also in S. 


ImjKissible He suffered, into His Death wo baptized. 313 

B. You say well. is qne 

A. Look now at this besides. 

B. What do you mean ? 

A. Christ said somewhere to the holy Apostles, Go cits- s. Matth. 
c)j)le all nations, haptizing them into the name of the Father ^^''''^•'^^^ 
and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. We have therefore 

been baptized into the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity, 
Father Son and Holy Ghost. Is it not true what I say ? 

B. How should it not ? 

A, Do we not conceive of Him Who hath begotten as 
Father, the Only-Begotten God the Word again begotten 
from forth Him as Son ? 

B. Surely. 

A. How then have we been baptized into His Death as 
blessed Paul saith ? for as many (he ^ys) of us as tvere Rom. vi, 
baptized into Christ were baptized into His death. Yet One |j j^ ^^ 
Lord, one faith, one baptism .• and we will not say that we ^* 
have been baptized into Him that is forth of the seed of 
David as into another and several son : but since being by 
Nature God He is conceived of as beyond suffering, and 
was pleased to suffer in order that He might save those 
who are subject to decay, He ivas made lihe in all things 
unto them who are on earth and underwent birth after the 
flesh from forth a woman and made (as I said) His own a 
body capable of tasting death and living again, in order 
that Himself abiding Impassible, He might be said to 
suffer in His own flesh. For He it is Who hath saved that S. Matth. 
ivhich ivas lost. And verily He said in plain terms, I am s, John* 
the Good Shepherd, the Good Shepherd layeth down His Life ^' ^^' 
for His sheep, and again. No one talceth My life from Me but lb. 18. 
I lay it down of Myself, I have authority to lay it down and 
have authority to take it again. But it belongs not to one 
of us nor to a common man to have authority to lay down 
his life and to receive it back, but the Only-Begotten and 
truly Son hath laid it down, and He took it back, placing 
us outside of death^s meshes. 

And one may very easily see this outlined in the Mosaic 
books too in shadow unto them of old : for the sacrifice of 

314 Christ's own Blood and flesh given, won, reconciled all. 

Christ tlie steep rescued from deatli and decay tliem of Israel and 

122^123' abashed the destroyer, but it was a type of Christ, for 

1 Cor. V, Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us, in order that He 

'' might undo the cheerless mastery of death and might by 

lb. vi. 19, His own Blood win all under heaven : for we were houqht 
20. . . , 

2 Cor. V. tvith a Price and are not our own, for One died for all, He 

He Whose worth surpasses all, in order that they which live 
no longer live to themselves hut to Sim Who died for them 

TQ^^ao'' ^"^^^ *'^'^^ ' Pa^l ^°o ^'^^ a^^ saying, For I through the Law 
died to the Laiv in order to live to God, I have been co-cruci- 
fied ivith Christ : no longer live I, hut Christ liveth in me : 
and what I now live in the flesh I live in faith of the Son of 
God Who loved me and gave Himselffor me. Christ's there- 
fore are we all and through Him have we been reconciled 
to the Father, Christ having suffered in the flesh for us, in 
order that He might manifest us cleansed. For it has 

Heb. xiii. been written, Wherefore Jesus too, in order that He might 
cleanse the people through His own blood suffered outside the 

Col. i. 21, gate, and again, And you who once ivere estranged and ene- 
mies in your understanding by wicked ivories. He hath noiv 
reconciled in the body of His flesh through death, to 'present 
you holy and spotless before Him. Understand therefore 
how He says that it was His Pi'oper Blood and His Proper 
Flesh which was given for us, in order that we should not 
say that it belonged to a son other than He, conceived of in- 
dividually and honoured with a bare connection and having 
an adventitious glory and non-essential excellence and, as a 

7 eVt'jSAi)- cloak '' and sort of mask thrown over him, the name of 

Tpatch sonship and of the Godhead that is over all things. For 
if he is by nature in such case as the opponents like to 

S.John think, in no wise will it befit him to have to say, I ftw the 

^^^' truth : for how is that true which is not as it is said to be, 

but is something bastard and falsely-called ? But verily 
Cheist is truth and over all as God : for the Word hath 
remained what it was even though it have been made flesh, 
in order that He Which is over all and hath been made 
among all by reason of the human nature may have pre- 

The shame of the Cross folly wiser than men. 315 

served to Him the being above every thing and beyond is One 
the measures of the creation. 


B. But (he says) the being said to suffer will impress^ on |€toi, 
God the Word much ill-repute and will besides perchance ],nTso, 
bring accusation upon our august mystery. mTrk m 

A. Yet despising the shame He chose to suffer in the flesh jjgi^ ^ii. 
for our saJces according to the Scriptures : and I would ac- ^-g p 
count it a frailty of Jewish mind and a dread charge of iv. l. 
Grentile infatuation, to think it right to be ashamed of 

the suffering on the cross. The Divine Paul writes. See- i Cor. i. 
ing that both Jews ash for signs and Greeks seek for wisdom, "''-'■''^• 
hut WE preach Christ ^ Crucified, to the Jews an offence, to 
the Gentiles foolishness, hut to them ivhich are called, Jeivs 
and GreeJiS, Christ God's Power and God's ivisdom, hecause 
thefolhj of God is wiser than men and the lueahiess of God is 
stronger than men. 

B. How ? for I do not at all understand. 

A. Does he not say that the Suffering on the cross was 
a7i offence to the Jews, foolishness to the Greeks? for the one 
said, when they saw Him hanging from the wood, wag- 
ging their blood-thirsty heads at Him, If Thou art the Son § ^l^^^_ 
of God, come down from the cross and, we will helieve Thee j^^^,"**^* 
(for they supposed that worsted by their might He was 
taken and suffered, for they were in error, supposing that 
He was not truly Son of Grod but looking to the flesh alone) : 
and the Greeks able in no wise to understand the depth 
of the Mystery deem it folly that it should be said by us, 
that Christ died for the life of the world. Yet is this very 
thing that seemeth to he folly, wiser than men. For deep 
is the word and verily replete with the highest wisdom, 
that I mean in regard to Chi-ist the Saviour of us all, and 
that which is thought to be weakness by the people of the 
Jews, is stronger than men. For the Only-Begotten "Word 
of God hath saved us, putting on likeness to us in order 
that having suffered in the flesh and risen from the dead 
He might set forth our nature superior to death and decay. 
And that which has been achieved is beyond the reach of 

" The Syriac translation reads, Jesus Christ. 

316 He suffered imsuffer'mg ; His flesh life-giving, 

Christ our estate. Hence stronger than men is tliat wliicli seemetli 
to liave been wrought in infirmity as ours and as it were in 
suffering, and it affords proof of God-befitting power. 

B. Then liow will the Same (they say) suffer and not 
suffer "^ ? 

A. By suffering in His own flesh and not in the Nature 
^ Kojos of Godhead. And wholly ineffable is the plan^ of these 

things and no mind can attain ideas so subtil and exalted : 
yet following reasonings which tend to right belief and 
viewing the plan of what is fit, we neither alienate Him 
from being said to suffer, lest we first say that the Birth 
too after the flesh is not His but another's, nor do we de- 
fine that the things pertaining to the flesh have been 
wrought upon His Divine and Supremest Nature : but He 
will be conceived of (as I said) as suffering in His own 
flesh, albeit not suffering in His Godhead after some such 
mode as this. And every force of illustration is feeble and 
comes behind the truth, yet it sends into the mind a subtil 
imagination of the reality and as it were from what is be- 
fore it, brings it up unto the height which is beyond the 
reach of words. For y as iron or other such matter in con- 
tact with the onset of fire gives it admission and travails 
with the flame : and if now it chance to be struck by ought, 
the matter [struck] admits of injury, but the nature of the 
fire is in nought damaged by that which strikes ; thus will 
you conceive in regard of the Son being said to suffer in 
the flesh, not to suffer in His Godhead. And petty (as I 
said) is the force of the illustration, but it bears nigh to 
the truth them who choose not to disbelieve the holy 

B. You say well. 

A. For if the flesh ineffably and above mind and reason 

teru^^' ^^i^^*^ ^*^ Him. were not made absolutely the Word's own, 

s. John how will it be conceived of as life-giving ? For I am (He 

' says) the Living Bread Which came down from Heaven and, 

giveth life to the world, if any one eat of this bread he shall 

" See above pp. 302 sqq. and notes f, p. 444 O.T. note k, where this passage 

g, h. too is referred to. 

y See Disc, iii against Arians, § 31 fin. 

because Life's own flesh : not man qnicJiens us. 317 

live for ever, and the hread ivhich I shall give is My flesh for is One 
the life of the world. But if so be the flesh belong to a 
sou other than He, appropriated to Him by a non-essential 
connection, and called by favour to equality of honour, how 
doth He name it His own, though He cannot lie ? and how 
will another person's flesh too quicken the world, if it have 
not been made the own flesh of Life, i. e. of the Word which 
is forth of God the Father, of Whom the Divine John says, 
And lue hnow that the Son of God is come and He gave us i S. John 
understanding in order that ive might hioiv Him and we are 
in His Very Son^ Jesus Christ: this is the true God and 
Everlasting Life ? 

B. But I suppose that they would say to this, that it had 
been clearly said by Him, Verily verily L say to you, except S. John 
ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drinh His blood, ye 
have not life in you. We therefore understand (they say) 
that the honoured body and blood are not those of God 
the Word but of the son of man which has been connected 
with Him. 

A. Then wherever will they put the mighty Mystery o/lTim.iii. 
piety ? for destroyed is the emptying of God the Word, 
Who was in the Form and Equality of the Father and chose 
for our sakes to talce bondman's form and be made in likeness 
of us, and to partake blood and flesh, and to make the 
economy of the Incarnation His largess to all under Hea- 
ven. For through it have been saved, the Father summing 
up all things in Him % both the things in Heaven and the 
things on earth, as it is written. If therefore they say that 
not He is the Only-Begotten, Who says in God-befitting 
way and human wise alike. And the bread which I ivill give s. John 
is My flesh for the life of the world, but that some son of ^'* 
man other than He conceived of apart by himself hath 
saved us, it is not the Lord Himself, as it is written, but isa. Ixiii. 
one from among ourselves : and the things which are sub- lxx. 
ject to decay are quickened henceforth, not throug-h God 
Who is mighty to quicken, but by one of them who are 

2 in order that ive might Veri/ » see S. Iren, 1. 10. 1 ; 5. 20. 2, and 

Son. Thus both the Greek manuscript 21. 1, pp. 33,497. O.T. 
and the syriac translation here. 

318 The jproper flesh of Him. Who quichens all things. 

Christ subject to decay, who received along with us Kfe of fiivour : 
but if it is true that the Word has been made flesh accord- 
Bar, iii. ing to the Scriptures and appeared on earth and conversed 
tvith men, having bondman's form as His own. He will be 
called also son of man ; and if some feel ashamed at this, 
they will be caught placing themselves under charge of 
unlearning. For in no other way was it possible that flesh 
should become life-giving, albeit of its own nature subjected 
to the need of decaying, except it have become the Proper 
flesh of the Word Which quickeneth all things ; for thus it 
inworks what is His, replete with His Life-giving Power. 
And no marvel. For if it is true that fire having intercourse 
with matter, renders it warm, though not warm of its own 
nature (for it puts into it full richly the operation of its 
inherent power) : how does not rather the Word being God 
put His own Life-giving Power and Operation into His 
Proper flesh, united to it and making it His own, without 
confusion, without turning and in mode as Himself know- 

B. It is therefore necessary to confess that it hath en- 
tirely become (none other intervening) the Proper Body 
of the Word that is forth of the Father, though ensouled 
with reasonable soul. 

A . Most certainly, if we define aright the unerring word of 
the faith and are lovers of the doctrines of the truth and 
track the faith of the holy Fathers, not borne aside from 
the right way nor letting go the King's path-way, carried 
off by the vain-speakings of some unto a debased mind, 
but rather built up on the very Foundation, i. e. Christ : 
1 Cor. iii. /or other foundation can no man lay than is laid, as the in 
lb.' 10. truth wise master •hnilder and Priest of His Mysteries has 

We believe therefore that One is the Son of God the 
Father and conceived of in One Person, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, begotten forth of God the Father Divinely as Word 
before every age and time : in the last times of the age the 
Same made according to the flesh from forth a woman : 

The Birth, Suffering and all, belong to the Impassihle Son. 319 

and to Him we allot botli the God-befitting and the human, is One 
and His we say was the birth after the flesh and the suffer- 
ing upon the cross, for that He made His own the whole 
that belonged to His Proper flesh'', yet hath remained Im- 
passible in the Nature of the Godhead. For thus to Him phn. ji, 
howeth every hiee and every tongue shall confess that Jesus ' ' 
Christ is Lord unto the glory of God the Father, Amen. 

b To note g on page 303 maybe added 
another striking passage from S. Atha- 
nasius taken from his celebrated Letter 
to Epictetus, Bishop of Corinth, the 
same Letter which John Archbishop of 
Antioch and his Bishops set so much 
store by. With it may be compared S. 
Cyril's kindred expression in his Scho- 
lia § 13 fin. above p. 202, " the sufleriiig 
is said to be His, because His too is that 
which suffered and He was in the suffer- 
ing Body, He unknowing to suffer." 
S. Athanasius says, "And it was mar- 
vellous that He it was Who suffered and 
did not suffer, suffered for that His own 

Body suflfered and He was in it while 
suffering, suffered not because the Word 
being God by Nature is Impassible. 
And He, the Unembodied, was in the 
suffering Body ; the Body had within it 
the Impassible Word Which annulleth 
the weaknesses of His Body. And this 
He did and it happened thus, in order 
that Himself receiving ours and offering 
them in sacrifice might annul them, and 
clothing us now with what is His might 
cause the Apostle to say. This decaying 
must put on incorruption and this mortal 
put on immortalitif." S. Ath. to Epicte- 
tus, § G t. i. 90G. ■ 


Truth before all ; toe must he heedful. 



of which the beginning is 

Noiiglit shall be ranked before tlie Trutb by tbeui at 
least wlio love it and are well skilled in uttering wbat 
pertains to it. 


His words from the treatises against Diodore and Theodore : tlie beginning' 
of the Treatise. 

Nothing is valued before the Truth by them who love 
it and are skilful in speaking what pertains thereto : yet 
is it right (I say) that they who are thus minded and 
are zealous rightly to walk in the holy doctrines of the 
Church, should both guilelessly give heed to any who 
think and speak aright and not again, holden by reverence 
and love, commit themselves to those who write not without 
Isa. V. 20. blame, in order that they be not blamed as calling evil good 
and good evil, sweet hitter and hitter sweet, and^putting darJc- 
ness for light, and light for darhness : but accomplishing 

a Diodore, the " pupil {dpimxa) of the 
blessed Silvanus" Bisnop of Tarsus, the 
comrade of S. Flavian (afterward Bishop 
of Antioch) in toils for the Catholics of 
Antioch in their low estate through 
Arian oppression, visitor of S. Meletius 
Bishop of Antioch in his banishment in 
Armenia through these same Arians, 
teacher of S.Chrysostom, commentator 
on most of the Old and New Testament, 
present at the Second Council where he 
signed as Bishop of Tarsus, being then 
at the beginning of an Episcopate of 
about 13 years, and who died in the 
Unity of the Church, nevertheless fell 
into the error of so parting the two Na- 
tures in Christ as to speak of His Man- 

hood as though it were a Man apart from 
the Son of God. S. Athanasius speaks 
as though he saw the germ of some such 
error; he says, "And He became man 
and did not come into man, for this it is 
necessary to know, lest perchance these 
irreligious men fall into tliis notion also, 
and beguile any into thinking that as in 
former times the Word was used to come 
into each of the Samts, so now He so- 
journed in a man, hallowing him also 
and manifesting Himself as in the 
others." against Arians, iii § 30 p. 442 

Of Diodore's writings little is preserv- 
ed excepting some few citations in dif- 
ferent writings of Severus. Even of S. 

God teaches animals to discern harniful and healthful. 321 

rather tliat which is consonaat to the Divine law (for Diod. 
Judge, it says, 7-ighteous judgement) , consonant too to the wise Zech. /ii. 
Paul, Be ye wise hanhers, ^rove all things : may accept that i Thess. 
which is excellent, and keep far from Avhat is not so. For ^* ^* 
it is absurd that irrational animals, should be insti-ucted 
by the laws of nature, to know well what is good for them 
and what is not so : so that they make their food of those 
things in the field which have no harm in them, and leave 

Cyril's work these few fragments that 
survive seem ahnost entirely due to the 
Monophysite Controversy in the first 
half of the sixth century. The fragments 
are mainly preserved either by Severus 
of Antioch (chiefly in his work against 
John Grammaticus of Caesarea, but 
also in other works) and by John of 
Caesarea himself who appended a vast 
number of extracts of S. Cyril to his 
Apology for the Council of Chalcedon. 
Anastasius, referred to by the learned 
Cave, under Severus (Viae dux cap. 6 
pp. i)0, 92, ed. Ingolstadt, IGOG) says of 
this John, "Then John of Caesarea 
Grammarian and very nianymore made 
defences for the synod (of Chalcedon) 
through truest extracts . . . Severus 
having looked into the compilations of 
the Caesarean and some others who 
compiled in behalf of the synod through 
very many extracts of Fathers and wri- 
ters and demonstrations and proofs, first 
of all straightway wrote against John of 
Caesarea." Further oia, Severus •' laid 
down as a law to them [in Syria Egypt 
Alexandria and elsewhere] in the same 
book which is called Philalethes, that the 
Faith of Chalcedon frittered away 230 
citations of holy Fathers in the defence 
which John of Caesarea made in its be- 
half." ib. p. 96. In the MSS of John's 
Defence which have supplied many of 
;hese passages against Diodore and 
Theodore, they are numbered 181—196. 
[lave likewise refers to extracts of Se- 
rerus' work against the Grammarian in 
he Catena on Old Testament Canticles 
idited by Anton. Caraffa. John of 
IJaesarea signs in the fifth general Coun- 
il as "John by the mercy of God 
Bishop of Caesarea of Palestine." t. vi. 
118 Colet. He had been Bishop but a 
hort time when the Council was called 
|n A.D. 55.3, and probably, as Severus 
was dethroned in A.D. 536, the con- 
roversy had taken place before John 
ras Bishop, which will accoimt for his 
eing usually styled John of Caesarea. 
eontius of Jerusalem however cites at 
?ast once, from the Book of the same 

Sevents against the Grammarian John 
Bishop of Caesarea. Apol. Cone. Chalc. 
in Gallandi, Bibl. Vett. Patrum xii, 
736. The Lateran council similarly, 
The same Severus against John of holy 
memory Bishop of Caesarea of Palestine. 
Cone. vii. 324 Col. John of Caesarea's 
Defence of the Council of Chalcedon is 
extant m MS. m syriac (as Cardmal 
Mai tells us, in Cod. Vat. 140 written in 
the eighth Century), and in Greek in a 
late manuscript at Venice and at Cairo. 
Of the character of Diodore's writings 
the learned Tillemont who appears 
most marvellously to have made himself 
acquainted with every extant writing of 
everj' Father, says "We caimot be judges 
of this great difiiculty [whether Dio- 
dore's writings were heretical] because 
we no longer have his writings which 
would need to be examined with great 
care, not stopping at culled passages." 
t. 8. 568 ed. 2. S. Cyril however who 
had access to them says of him, " One 
Diodore, being once as they say, an op- 
ponent of the Spirit, communicated 
with the Church of the Orthodox. This 
man having put off", as he deemed, the 
spot of the Macedonian heresy, fell into 
another infirmity. For he deemed and 
wrote that one son by himself is he who 
is of the seed of David, born of the holy 
Virgin ; another Son again by Himself 
the Word out of God the Father. But 
veiling the wolf under the sheep's fleece, 
he pretends to say One Christ, allotting 
the Name to the Word alone begotten 
out of God the Father, the Only- Be- 
gotten Son : and allotting it in the cate- 
gory of a grace, as himself says, he 
styles him too of the seed of David son, 
as united (he says) to the in truth Son : 
united, not as we hold, but only as re- 
gards dignity, sway and equality of ho- 
nour. His disciple Nestorius became, 
and darkened by Diodore's books, 
feigns" &c. Ep. 1 to Succensus 135 d e. 
Tillemont thinks that what S. Cyril says 
of Diodore having been a Macedonian, 
is not to be pressed, t. 8. .566. 

322 Natures wholly diferent united make 'One Christ. 

tliose which do harm ; and that WE who have understand- 
ing and right reason (for nature is wise and has perfectly 
the power of well examining each thing) should not rightly 
and without error examine the force of things written or 
spoken that we may honour with praise the things which 
are blameless, and turn aside from all which are unduly 
spoken and which step outside of the doctrines of the truth. 

Albeit how ought not one who wanted to shew the dif- 
IZioiixd- ference of the properties ^, I mean of flesh and Godhead, to 
advance to this very point by such thoughts and words as 
were meet ? For not the same as regards the quality which 
is inherent in each of the things named, are Body and the 
Unembodied, the flesh taken of human lump and the Word 
which beamed forth from the Essence of God the Father. 
Yet we must not therefore sever into two christs and sons 
the One Lord Jesus Christ. 

But that we say that the Flesh of the Lord has been 
see frag, ensouled with reasonable soul, has been full often told by 
^ahist us, and now too no less do we afiirm that it is no other 






Let Diodore hear now from us too. If you say that He 

'■i &ve^u)- is flesh whom you call a Nazarene or an assumed man ^j 

K-i)<i>eivra shcw thysclf to us apart from all disguise and mask, tell 

(I pray) clearly what you deem good to think, and do not, 

simply speaking of flesh without soul, attempt to carry 

away the hearers. Since we ourselves say that according 

3 IS«<5t7j- to the plan of proper nature ^, the flesh will surely be of 

other nature than the Word which sprang out of God the 

Father, yet hath it become His by Union which may not 

■• aSirf- be plucked asunder *. 



His Body His ivhereby He fought with death. 323 

5 DiOD. 

He is rather One and tlie Same Son^ so as to be conceived 
of as both out of the Essence of God the Father Divinely 
and out of us humanly, or out of the seed of David. He 
was called a Prophet as Moses. And we do not disbelieve 
the title, seeing that we know the might of the Economy 
with flesh. Not Himself was the Temple nor yet in His 
own Nature in that He is conceived of as God did He admit 
the undoing^ of it : yet was that His own which was nn- ^ >>^v(Tiv,a.s 
done, just as of each of us his body is his own. iil 14. 


Hence His is Divinely the Essence which is before the 
worlds. His in like wise and not another's that in the last 
times He should be born in the flesh. For the birth from 
the holy Virgin was found to the Word, not a way to His 
Being but unto His manifestation with flesh : and He is in 
no wise mortal out of mortals but rather Life as out of Life 
the Fathee. 

Yet hath the Body mortal out of mortals and subject unto 
death become the own of Life, in order that through it 
contending with death and raised from the dead He might 
reform unto incorruption and prove superior to death that 
which has been mastered of death, as regards its own 
nature : for death falling on the body of Life, became im- 

For that the Word of God endures not to suffer a shadow s. James 
of turning, nor yet does the flesh letting go what it is, change 
into the Nature of the Word united to It, every one of them 
who think aright will (I suppose) say. 

For withdrawing some little (if you please) the investi- 
gation from the person of Christ the Saviour of us all, when 

Y 2 

324 Tlie JBody His United and one with Sim, One luorship. 

FR. AG. we examine one of the things which has been named, as to 
its nature, itself by itself, one and other in all respects is 
the bondman's form and the Lord's, or human and Divine, 
lamb and High Priest, Maker and made. 


Col. ii. 9. But haply you will say, ,Hath not then in Him dwelt all 
, the fulness of the Godhead hodily ? , This too is true and one 
will not deny what has been written ; yet we say that not 
in another's body do we conceive that the Godhead of the 
Son hath dwelt, but rather as in His own Temple : just as 
the soul of man too, being other than ^ the flesh yet together 
with the flesh makes up the person of a single man, as 
Peter or Paul. 

Yet Christ is conceived of as above this too : for we say 
that not the Word of God became to the body in place of a 
soul, as some most absurdly imagine ^', but we afiirm rather 

i" KaTo. seems an error for Trooa. 

« The Apollinarians; see in Tillemont, 
above p. 44 note col. 1. The extracts 
from S. Athanasius, speak of the Apol- 
linarian unwillingness to own that our 
Lord made His own ought of created 
matter ; see the theory that the body was 
consubstantial with the Godhead, their 
refusal to worship ought created, to allow 
that Christ was man. Diodore and The- 
odore having all this to battle with speak 
as if, while holding that the manhood is 
perfect and complete, they disjoined it 
altogether from God the Son, making 
it a distinct man and calling it His in 
some vague way without uniting God- 
head and manhood in one. Calling it 
His in some vague way hindered their 
seeing that they were really dividing 
Christ into Two beings, God and man, 
separate from each other. Theodoret 
notwithstanding the powerful influence 
of these two minds, and his dread of 
Apollinarianism, enunciates clearly the 
Union, though with language occasion- 
ally vague. Andrew's statements (of 
Samosata in the same province) are still 
more clear. S. Athanasius says, " But 
ye say again, ,We do not worship a 
creature., O void of luiderstanding ! 
why do ye not consider that, made the 
Lord's Body, it bears away no created 
worship ? for it has been made the 
Body of the Uncreated Word : Him 
Whose Body it has been made, to Him 
do ye offer the worship also." against 

Apollinarius, lib. i. 6. t. i. 926 c._ " For 
ye essay to say that the flesh is con- 
substantial with the Godhead." ib. i. 
9 t. i. 929 b. " But ye say again, , If 
, Christ be man, He will be a part of 
, the world, and a part of the world 
, cannot save the world., O thought of 
deceit and madness of blasphemy, let 
them say of what Scripture is this rule 
or sophism of the devil : albeit the Pro- 
phet saith, A7id a Man ivas born 

in her and the Highest Himself founded 
her. How then does Christ not save the 
world, made man? seeing that it is 
manifest that in the nature wherein sin 
was committed, therein hath had place 
the abundance of grace. What is abun- 
dance of grace ? That the Word hath 
been made man, abiding God ; in order 
that made man too, He may be believed 
to be God, so that Christ being man is 
God, because being God He has been 
made man, and in human form saves 
the believers." lib. ii. 7 t. i. 945 bed. 
" How then do ye say that the Word, 
Creator of the rational natures, com- 
mingling with Himself flesh, was made 
a rational man? and how without 
change and turn hath He been made 
man, if He did not compact the bond- 
man's form so as to be rational? in or- 
der that the Word may be without turn, 
abiding what He was, and being God 
may be seen on earth, man endowed 
with reason : for the Lord is a heavenly 
man {^^irovpavios ^yOpwiros, comp. 1 Cor. 

The Son manifested wisdom ivith His Bodifs growth. 325 

that His holy and spotless Body has been ensouled with Diod. 
reasonable soul. 


All- Perfect confessedly and without increase is the Word 
of God (for He has been begotten out of the Perfect Father, 
Wisdom out of Wisdom and Might out of Might), but since 
Unchangeableness by Nature is His, in nothing wronged 
by being in a Temple, He hath remained the Same, i. e., 
All-Perfect and Wisdom and Might. And the flesh ripen- 
ing advanced by degrees according to the law of its nature, 
the Word united to it made a declaration by little and 
little of His own Wisdom, keeping pace so to say with the see below 
increase and advance of His Body and one not inharmo- above 'p. 
nious with the size of His stature. Thus He was regarded J^ofg^J^gre 
by them who saw Him, as being gradually advanced to the 
successive attainment of the above-named things. 

XV. 48 cited just below, and as the Hea- 
venly One (6 iTTovpdvios) such too the 
heavenly 07ies^, not as exhibiting flesh 
from out of Heaven but as compacting 
Heavenly flesh from out of earth : where- 
fore also as the Heavenly One, such too 
the heavenly ones by the participation of 
His holiness. Wherefore He also makes 
His own the things of His body. But 
ye say again, , How did they crucify the 
, Lord of glory ? , But they did not cruci- 
fy the Word as ye say, not so, but they 
set at nought the Word, affixing to the 
Cross the Body of the Word. For it 
was God Who was set at nought," as 
above p. 303 note g. "Wherefore the 
Lord said to the Jews, Undo this Temple 
and in three days I will rear it. As the 
Prophet saith, Because was delivered 
unto death His Soul, not the Word Him- 
self: and John says, He laid down His 
Soul {^vxyv) for us. H ow then did the 
Jews avail to undo the Temple of God 
and to part from Him th